Nepalese Journal of Geoinformatics <p>Annual publication of the Survey Department, Government of Nepal. Full text articles available.</p> en-US © Copyright reserved by Survey Department, Government of Nepal (Mr. Prakash Joshi) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 06 Mar 2019 15:27:59 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial Vol.17(1) <p>Not available.</p> Suresh Man Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Forewords Vol.17(1) <p>Not available.</p> Ganesh Prasad Bhatta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Pixel to Picture and Picture to Person <p>Remotely sensed data are related with the words pixel and resolution as the picture is formed from the pixel having the size defined by the value of resolution of the data. There are unlimited sectors where remote sensing technology can be applied to uplift the social status of the people. In order to make best use of this system, Regional Workshop on Himalayan GEOSS was organized in Nepal. The workshop developed a concept <strong>“pixel to picture and picture to person</strong>” based on the technology related to Earth observation. The concept to be used for the several sectors identified by the workshop which are also related with the Social benefit areas of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) of Group on Earth Observation (GEO). Therefore, this paper tries to summarize the result of the workshop in this particular theme.</p> Rabin K. Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Geoid Determination and Gravity Works in Nepal <p>Gravimetric geoid plays the important role in the process of local/regional geoidal undulation determination. This approach uses the residual gravity anomalies determined by the surface gravity measurement using the gravimeter together with best fit geopotential model, with the geoid undulations over the oceans determined from the method of satellite altimetry. Mass distribution, position and elevation are prominent factors affecting the surface gravity. These information in combination with geopotential model helps in satellite orbit determination, oil, mineral and gas exploration supporting in the national economy. The preliminary geoid thus computed using airborne gravity and other surface gravity observation and the accuracy of computed geoid was likely at the 10-20cm in the interior of Nepal but higher near the border due to lack of data in China and India. The geoid thus defined is significantly improved relative to EGM –08 geoid.</p> Niraj Manandhar, Shanker K.C. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Positional Accuracy of Online Geocoding Services: Case Study of Bhaktapur District <p>Data is food for Information Systems and location data is basis for GIS services. Geocoding services provide this data by converting Street Addresses like NCIT, Balkumari to corresponding geographic coordinates. These coordinates are then used in data processing to deliver services. Many services (especially location based), FourSquare, Uber, depend on these services for operation. Nepalese market is also increasingly using these services like Tootle, sarathi cab. Till now nobody knows how accurate the result of such services are. There exist multiple places with same name. Some names are not actual but referential. Accuracy of the services depend on the underlying database, the method used, the actual geographic location and also the actual query. Different methods yield different results. The assessment of accuracy and suitability of the geocoding services has not been conducted, yet they are being used extensively. The objective of this study is to compare the positional difference between two Geocoding methods, OpenStreetMap (OSM) Nominatim Service and Google Geocoding Services and compare them with standard government datasets to measure their discrepancy. For reference, settlement data from NGIID was used. Addresses were first geocoded to street level and positional difference in the results were calculated using havensire formula. The discrepancies were categorized into intervals of 100m. Out of 267 location points, 118 result were found in Nominatim, whereas only 86 were found in Google. Average discrepancy for Nominatim result was 175m and for Google it was 1810m. Comparisons show minimal difference in median and minimum values, while there were larger differences in the maximum value. Nominatim delivered comparatively accurate results and found more addresses than google. Google on the other hand gave huge mismatches for some cases. The study found out that the databases are missing in both cases as shown by the no of “not found" cases and that the results from Nominatim are more reliable than that of Google because of its hierarchical matching system and user friendly interface.</p> Amrit Karmacharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Status of Land Tenure Security in Nepal <p>Land is a fundamental natural resource for living, an economic asset for production, legal entity with multiple rights over it and above all, a societal factor for self-actualization. So, ownership of land has multi-faceted understanding around the world. For the developing country like Nepal having diverse societal arrangements, land tenure system plays important role in economic, social and political structure. As Nepal is in the process of implementing federalization, assessment of land tenure security shall be one of the instruments for developing new land related policies and assessing the effect of new policies afterward. The objective of this paper is to perform SWOT analysis on the status of land tenure security in Nepal by reviewing the history of the tenure system and current tenure system, studying country reports and research papers and analyzing policies and institutions. The study shows that despite some initiatives by government, NGOs, bilateral agencies and media to improve land tenure security, land tenure insecurity prevails in all areas of the country even in registered lands. It is found that stable&nbsp; rganization,&nbsp;registration of most of the built-up and cultivated land, advocacy to protect the right of landless has strengthened the land tenure security. However, the tenure rights of socially and economically disadvantaged people and displaced people from disasters have not been properly addressed and those people are at high risk of eviction from the place they are living. The study recommends that land tenure insecurity arising from political, legislative and organizational behavior should be managed by appropriate interventions and policy reforms. As most of the analyses of land tenure security in Nepal have been performed in a descriptive way, this study explicitly investigates the issue through SWOT analysis.</p> Harisharan Nepal, Anil Marasini ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Importance of RRR in Cadastral System <p>Cadastral System is the base platform to abstracting land rights; maintain its ecords&nbsp;and registration. It normally makes agreements with dispersed right interests as enure security, continuum of land rights, registration system, adjudication process and de-facto, local and central government policy aspects within land dministration party. As, RRRRights, Restrictions and Responsibilities are related to spatial unit and its owner, normally right contains ownership and tenure aspect whereas restrictions is related to control use and different activities on land. Responsibilities relate more to a social, environmental, communal, ethical obligation or defiance to environmental sustainability. Most cadastral system of developing countries are still absence in identifying and assigning clear RRR in certain spatial unit i.e. buffered on Highways, banks of Rivers and Streams and special cases of shade of High-tension-transmission lines etc. This paper aims to provide an overall understanding of such RRR cases with the concept of cadastral system. This paper&nbsp;aims to show AS-IS situation cadastral system with comparing TO-BE condition with gap analysis based on LADM conception of some related cases. This paper concludes that cadastral system will be good when there is clearly defined RRR. So, better identification and assignment of RRR between spatial unit and land administration party can support better cadastral system which supports to better land administration of country<em>.</em></p> Sanjaya Manandhar, Bijaya Kumar Manandhar, Pradeep Sapkota Upadhyaya, Tanka Prasad Dahal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Spatial Distribution and Temporal Change of Extreme Precipitation Events on the Koshi Basin of Nepal <p>Climate change, particularly at South Asia region is having a huge impact on precipitation patterns, its intensity and extremeness. Mountainous area is much sensitive to these extreme events, hence having adverse effect on environment as well as people in term of fluctuation in water supply as well as frequent extreme weather events such as flood, landslide etc. So, prediction of extreme precipitation is imperative for proper management. The objective of this study was to assess the spatial distribution and temporal change of extreme precipitation events on Koshi basin of Nepal during 1980-2010. Five indicators (R1day, R5 day, R &gt; 25.4 mm, SDII and CDD) were chosen for 41 meteorological stations to test the extreme events. Inverse distance weighting and kriging interpolation technique was used to interpolate the spatial patterns. Result showed that most extreme precipitation events increased up to mountain regions from low river valley; and then it decreased subsequently up to Himalayan regions (south to north direction). However, there is high value of indices for lowland Terai valley also. Most of the indices have hotspot with higher&nbsp;value at north western and southern part of the study area. For temporal change, most of the extreme precipitation indices showed increasing trend within 30 years’ period. The spatial distribution of temporal change in indices suggests that there is increasing trend in lowland area and decreasing trend in mountainous and Himalayan area. So, adaptive&nbsp;measure should be adopted through proper land use planning, especially at those hotspot areas and their tributaries; to reduce adverse effect of extreme precipitation events.</p> Sanjeevan Shrestha, Tina Baidar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Cadastre 2014: Performance of Nepal <p>International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) is the federation of different nation's member associations representing the interests of surveyors in the professional fields of global surveying, geomatics, geodesy and geo-information. Technical work of FIG is led by ten different commissions with individual themes. Among these commissions, 7th commission with the theme "Cadastre and Land Management" decided to make a vision for cadastre in 20th FIG congress in 1994 and in line with this decision, "Cadastre 2014 - A Vision for A Cadastral System in the Future" was published in 1998. This vision addresses about the future development of cadastre and consists of views for ensuring the cadastre to be globally integrative and shaping the future of surveying occupation. This paper discusses on the vision of Cadastre 2014, its implementation status in Nepal to evaluate Nepal's "Cadastre 2014" performance.</p> Susheel Dangol, Ganesh Prasad Bhatta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 GNSS Practice in Survey Department <p>Control Networks for Nepal was originally defined through the use of conventional&nbsp;measurements. Conventional mapping methods have led to a static and inactive networks of control point. This network of control served us very well until the devastating earthquake hit Nepal and disturbed it. Determination of precise ground locations is essential for various tasks such as engineering works, earth observation, location-based technologies, emergency service providers, etc. Global Navigation Satellite System plays a very important role in providing quick and reliable positioning/navigation data. The term ‘global navigation satellite system’ (GNSS) refers to a constellation of satellites providing signals from space transmitting positioning and timing data. These systems use the principle of trilateration to calculate the location of a user, through the information obtained from a number of satellites. Each satellite transmits coded signals at precise intervals. In principle, three satellites must be available to determine a three-dimensional (x,y,z) position , additional fourth signal is necessary for precise location of a single point. This helps in eliminating the time differences between satellite’s atomic clocks and the receiver's clocks. USA in around 1970’s started the use of Global Positioning System(GPS). Geodetic Survey Division under Survey Department commenced the use of GPS technology in 1991 A.D as a method for survey technology. Survey Department initiated the use of GPS for carrying out survey of the previously established high order control points. Transformation Parameters (TP) between the National Co-ordinate System and WGS-84 System was derived using the initial Control points co-ordinate and co-ordinate of the same Control points obtained from GNSS survey. GNSS has been used for establishing, updating and rehabilitation of Control Network, measure shift in location produced by earthquake and for various survey task carried out by Survey Department.</p> Sushmita Timilisina, Bibek Nepal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Mar 2019 07:32:26 +0000