Nepal Journal of Epidemiology 2023-12-31T19:08:53+00:00 Dr. Brijesh Sathian Open Journal Systems <p>The official journal of the International Nepal Epidemiological Association (INEA). It is indexed in PubMed,PubMed Central, EMBASE, Web of Science, Thomson and Reuters, CABI.</p> Impact of nanoparticles on human health and disease 2023-12-31T08:16:31+00:00 Bedanta Roy Karthikeyan Murugesan Maghimaa Mathanmohun Brijesh Sathian <p>Nanoparticles (NPs) are small particles with a surface area ranging from 1 to 100 nm in diameter that are rampantly used in different fields, e.g., medicine, engineering, and others. Because of their unique properties, such as their tiny size, magnetic properties, quantum size effects, and macroscopic quantum tunnelling effects, they are crucial for a wide range of potential applications. NPs play a significant role in the treatment of vascular disorders, the production of vaccines, and the development of drug carriers for diverse therapies due to their bioavailability, targeting ability, and efficacy. However, significant risks to the environment and health are also associated with it. NPs cause necrotic plasma membrane rupture or apoptosis, which leads to cell death. NPs interfere with cell signalling, endosomal membranes, and organelles like the nucleus or mitochondria, affecting their function. NPs cause autophagic cell death, which causes a stress response and sterile inflammation. The primary routes for the entry of NPs into the human body are inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact. NPs accumulate in the respiratory system based on their size, shape, and surface properties. NPs can cause lung inflammation and fibrosis, disrupt the endocrine system by attaching to hormone receptors, and produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with DNA damage, oligospermia, and male infertility. Carcinogenic properties of NPs cause mutations, apoptosis, and inflammatory responses. Collaborative research between ecologists and epidemiologists may enlighten ways to reduce the harmful effects of NPs.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CEA & INEA Addressing the inequalities in global genetic studies for the advancement of Genetic Epidemiology 2023-12-31T18:08:15+00:00 Brijesh Sathian Edwin van Teijlingen Bedanta Roy Russell Kabir Indrajit Banerjee Padam Simkhada Hanadi Al Hamad <p>The human reference genome assembly has been available for two decades, and advancements in sequencing technology have enabled rapid whole-genome sequencing in single institutes. WGS (whole-genome sequencing) data analysis applications will enable large-scale data analysis on multi-clouds, integrate datasets with a population scale, and ensure the reproducibility of publications through modern workflow engines and scalability. In human genetics, expert-knowledge-driven approaches from medical and biological professionals and data-driven approaches from computer science applied to epidemiology, such as AI (artificial intelligence), are required for domain-specific downstream data interpretations. For reliable diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic tools, as well as generalized outcomes, genomic studies should involve a wide range of majority and minority populations. The field of genomics in medicine is entering a new era, and to increase the application of gene therapy in the treatment of emerging infections and disorders, there needs to be a united worldwide effort.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CEA & INEA