Nepal Journal of Epidemiology <p>The official journal of the International Nepal Epidemiological Association (INEA). Content also available on the journal's own <a title="NJE" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a>. It is indexed in PubMed,PubMed Central, EMBASE, Web of Science, Thomson and Reuters, CABI.</p> International Nepal Epidemiological Association (INEA) en-US Nepal Journal of Epidemiology 2091-0800 <ul><li>Upon acceptance Copyright on any research article is transferred in full to the Confederation of Epidemiological Associations (CEA) and International Nepal Epidemiological Association (INEA). The copyright transfer includes the right to reproduce and distribute the article in any form of reproduction (printing, electronic media or any other form).</li><li>Articles in the Nepal Journal of Epidemiology are Open Access articles published under the Creative Commons CC BY License (<a href=""></a>)</li><li>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</li></ul> A Fatal Tyre Blast Injury: An Autopsy Case <p>A 49-year-old man sustained an accidental injury when he was changing and inflating the tyre of a truck, and there was a sudden explosion of the truck tyre at the service station, which was by the roadside of the highway. With the pressure of air generated due to the exploding tyre, the victim was blown to around 6 feet away. He was declared dead on admission. The medico-legal examination was conducted, and death was determined to be multiple organ injuries [mainly head, chest, and abdominal injuries] caused by the shock wave produced due to tyre explosion. Tyre blast injuries are not so common. A meticulous post-mortem examination is fundamental in formulating and recording the pattern of traumatic injuries. Preventive occupational measures should be put in <br />place.</p> Rajesh Kumar Nishat Ahmed Sheikh Copyright (c) 2022 CEA & INEA 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 12 1 1156 1162 10.3126/nje.v12i1.41186 Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Breast in a lactating mother : Case Report <p>Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of breast is a rare condition. NHL breast constitute about 0.5% of all malignancies of breast. NHL breast constitute nearly 1% of all cases of NHL. Among all subtypes of NHL, DLBCL (Diffuse large B-cell Lymphoma) is the most common type to be known. Marginal zone lymphoma (10-30%), follicular lymphoma (10-20%) and Burkit Lymphoma (5%) are other common histologic variants. Burkitt lymphoma is mainly seen in pregnant females or lactating females. Breast implant associated anapaestic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) constitutes remaining case. Thus, primary NHL of Breast is rare condition. DLBCL is most common histologic variant. We report here a rare case of primary NHL Breast. A 30 years old lactating mother came with history of swelling and nipple discharge from bilateral breast. -Treatment approach for low grade NHL breast is Radiotherapy only and for high grade NHL breast there is a role for combined modality approach that is chemotherapy followed by Radiotherapy with or without surgical intervention.</p> Neeraj Kumar Rathee Nidhi Gupta Sawant Sharma Hari Krishan Rathee Copyright (c) 2022 CEA & INEA 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 12 1 1163 1170 10.3126/nje.v12i1.42975 COVID-19 vaccines and immunization in the paediatric population <p>UNICEF data released thus far states that 0.4% of the deaths experienced due to COVID-19 (12300) have been recorded in those aged 20 years and below, with 58% of the deaths occurring between the ages of 10 to 19 years and 42% in those aged 0-9 years old respectively. The evidence supporting the use of immunization in the general populous stands true, however the use thereof in the paediatric population is not clear and thus the vital question which remains to be definitively answered and explored is that of vaccination in the younger paediatric age groups, namely those aged between 5 and 12 years. The deaths registered in this young populous are high and it is the duty of physicians to protect those whom are weakest through the use of the most scientifically accepted and proven methods.</p> <p>The national immunization programme of Nepal has a stratagem which aims to vaccinate 1.74 million children aged 12 to 17 years of age with the Moderna vaccine and plans to use the COVAX vaccine for those aged 18 years and above. The efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccines is evident and their role is vital in combatting the mortality, morbidity and development of new mutations. The role of approved vaccines such as Pfizer and Moderna in the younger age groups namely 12 to 18 years of age and 5 to 12 years of age is vital and shows a categorical increase in immunity and protection. It is thus advised for the 5- to 18-year-old cohort to receive their COVID-19 vaccinations. The efficacy of such vaccines in those aged between 6 months and 5 years is still in question and further scientific data and research will need to be undertaken so as to establish the benefits of COVID-19 immunization in the younger paediatric populous.</p> Indrajit Banerjee Jared Robinson Brijesh Sathian Copyright (c) 2022 CEA & INEA 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 12 1 1132 1134 10.3126/nje.v12i1.43158 The Art of the Editorial <p>Many traditional scientific journals carry an editorial at the start of each issue or perhaps in most issues.&nbsp; The more recently established online journals seemed to have discontinued this tradition, for example there is no editorial in <em>Sociological Research Online </em>or many of the online journals in the BMC stable, such as <em>BMC Pregnancy &amp; Childbirth </em>or <em>BMC Public Health.</em></p> <p>Over the past two decades we have published close to fifty editorials between us.&nbsp; We would like to highlight some of their specific features to offer advice and encouragement to would-be editorial writers, and, more generally, promote the writing and publishing of editorials.&nbsp; This paper includes an overview of the eight most recent editorials, all focusing on the hot topic of COVID-19, published in this scientific journal.</p> Edwin van Teijlingen Vanora Hundley Brijesh Sathian Padam Simkhada Jared Robinson Indrajit Banerjee Copyright (c) 2022 CEA & INEA 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 12 1 1135 1138 10.3126/nje.v12i1.43104 Impact of Lockdown due to COVID-19 on lifestyle and diet pattern of college students of Eastern India: A cross-sectional survey <p><strong>Background: </strong>The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures to confine it has disrupted the routine of the public. The impact of such long-term confinements on the lifestyle and diet of students are not known and hence this study was designed to assess the impact of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the lifestyle and diet of university students.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> An online cross-sectional survey among 622 university students across various educational institutes of east India using a pre-designed questionnaire about lifestyle-diet before and during the lockdown. Results were tabulated and statistical tests like Paired t-test, Wilcoxon Rank sign test, and Mc-Nemar tests were applied and overall significance was attributed to P&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> During the lockdown a total of 2.4% (95% CI: 1.4-3.8%) decrease in prevalence of tobacco use, 8.7% (95% CI: 6.6-11%) decrease in physical activity and a 0.8 hour (95% CI: 0.6-0.9 hour) increase in the mean sleep duration was observed. There was a significant increase in use of fresh fruits consumption [Median(IQR)-before:2(1-5);during:3(1-5) days] and a decrease in meat-poultry[Median(IQR)-before: 2(0-3);during: 1(0-3)days] and junk food[Median(IQR)-before:1(0-2);during:0(0-2)days] consumption during the lockdown.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A significant proportion of changes in lifestyle and frequency of consumption of certain food items in the dietary pattern during the lockdown.</p> Santosh Kumar Nirala Bijaya Naik Rajath Rao Sanjay Pandey Chandramani Singh Neha Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2022 CEA & INEA 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 12 1 1139 1155 10.3126/nje.v12i1.42292 Telemedicine as an unexpected catalyst during and beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic <p>Telemedicine that also known as the practice of medicine at a distance whereby information technology is used to ensure the delivery of medical care services. Telemedicine is not a new concept in the world and India.Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) started telemedicine in India during year 2001 as a pilot project and in year 2005 Ministry of Health and family welfare started full time program of telemedicine by connecting all major health institutions. Telemedicine is connecting people across border and culture. The need-based changes are coming in telemedicine sectors such as smart apps, involvement of private sector players and high intensity internet connections reaching to rural areas and difficult demographic locations. During Covid-19 pandemic telemedicine benefited people by supplying health information and consultation without breaching them without breeching physical contact restrictions. The ease of access to telemedicine applications, its low cost, and the lack of infrastructure requirements propelled to become the top choice in these dayswhere physical distancingconsidered the aforementioned, thus we can conclude that telemedicine is promising tool.</p> Mahendra Kumar Pushpa Rani Binal Joshi Roop Kishor Soni Anita Kumari Kusum K Rohilla Copyright (c) 2022 CEA & INEA 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 12 1 1171 1174 10.3126/nje.v12i1.42459 The Growing Importance of Mixed-Methods Research in Health <p>This paper illustrates the growing importance of mixed-methods research to a wide range of health disciplines ranging from nursing to epidemiology. Mixed-methods approaches requires not only the skills of the individual quantitative and qualitative methods but also a skill set to bring two methods/datasets/findings together in the most appropriate way. Health researchers need to pay careful attention to the ‘best’ approach to designing, implementing, analysing, integrating both quantitative (number) and qualitative (word) information and writing this up in a way that enhances its applicability and broadens the evidence-based practice. This paper highlights the strengths and weaknesses of mixed-methods approaches as well as some of the common mistakes made by researchers applying mixed-methods for the first time.</p> Sharada Prasad Wasti Padam Simkhada Edwin van Teijlingen Brijesh Sathian Indrajit Banerjee Copyright (c) 2022 CEA & INEA 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 12 1 1175 1178 10.3126/nje.v12i1.43633