Nepal Journal of Epidemiology <p>The official journal of the International Nepal Epidemiological Association (INEA). Content also available on the journal's own <a title="NJE" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a>. It is indexed in PubMed,PubMed Central, EMBASE, Web of Science, Thomson and Reuters, CABI.</p> International Nepal Epidemiological Association (INEA) en-US Nepal Journal of Epidemiology 2091-0800 <ul><li>Upon acceptance Copyright on any research article is transferred in full to the Confederation of Epidemiological Associations (CEA) and International Nepal Epidemiological Association (INEA). The copyright transfer includes the right to reproduce and distribute the article in any form of reproduction (printing, electronic media or any other form).</li><li>Articles in the Nepal Journal of Epidemiology are Open Access articles published under the Creative Commons CC BY License (<a href=""></a>)</li><li>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</li></ul> Dentists’ perception of health risk associated with cigarettes and alternative tobacco products: A descriptive study <p>Cigarettes and alternative tobacco products cause various oral health issues ranging from minor tooth decay/gum-diseases to oral cancer. According to CDC, over 40% adult cigarette smokers have reported untreated tooth decay which later leads to severe oral health problems. The study intended to find the impact of dentists’ perceived risk of smoking various tobacco products on their attitude and practice toward tobacco cessation advice. The study was conducted using a cross-sectional design. Data was collected on the perception of dentists who are smokers, regarding smoking-related health risks involved in various tobacco products. Dentists’ attitude was measured using a questionnaire with a 5-point rating scale and a practice list of items with a 3-point rating scale. Descriptive/inferential techniques were applied, significance level was fixed at 5%. Among the 31 tobacco users, 80.6% of dentists perceived severe risk with cigarette use compared to alternative tobacco products (71%). Positive attitude and good practice were observed among those who perceived severe risk, however, no statistical significance was observed (Fisher’s exact test, p-value &gt;0.05). The study concluded that young dentists, males, Arab nationals, highly educated and specialists had a positive attitude toward smoking cessation activities. Among the smokers, dentists recognize their role and responsibility very seriously in building a smoke-free community, but their risk perception and good attitude did not positively reflect on their clinical practice in smoking cessation programs. Though the dentists had a better perception and attitude towards smoking cessation, their clinical practice in offering advising sessions is inversely related to their perception/attitude.</p> Danavanthi S Bangera Mohamed Tahir Takana Aji Gopakumar Jayakumary Muttappallymyalil Copyright (c) 2022 CEA & INEA 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 12 4 1248 1255 10.3126/nje.v12i4.48488 Exploring UK Knife crime and its associated factors: A content analysis of online newspapers <p style="font-weight: 400;">Background:</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Knife crime has become a common phrase used by&nbsp;the media, but it is not always clear what it refers to or what they mean when they use the term. Knife crime can cover many offences, making it challenging to define and estimate its prevalence.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Methods</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Six UK online news portals were purposefully chosen to be included in the study, and knife crime&nbsp;news was searched retrospectively. Because English is the country's official language, only English online news portals were chosen. The term "knife crime" was used to search. The news portals were the: Metro, the Sun,&nbsp;the Guardian, Daily Mail, Daily Mirror and the Evening Standard. Retrospectively, news portals were initially searched with the search term</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Results</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">In the assigned news portals, 692 reports were found between January 2011 and December 2021. The study revealed that the 11-20 years of age group individuals are more vulnerable as victims, and males are more reported as victims when compared to females. About 61.8% of knife crimes are reported from South England.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Conclusion</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Knife crime risk is higher in early adulthood and among males. Street violence, fights/gang attacks, family issues and robbery are the leading causes of knife crime&nbsp;and have all been identified as risk factors that must be addressed with caution.</p> Russell Kabir Divya Vinnakota Q.M. Rahman Brijesh Sathian Ancy Chandrababu Mercy Bai Nikulin Deividas Maneesha-Varghese Pellissery Sajna Kizhackanaly Abdul Kareem Md. Rakibul Hasan Ali Davod Parsa Copyright (c) 2022 CEA & INEA 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 12 4 1242 1247 10.3126/nje.v12i4.49994 The emergence of novel infectious diseases and the public health impact of mass gathering events: risks and challenges <p>To date, there is the continuous emergence of novel infectious diseases endangering individuals' health and well-being worldwide. Over the past few decades, around forty contagious diseases, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus-1 (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS), Ebola, Zika, and newly, COVID-19 and Monkeypox outbreaks, have been reported globally. Zoonotic transmission is the major cause of these emerging infections in humans. These, whether caused by previously unknown pathogens or by those already well-known to science, heighten global concerns about the spread of communicable diseases and the resulting increase in death and disability.&nbsp;</p> Mohammad Asim Naushad Ahmad Khan Kudaibergen Osmonaliev Brijesh Sathian Copyright (c) 2022 CEA & INEA 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 12 4 1238 1241 10.3126/nje.v12i4.50997 Guidance to applying for health research grants in the UK <p>Applying for a research grant is one of the skills new researchers need to learn.&nbsp; Writing a grant application can be an intimidating process.&nbsp; Most research funders have either an online application system or a standard application form that can be emailed to the funder.&nbsp; Although the length and layout of a grant application can vary between funding bodies, most ask for similar details, including a research proposal, the nature of the research team, a budget, a timeline, and often a risk assessment. This paper summarises key funding agencies in the health research field.&nbsp; Furthermore, it briefly outlines the general process of applying for grants related to health and health services research in the UK.&nbsp; To highlight some of the issues that can occur in the grant application process, we provide two examples of applications for international research grants from UK-based funding bodies, each had to be resubmitted before of it was successful in receiving funding. &nbsp;</p> Brijesh Sathian Edwin van Teijlingen Indrajit Banerjee Russell Kabir Copyright (c) 2022 CEA & INEA 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 12 4 1231 1234 10.3126/nje.v12i4.50998 Dengue Dilemma in Nepal <p>The first case of Dengue in Nepal&nbsp; was reported in 2004, after a traveller returned from India. Dengue has since then been an endemic disease within the country with all 4 serotypes (DENV-1,DENV-2,DENV-3 and DENV-4) being known to exist and circulate within the region. Based on epidemiological records the DENV-1 and DENV-2 serotypes have traditionally been the most incriminated serovars in terms of national disease burden according to the Epidemiology and the disease control division (EDCD). Since the beginning of January 2022 up until the 28th of September 2022 over 28000 cases of confirmed and suspected cases of dengue fever have been reported to the WHO with a total of 38 deaths being documented across all of Nepal’s provinces. To date the predominant implicated serotype or serotypes have not been identified. The province most adversely affected is the Bagmati province which accounts for 78.2% of the cases and 68.4% of the fatalities noted in Nepal. A further rise in cases has been noted as of the 8th of August 2022. This dengue outbreak is the largest recorded outbreak within the small mountainous regions recent history.</p> <p>The latest data released by the Ministry of health and population of Nepal (11th December 2022), has recorded a total of 54232 cases with the Bagmati province accounting for 42143 thereof and Lumbini province 4984 respectively. To date a total of 67 deaths have been confirmed. The top 10 reporting districts are namely: 1.Kathmandu (14165) 2.Lalitpur (9614) 3.Bhaktapur(6145) 4.Mawkanpur (5830) 5.Chitawan (3188) 6.Dang (2405) 7. Dhading(1678) 8. Rupandehi (1203) 9. Kavrepalanchok (536) and 10. Surkhet (470) cases respectively.</p> <p>Due to the treatment of the disease being predominantly supportive, the prevention of the spread through enhanced and improved vector control and elimination is recommended. The use of eradication programs, impregnated mosquito nets, larvicidal and chromosomal manipulation therapies are the most effective methods to aid and abet the control of this deadly virus. The coming months and response of the spread of the virus to the intimated control programs implemented in Nepal will act as a yardstick for the future development and course of the outbreak of Dengue within the mountainous region.</p> Indrajit Banerjee Jared Robinson Brijesh Sathian Copyright (c) 2022 CEA & INEA 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 12 4 1235 1237 10.3126/nje.v12i4.50764