Nepalese Journal of Radiology https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/NJR <p>Official publication of Nepal Radiologists' Association. Full text articles available.</p><p>Nepal Journal of Radiology is now listed on the <a title="HINARI" href="http://extranet.who.int/hinari/en/journalList_print.php" target="_blank">HINARI</a> portal.</p> Nepal Radiologists' Association en-US Nepalese Journal of Radiology 2091-136X Structured Reporting for Outcome Based Practice https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/NJR/article/view/24779 <p>Not Available</p> Birendra Raj Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-10 2019-07-10 9 1 1 1 10.3126/njr.v9i1.24779 Study of Role of Ultrasonography in Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/NJR/article/view/24780 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Thyroid nodules are a very common clinical finding which can be single ormultinodular and benign or malignant. Ultrasonography (USG) followed by USG guided fineneedle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is usually done in evaluating any thyroid nodule that ispalpable on physical examination. The purpose of this study was to study the role of USG in evaluating thyroid nodules and its correlation with findings of FNAC of thyroid.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> One hundred and twenty five patients with palpable thyroid referred for USG neckwere included in the study. Ultrasonography assessments of thyroid with different parameters were done. The findings were later compared with FNAC thyroid.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> On FNAC and histological analysis, thyroid malignancy was observed in 14 out of 125 (11.21%) subjects. Malignant nodules on USG demonstrated hypoechoic pattern (sensitivity 82.3%, specificity 97.2%, and positive predictive value 82.3%), irregular margins (sensitivity 77.8%, specificity 96.3%, and accuracy 77.8%), central vascularity (sensitivity 82.3%, specificity 95.4%, and positive predictive value 73.7%) and taller-than-wider shape (sensitivity 82.3%, specificity 96.3%, and accuracy 77.8%). Sixteen cases with suspicion of malignant thyroid nodules demonstrated these 2 or more USG features. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of thyroid nodules for detecting malignancy increased to 87.5%, 98.2% and 87.5% respectively when two or more of these USG features were present.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Thyroid USG demonstrating hypoechoic pattern, irregular margins, centralvascularity and taller-than-wider shape had potential of being malignant. Thyroid nodules were found to have more malignant potential when two or more of these USG features were present.</p> Merina Gyawali Prakash Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-10 2019-07-10 9 1 2 6 10.3126/njr.v9i1.24780 Prevalence of Congenital Anomalies in Oligohydramnios: A Hospital Based Study in Western Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/NJR/article/view/24807 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Amniotic fluid serves as a cushion for growing fetus. Oligohydramnios is decreased amount of amniotic fluid and is associated with increased incidence of congenital anomalies. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of congenital anomalies in oligohydramnios</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Singleton pregnancy irrespective of gestational age with amniotic fluid deepest vertical pocket (DVP) of less than two centimeters was included in the study. Grading of oligohydramnios was done as mild and severe. Detailed anomaly scan was done to look for any congenital malformations. Congenital anomalies were confirmed with post natal findings.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were 60 pregnant women with amniotic fluid index less than two centimeters with respect to deepest vertical pocket. Congenital anomalies were detected in 18.33% pregnant women with oligohydramnios. In patients with severe oligohydramnios 33.33% had congenital anomalies. Renal anomalies were the most common anomalies in our study followed by musculoskeletal anomalies. Central nervous system, gastrointestinal and cardiac and anomalies were also common in association with oligohydramnios.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study showed that various congenital anomalies are associated with oligohydramnios and incidence of anomalies increases with increased severity of oligohydramnios. Hence, detailed ultrasound scan should be done to look for congenital malformations whenever oligohydramnios is encountered.</p> Subash K.C Ramesh Poudel Sagar Khadka Ashish Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-13 2019-07-13 9 1 7 11 10.3126/njr.v9i1.24807 Clinico-Radiological Factors Affecting Outcome of Supratentorial Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Single Institute Experience https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/NJR/article/view/24809 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Intracerebral bleeds are the second most common cause of stroke. The initial consciousness level and progressive deterioration and various radiological parameters like hematoma volume, its expansion, mass effect and location has been implicated with poor outcomes of Intracerebral Hematoma (ICH) regardless of the management methods. In this study we aimed to study various clinical and radiological parameters associated with outcome of spontaneous supratentorial ICH.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This prospective study was carried out in 89 patients of spontaneous supratentorial ICH admitted to National Institute of Neurological and Allied Sciences, Nepal in between January 2015 to December 2015 to assess various parameters associated with its outcome. Outcome of the patients were assessed against various clinic-radiological and demographic variables using chi square test and student’s t test respectively for categorical and continuous variables using IBM SPSS 20 software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) (p=0.00), size of hematoma (p=0.034), presence of midline shift (0.000) and presence of intraventricular hematoma (p=0.020) were found to have statistically significant difference when compared in between good and poor outcome group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> GCS at admission, size of hematoma, midline shift in cerebral tomography scan (CT scan) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) were significantly associated with outcome of spontaneous Supratentorial ICH.</p> Nikunj Yogi Suraj Thulung Prakash Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-13 2019-07-13 9 1 12 17 10.3126/njr.v9i1.24809 Intra and Interobserver Variability in the B-mode Transorbital Sonographic Measurement of the Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter in Healthy Nepalese Individuals https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/NJR/article/view/24811 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Ocular ultrasound has gained importance as a non-invasive imaging technique in the screening, diagnosis and treatment management of intracranial hypertension. The aim of our study was to estimate the intra and interobserver variability on B-mode ocular ultrasound measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> ONSD of the right eye was measured by ultrasound examination among 120 healthy adult volunteers. The ONSD was assessed 3 mm behind the globe and two serial measurements were taken by two observers who were blinded to each other’s findings.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Age of the volunteers ranged from 18 to 27 years with a mean age of 23.07 +/- SD of 2.486. The mean of ONSDs of two observers was 4.168 +/- SD of 0.54 mm. The intraclass correlation coefficient for first and second observers was 0.997 and 0.978 respectively at 95% confidence interval. The interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.977 at 95% confidence interval. No correlation of age and gender was noted with ONSD.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> B-mode transorbital ultrasound measurement of ONSD is highly reproducible with significant intra-observer and inter-observer agreement. Ultrasound measurement of ONSD measurements can serve as indispensable tool in critical care.</p> Prasanna Ghimire Birendra Bahadur Chand Yug Bijay Mahat Subash Ojha Bhuwaneshwar Prasad Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-13 2019-07-13 9 1 18 23 10.3126/njr.v9i1.24811 Thyrolipoma: A Rare Thyroid Gland Entity https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/NJR/article/view/24813 <p>Fat-containing thyroid swellings are rare with limited differentials including lipomatous goiter, heterotopic thyroid rests, amyloid goiter, lymphocytic thyroiditis, Grave’s disease, adenolipoma, intrathyroid thymic or parathyroid lipoma, encapsulated papillary carcinoma, and liposarcoma etc. We present a case of a 60-year-old euthyroid female with a long standing thyroid swelling radiologically and pathologically diagnosed as thyrolipoma (adenolipoma). Thyrolipomas are occasionally diagnosed. However, these lesions are considered to be benign and are treated surgically.</p> Pragya Singh Mahesh Kumar Mittal Sonam Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-13 2019-07-13 9 1 24 29 10.3126/njr.v9i1.24813 Primary Hydatid of Adductor Muscle of Thigh: A Rare Entity https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/NJR/article/view/24814 <p>Primary Muscle involvement of hydatid disease is a rare entity. Radiological diagnosis can be difficult at times as it mimics soft tissue tumor. Multiple imaging studies are available to detect it preoperatively. We hereby report an in a male patient with hydatid disease of adductor group of muscles of right thigh diagnosed on ultrasound followed by MRI and confirmed on surgery and histopathological examination.</p> Punyapratap Singh Somshankar Pandey Vrishbhan Ahirwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-13 2019-07-13 9 1 30 32 10.3126/njr.v9i1.24814 Imaging of the Shoulder Bankart Lesion and its Variants https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/NJR/article/view/24816 <p>The glenoid labrum is an important soft tissue structure that provides stability to the shoulder joint. When the labrum is injured, affected patients may present with chronic shoulder instability and future recurrent dislocation. The Bankart lesion is the most common labral injury, and is often accompanied by a Hill-Sachs lesion of the humerus. Various imaging techniques are available for detection of the Bankart lesion and its variants, such as anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion and Perthes lesion. Direct magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is currently the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of the various types of labral tears. As normal anatomical variants of glenoid labrum are not uncommonly encountered, familiarity with appearances of this potential pitfall helps avoid misdiagnosis.</p> Kheng Song Leow Soo Fin Low Wilfred CG Peh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-13 2019-07-13 9 1 33 39 10.3126/njr.v9i1.24816