Nepalese Heart Journal 2021-11-23T12:34:26+00:00 Dr Rikesh Tamrakar Open Journal Systems <p>Nepalese Heart Journal (NHJ) is a biannual, peer-reviewed, open-access, international medical journal. NHJ publishes original research and critical reviews dealing with all disciplines of cardiovascular Medicine. It is the official journal of the Cardiac Society of Nepal and is published twice a year (May and November). Each issue of NHJ publishes Original Articles, Review Articles, Case Reports, Editorials and Letters to the Editor. From time to time invited articles, editorials and review of selected topics will be published. Authors do not have to pay for the submission, processing or publication of articles in NHJ.</p> <p>The Nepalese Heart Journal aims to facilitate a common portal for publication of wide ranging topics in cardiovascular research and clinical works. It aims to provide easy dissemination of research works to a variety of health workers and researchers.</p> <p>The journal can also be viewed on its own website at <a title="NHJ" href="" target="_self"></a></p> Rastelli operation for double outlet right ventricle, pulmonary atresia with ductal dependent pulmonary flow 2021-10-16T08:56:31+00:00 Nirmal Panthee Sidhartha Pradhan Raamesh Koirala Bishow Pokhrel Deekshya Thapaliya Apurba Thakur Ujjwal Jha Rabindra Timala <p>Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) with or without pulmonary atresia is a common indication for Rastelli operation. We very infrequently perform this surgery in our center. Here, we report a case of a ten-year-old girl who recently underwent Rastelli operation and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation for DORV, pulmonary atresia with ductal dependent pulmonary circulation by using custom-made valved conduit</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepalese Heart Journal Congenital Complete Heart Block in Fetal Echocardiography 2021-10-16T09:02:45+00:00 Amit Kumar Singh Brijmohan Rajak Ruby Singh Jitendra Mandal <p>Congenital Complete Heart Block (CHB) in a fetus is a rare diagnosis occurring 1 in 15,000 to 20,000 live births which can be diagnosed by echocardiography.&nbsp; It’s less talked disease. It is uncommonly reported even in countries where fetal echocardiography is performed in much higher numbers. For countries like Nepal, where small number of fetal echocardiography is performed, we present a case of lupus as the cause of congenital CHB.</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepalese Heart Journal Transcatheter closure of post myocardial Infarction ventricular septal rupture with the Amplatzer Septal occluder 2021-10-16T09:10:20+00:00 Chandra Mani Adhikari Manish Shrestha Birat Timalsina Amrit Bogati Madhu Rokka Kiran Acharya Dipanker Prajapati Dharmanath Yadav Ashish Gopal Amatya <p>Ventricular septal rupture is a rare yet life threatening complication of acute myocardial infarction. Surgical closure is the treatment of choice however despite surgical intervention mortality remains high.&nbsp; Transcatheter closure of ventricular septal rupture has emerged as a new alternative strategy which is less invasive potentially allowing early hemodynamic stabilization. We report a case of a 60-year-old male with post infarction ventricular septal rupture who was treated with percutaneous closure using an Amplatzer device at Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre, Nepal.&nbsp;</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepalese Heart Journal Right Atrial Thrombus Associated with Central Venous Catheter after Surgical Repair of Co-arctation of Aorta 2021-10-16T09:16:45+00:00 Smriti Mahaju Bajracharya Sandeep Sapkota <p>Central venous catheterization (CVC) is a routine and essential procedure performed in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, its use is not without complications ranging from mechanical to infectious to thrombotic in nature. Catheter-related right atrial thrombosis (CRAT) is usually underreported as it is commonly small in size and asymptomatic. Nevertheless, CRAT might lead to a potentially severe and life threatening complication in both adult and young patients. Up to 30% of patients with CVCs are estimated to be affected by CRAT. <sup>&nbsp;</sup>Anticoagulation and subsequently catheter removal were recommended as a first-line therapy and have suggested that no intervention may be associated with a high mortality rate.</p> <p>Here, we report a case of a 3-months-old male child who underwent coarctation of aorta repair and was diagnosed with right atrial thrombosis associated with CVC in postoperative period and anticoagulated with unfractionated heparin. The thrombus was followed up closely and when there was no further decrease in the size of the mass around 9 days after the diagnosis, the CVC was removed. The heparin was continued even after removal of CVC for further 7 days and patient was eventually discharged from the hospital.</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepalese Heart Journal Total Aortic Arch Replacement: Case Report of the first successful total arch replacement in Nepal and Review of contemporary techniques in arch surgery 2021-10-16T09:25:05+00:00 Rabindra Timala Ashish Amatya Nishes Basnet Rupak Pradhan Dikshya Joshi Marisha Aryal Navin Gautam <p>Aortic arch replacement is formidable cardiac surgery that is fraught with complications like brain injury, coagulopathy along with high mortality. Over the past several years, various techniques like deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, retrograde cerebral perfusion, and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion along with branched graft techniques have been developed with better early outcomes. We share our experience of successful replacement of ascending and total aortic arch in a 60 years old female, who presented with ascending and aortic arch aneurysm.</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepalese Heart Journal Angiographic Significance of ST Depression in Anterior Leads in Acute Inferior ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction. 2021-10-16T05:03:57+00:00 Rabindra Simkhada Barkadin Khan Sanjay Singh KC Arjun Budhathoki Krishna Chandra Adhikari Bishow Raj Baral <p><strong>Background and aims:</strong> Electrocardiogram of acute ST elevation inferior myocardial infarction can show concomitant ST depression in anterior leads. We aimed to see its significance on coronary angiogram.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Cross sectional study conducted in Department of Cardiology of Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre from March 2021 to June 2021. Total of 64 patients of acute inferior myocardial infarction were included consecutively. Electrocardiogram were analyzed for the presence of ST depression in anterior leads (V1-V6). Coronary angiogram were obtained. Linear regression analysis was applied to see correlations.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Thirty-four (53.12%) participants had significant ST depression in anterior leads. Their mean age was 64.53±11.67 years. Twenty-two (64.70%) were male. Out of them, 13 (38.23%) were hypertensive, 9 (26.47%) were smoker and 7 (20.58%) were diabetic. Among 30 (46.88%) participants without ST depression, mean age was 56.73±13.31 years and 21 (70%) were male. Out of them, 11 (36.66%) were hypertensive, 12 (40%) were smoker and 11 (33.66%) were diabetic. Culprit vessel was right coronary artery in 22 (64.70%) of those with ST depression and 22 (73.33%) of those without ST depression. Significant left anterior descending artery lesion was seen in 19 (55.88%) of those with ST depression and 3 (10%) of those without depression. Anterior ST depression showed positive correlation with left anterior descending artery lesion.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> ST depression in anterior leads in acute inferior myocardial infarction can be due to presence of concomitant left anterior descending coronary artery disease.</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepalese Heart Journal Prevalence and Angiographic Characteristics of Coronary Ectasia in Adults: A Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Cardiac Centre of Nepal 2021-10-16T06:14:05+00:00 Satish Kumar Singh Kiran Prasad Acharya Chandra Mani Adhikari Rikesh Tamrakar Sanjay Singh KC Sushant Kharel Yubaraj Limbu <p><strong>Background and Aims:&nbsp; </strong>Coronary artery Ectasia is a relatively uncommon problem encountered during coronary angiography with the prevalence ranging from 1.2% to 4.9%.&nbsp; Coronary artery Ectasia and aneurysm both denote an arterial segment the dimension of which is larger than normal arterial segment, both have diameter greater than 1.5 times of normal.&nbsp; The length of dilate segment is greater than its width in Ectasia while less in aneurysm. There is an overlap between risk factors of coronary artery Ectasia and atherosclerosis. The clinical relevance in general, and the appropriate medical management of coronary artery Ectasia specifically, is ill defined, as no randomised prospective studies exists. The study was conducted with an aim to estimate the prevalence of coronary artery Ectasia and aneurysm as well as to study the angiographic characteristics of coronary artery Ectasia and aneurysm undergoing in adult patients’ coronary angiography in tertiary cardiac centre of Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A retrospective study was conducted in Shahid Gangalal national heart centre, Nepal analysing the angiographic records from cardiac catheterization lab.&nbsp; A total of 447 patients who underwent coronary angiography and meet the inclusion criteria from July, 2019 to December, 2019 were included in the study. Any angiographic evidence of coronary Ectasia and aneurysm, coronary artery involved and it’s extent were analysed and recorded in the proforma. In addition, any associated evidence of coronary artery disease was analysed and recorded in the proforma.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The findings of our study revealed the overall prevalence of coronary artery Ectasia (CAE) and Coronary artery Aneurysm as 2.6%. Coronary ectasia was most prevalent in left anterior descending (LAD) artery (83.3%), followed by RCA and left main in 66.7% and 16.7% respectively. &nbsp;&nbsp;In contrast, Coronary aneurysm was mostly seen in RCA (66.7%) followed by LCX (33.3%). In addition, the study also showed the frequency of localised Ectasia as 50 % and the association of significant coronary artery disease with coronary artery Ectasia in 66.67%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>CAE and aneurysm are rare phenomenon encountered in routine coronary angiography, with LAD and RCA being most commonly involved in CAE and coronary aneurysm respectively.&nbsp;&nbsp; CAE and aneurysm have significant association with the coronary artery disease.</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepalese Heart Journal Evaluation of Left ventricular systolic function by Myocardial Deformation Imaging in Hypertensive patients with Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction 2021-10-16T06:35:25+00:00 Bishow Raj Baral Arun Maskey Rabi Malla Sujeeb Rajbhandari Krishna Chandra Adhikari Shreya Bhandari Shipra Shrestha Rabindra Pandey Rabindra Shimkhada Arjun Budhathoki <p><strong>Background and Aims:</strong> Hypertension being one of the commonest non communicable diseases is major risk factor leading to premature death.1 With development of, the left ventricular strain imaging technique by echocardiography the consequences of hypertension may be identified and intervene earlier. The aim of study was to show abnormalities in cardiac function in the form of left ventricular strain imaging in hypertensive patients with preserved Ejection fraction.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a cross-sectional, comparative and observational study done in Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre and National Academy of Medical Sciences, Bir Hospital Kathmandu which included hypertensive patients with baseline examination including a medical history, clinical examination and a standardized trans thoracic echocardiography and strain imaging examination and the findings were compared among age and sex frequency matched 82 healthy adults in 1 : 2 ratio. The independent paired t test was used for the comparative statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We enrolled 240 patients in this study, 158 were hypertensive (mean age 48.5 ±6.1 years with 50.6 % female) and 82 healthy control (mean age 45.62 ±6.3 years with 51.2% female). There was no significant difference in conventional echocardiographic parameters between two groups except for left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness that was highest in hypertensive group (p value of &lt;0.001). The hypertensive population has lower mean global longitudinal strain (GLS) value of -18.6% ± 2.06 SD compared to the healthy control population with mean of -19.5% ± 1.1 SD (p value of &lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Hypertensive patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction have subclinical left ventricular dysfunction revealed by GLS imaging technique.</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepalese Heart Journal Prognostic value of frontal QRST angle and in hospital outcome in ST- Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary angioplasty 2021-10-16T06:45:41+00:00 Arjun Budhathoki Arun Maskey Rabi Malla Sujeeb Rajbhandari Dipika Basnet Rabindra Simkhada Rikesh Tamrakar Krishna Chandra Adhikari Bishal Shrestha Chitra Raj Sharma Manoj Koirala Shreya Bhandari Shipra Shrestha Bishow Raj Baral <p><strong>Background and Aims</strong>: Frontal QRS-T angle has been previously correlated with long term mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of frontal QRS-T angle and in-hospital outcomes in the setting of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We evaluated 97 consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department of Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre with chest pain of less than 12 hours duration, who were subsequently diagnosed as ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in a prospective observational study. The study was conducted from July 2020 to June 2021.The data evaluation included demographics, clinical variables, electrocardiogram, length of hospital stay and in hospital mortality. Patient outcomes were stratified into three groups according to frontal QRS-T angle. The relationship between mortality and frontal QRS-T angle was tested with chi-square test. The p-value across the groups was again tested for inter-group significance.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 97 patients 67 (69.07%) were male and 30 (30.92%) were female., The mean age of study population was 55.8±11.8 years. The patients under study were divided into three groups based on the calculation of fQRST angle as Group 1 (0-45°) being 46(47.4%), Group 2(46-90°) being 20(20.6%) and Group 3 (&gt;90°) with 31(32%) cases. Diabetes and Congestive heart failure (CHF) patients were more likely to have increase in frontal QRST angle (P value 0.029, 0.012 respectively). Atrial fibrillation (AF) was higher among patients in group 3(&gt;90° frontal QRST angle) which was statistically significant (0.012). Although the mean length of hospital stay was higher among patients with highest frontal QRST angle, it was statistically insignificant (p Value 0.062) however, the chance of hospital stay durations significantly increases across three groups at a 5% significance level (p-value: 0.018). In hospital mortality increased with increase in frontal QRST angle with 8.7%, 15% and 22.6% in group 1, 2 and 3 respectively however it was statistically insignificant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Diabetes, CHF and AF patients were more likely to have increase in frontal QRST angle. The chance of hospital stay duration significantly increases with increase in frontal QRST angle Although the in hospital mortality increased with increase in the frontal QRST angle, it was statistically insignificant. A prospective study with larger sample size will help to clarify its association<strong>.</strong></p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepalese Heart Journal Contrast Induced Nephropathy and its predictors after Primary Percutaneous Intervention 2021-10-16T07:20:14+00:00 Krishna Chandra Adhikari Rabi Malla Arun Maskey Sujeeb Rajbhandari Bishow Raj Baral Arjun Budhathoki Shreya Bhandari Shipra Shrestha Rabindra Simkhada Parag Karki <p><strong>Background and Aims:</strong> Worldwide many patients are receiving intravascular contrast media (CM) during interventional procedures. Contrast media are used to enhance visualization and guide percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI).<a href="#_ENREF_1"><sup>1</sup></a> However, the use of CM also carries the risk of complications and it is important to be aware of these complications. Complications with CM range from mild symptoms to life-threatening conditions like anaphylaxis, hypotension and renal dysfunction and contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of them which can have both short and long term consequences.<a href="#_ENREF_2"><sup>2</sup></a> This study aimed to know the incidence of CIN in our center and possible predictors associated with it.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is the single hospital based cross sectional observational study. Patients undergoing primary PCI were enrolled in the study. All the patients underwent thorough history taking and physical examination. Baseline required laboratory investigations were sent. Electrocardiogram and echocardiography screening was done before taking patient to primary PCI as per the protocol of the hospital.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The number of patients enrolled in the study was 83 out of which 65(78.2%) were males and mean age was 59.7±13.2. Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) among the patients was 103.8±21.3. Almost 2/3<sup>rd</sup> of the population received intravenous fluids. Minimum contrast volume used was 50ml and maximum was 270. When absolute rise in creatinine was considered 12 (14.5%) had CIN and when percent rise was also considered total 28 (33.7%) had CIN. While evaluating the predictors of CIN, higher mean age (p=0.01), hypotension with mean MAP &lt;60 mmhg (p=0.04)) and higher contrast volume &gt;100ml (p=0.04) was found to be significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The incidence of CIN in patients undergoing PPCI was similar to the studies done in other parts of the world. Evaluating the predictors of CIN, higher mean age, hypotension and higher contrast volume was the significant predictor.</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepalese Heart Journal Catheter ablation of Idiopathic Ventricular Arrhythmias in Nepal-5 Years Single Centre Experience 2021-10-16T07:39:26+00:00 Roshan Raut Murari Dhungana Man Bahadur KC Mukunda Sharma Surakshya Joshi Prashanta Bajracharya Kunjang Sherpa Laksheshwor Pradhan Sujeeb Rajbhandari <p><strong>Background and Aims:</strong> Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia (IVAs) is defined as premature ventricular complexes (PVCs), nonsustained ventricular tachycardia or sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the absence of obvious structural heart disease. Catheter ablation has become an established treatment strategy for wide varieties of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias. The aim of this study is to report the efficacy and safety of catheter ablation of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias, for the first time in Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a retrospective observational descriptive study of all patients who underwent electrophysiological study and radiofrequency catheter ablation for IVAs from March, 2015 to February 2020 at Shahid Gangalal National Heart center (SGNHC).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Altogether 101 patients underwent an EP study with intent to ablations for idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias. In 13 patients, ventricular arrhythmias were not present on the procedure day and also could not be induced in the lab, therefore ablation was performed in 88 patients only. RVOT was the most common site of these arrhythmias comprising 51% of all cases, followed by fascicular VT (34%) and basal left ventricular IVAs (15%). Out of 88 patients, the acute success of 7 patients could not be assessed because of very infrequent PVCs. Out of remaining 81 patients, acute success achieved in 77 patients (95%). Recurrence occurred in 9 patients (10.7%) and 4 patients underwent repeat ablation giving rise to over clinical success during follow up in 78 patients (88.7%). There were two major complications, one pulmonary embolism and another cardiac tamponade both managed successfully.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This single-center single operator study demonstrates that catheter ablation of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias has a high success and low complication rate</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepalese Heart Journal The In-hospital Outcome of Ventricular Septal Defect Closure and Predictor of Morbidity and Mortality at Tertiary Level Cardiac Center 2021-10-16T07:45:21+00:00 Navin Chandra Gautam Apurba Thakur Marisha Aryal Rupak Pradhan Dipesh Karki Nishes Basnet Yogeshwor Man Singh Rabindra Bhakta Timila <p><strong>Background and Aims</strong>: Factors responsible for complications and outcomes of surgical closure of ventricular septal defect differ between different cardiac centers globally. In this study, we tried to evaluate outcomes and predictors of morbidity and mortality of surgical closure of VSD in a single center.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The retrospective cohort study was conducted in Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre from 14<sup>th</sup> April 2018 to 13<sup>th</sup> April 2020. It included consecutive series of patients undergoing ventricular septal defect closure as a primary surgery </p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of a total 166 patients, males were 100 (60%). Adverse complications occurred on 36 (21%) with mortality of 6 (3.6%). The age ranged from 4 months to 35 years. The weight <u>&lt;</u>10 kgs at the time of operation had significant post-operative prolong ventilation duration (more than 6 hours) with a p value of 0.012; significant prolong ICU stays (&gt;2 days) with a p value of &lt;0.001; significant prolong hospital stay (&gt; 7 days) with a p value of &lt;0.001. The longer CPB time was associated with significantly prolonged ventilation duration (p value 0.001); significant longer ICU stay (p value 0.02). The age <u>&lt;</u>1 year at the time of operation had significant prolonged ICU stay; significantly prolonged hospital stays (p value of 0.033). Severe pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) and weight up to 10 kgs at the time of operation demonstrated a trend towards association with mortality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Surgical VSD closure can be done with acceptable level of mortality and morbidity in our context.</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepalese Heart Journal Is Two Dimensional Echocardiography sufficient for selection of device for successful transcatheter closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Children? 2021-10-16T07:54:42+00:00 Manish Shrestha Urmila Shakya Poonam Sharma Subhash Shah Shilpa Aryal Amshu Shakya Shistata Rajbhandari Vidhata KC Kul Ratna Thapa Chandra Mani Adhikari <p><strong>Background and Aims</strong>: Two dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2DE) is widely used for detecting congenital heart disease and is possible to obtain precise measurement of Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) for device selection required for transcatheter closure. Primary aim of the study is to determine whether echocardiographic assessment alone can be used for selection of device for transcatheter closure of PDA.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Children with PDA and planned for transcatheter intervention were included in this cross-sectional study of one year. PDA was assessed with 2DE and prediction of device size was made.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><em>:</em> The results were obtained from 107 children. The median age and weight at intervention were 3.8 years (ranging from 6 months to14 years) and 12 kg (ranging from 3.5 to 60 kg). Type A (Conical) PDA was the commonest PDA morphology accounting for 87.8% and 85% in 2DE and angiography respectively. There was no difference <em>(p </em>&lt; 0.05<em>)</em> in the narrowest diameter at pulmonary end measured by 2DE and angiography, however ampulla diameter and ductal length were statistically different (<em>p </em>= 0.95)<em>. </em>The predicted size of device by 2DE was discordant (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) to the actual device used in a total study population, however when patients with severe pulmonary hypertension, non-type A and larger PDA (narrowest diameter &gt; 6mm) were excluded, the predicted size of device by 2DE was statistically concordant (<em>p </em>= 0.1) to the actual device used in 89 (83%) patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><em>:</em> Two dimensional Transthoracic echocardiography alone may be helpful in choosing the device during transcatheter closure of PDA in selective group of patients.</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepalese Heart Journal Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defects with 40 mm Septal Occluder in Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre, Nepal 2021-10-18T09:17:06+00:00 Chandra Mani Adhikari Kiran Prasad Acharya Amrit Bogati Anjana Acharya Roshani Shahi Vijay Ghimire Dipanker Prajapati <p><strong>Background and Aims:</strong> &nbsp;Transcatheter closure of Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of important modality of treatment these days for ASD secundum. However, there is a paucity of data on transcatheter closure of ASDs with ³40 septal occluder. We aim to study the outcome of ASD device closure with &nbsp;³40 mm Septal Occluder in Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> &nbsp;&nbsp;It was a prospective single center study conducted at Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre, Nepal.Among the 27 patient who underwent successful device closure with ³40 mm devices from January 2016 till December 2019, twenty-six patients could be prospectively followed up during May 2020 till December 2020. A Performa was designed to collect information about age, gender, ASD size, ASD device type and size. Right atrium(RA) and right ventricle(RV) dimension, level of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient before the procedure and at the time of follow up were also recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Amplatzer septal occluder (40mm) was used in 25 (96.1%) patients and Memopart device (42mm) was used in 1 (3.9%) patient. &nbsp;Before the procedure all patients had dilated RA and RV, Mild TR, moderate TR and severe TR was present in 14 (53.8%), 10 (38.4%) and 2 (7.7%) patients respectively. At follow up, only one (3.9%) patient had dilated RA and RV. Mean Tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient decreased from mean 44.4 mmHg to 18.9 mmHg.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defects with ³40 mm Septal Occluder is safe and effective in short term follow up.</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepalese Heart Journal Agitated Saline Contrast Echocardiogram In Cardio-Pulmonary Evaluation 2021-10-16T08:49:42+00:00 Anish Hirachan Ranjit Sharma Prabesh Neupane <p>Agitated saline contrast echocardiogram (ASC) is a very useful technique to detect various intracardiac and extra&nbsp; cardiac&nbsp; shunts&nbsp; in&nbsp; daily cardiology practice . Conventional 2D and color echocardiogram may not be well effective in ruling out various intracardiac shunts especially with patients having poor echo window.&nbsp; The introduction of agitated saline with bubbles formed during the study can help delineate different right to left shunt physiology commonly like patent foramen ovale (PFO) which is often sought for in evaluation of cases&nbsp; with young stroke . Various other etiologies like atrial septal defects, atrial septal aneurysm, large right to left shunts with eisenmengerisation can also be evaluated with this simple bedside study.</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepalese Heart Journal Echocardiography Screening for Diagnosis of Latent RHD Using Nurses: Is the Project Feasible for Nepal? 2021-10-16T04:01:50+00:00 Prakash Raj Regmi Riju Kafle <p>Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) is a preventable disease which occurs years or decades after the onset of Acute Rheumatic Fever (ARF) in childhood. The prevalence of RHD is still high in Nepal, with most cases of latent RHD concentrated in the rural, resource-limited setting. The sequelae of latent RHD cases often manifest decades later, causing a significant burden on the health system. Training of non-experts with simple protocols in such remote setting for screening of latent RHD is showing promising results worldwide. Screening of latent RHD is advocated in RHD endemic areas where early detection by echo screening can alleviate a massive burden on morbidity and mortality in the future. More research is needed to explore this possibility in the context of an endemic country like Nepal to tackle the burden of RHD.</p> 2021-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepalese Heart Journal