Nepal Journal of Science and Technology <p><em>Nepal Journal of Science and Technology</em> is a peer-reviewed open access journal published by Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST). Full text articles are available. </p> Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST) en-US Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 1994-1412 <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication.</p> Towards Creating Smart Cities in Nepal <p>Many urban centers in the world are seeking to become smart cities. Nepali city leaders are also aspiring to make their cities smart. A smart city basically has clever improvements made in three sectors of its operations: technological, human, and institutional. Globally, many cities have recently made impressive enhancements in at least one or more of these areas. Nepal’s National Planning Commission (NPC) in 2016 had released a concept paper on smart cities for Nepal, defining smart cities as sustainable, information and technology-based, with high quality services and replicable (NPC 2016). As most Nepali cities still operate with limited infrastructure, services, and amenities, making them smart is a challenging task. However, some elements of a smart city can be incrementally and selectively implemented by the Nepali urban governments. This paper assesses the successes and challenges in some of the smart cities globally, and as an example assesses the pollution reduction and efficiency impact of adopting a bus-rapid transit system in Nepal. It is seen that a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system for the Kathmandu Valley consisting of electrical buses, will drastically reduce air pollution, and improve mobility for the residents. Urban leaders in Nepal can begin to identify such a transit related and other smart elements to be gradually implemented in their cities which will improve efficiency of urban services, enhance quality of life for the urban residents, and promote sustainability of the overall urban system.</p> Ambika P. Adhikari Keshav Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2021 Ambika P. Adhikari, Keshav Bhattarai 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 20 2 1 16 10.3126/njst.v20i2.45769 COVID-19, A Complex Emotional Well-Being Challenge: A Path to Recovery in Nepal <p>Mental health and emotional well-being remain an urgent civil societies’ global burden. There is an increasing prevalence of mental health and emotional well-being problems in our societies and nations. There are severe implications from these connected with the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 has produced the gravest disruption to our nations’ health, education, employability, economy, social structure, and mobility.The pandemic has placed humanity in a global emergency with long-term implications. The population’s emotional well-being, including stress related disorders has been severe and likely to be prolonged. The burden of COVID-19 is escalating despite governmental and non-governmental resources, voluntary, religious organisations, and philanthropic efforts. Nations must address the psycho-social conditions of their population as a public health imperative by identifying the peoples’ emotional well-being needs and prioritise strategies to enable their capacity for ‘doing good’ and ‘feeling of goodness’. The Emotional Well-being Institute (EWBI) advocates the significance of ‘feeling goodness’, and that innovative approaches and research initiatives are urgently needed to understand emotional well-being attributes and their impact on overall mental health. Emotional well-being is a broad concept, one that includes several aspects of our everyday lives. There needs to be a multi-dimensional and a whole-of-society approach when addressing the emotional well-being of highly vulnerable societies and nations, such as Nepal.</p> A. Basseer Jeeawody Raju Adhikari Sundram Sivamalai Copyright (c) 2021 A. Basseer Jeeawody, Raju Adhikari, Sundram Sivamalai 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 20 2 17 32 10.3126/njst.v20i2.45770 Ecosociocentrism: The Earth First Paradigm for Environmental Sustainability and Sustainable Development <p>Environmental destruction and degradation that have occurred on planet Earth can be attributed largely to the current neo-liberal economic development paradigm, that considers Nature as simply the resource to be extracted and processed for human consumption and material growth. This paradigm does not consider the intrinsic values in Nature, including the values of life support-services, and goods of the natural ecosystem in the economic valuation system, and therefore, maintaining a healthy, productive, and resilient natural ecosystem becomes simply outside its analytical framework. The most important question that needs to be embedded into any development model is the question of values. If the assumptions of the current economic development model are not restructured and the ecological facts and values are not integrated into economic development model, humanity will inevitably face existential crisis on planet Earth. The scientific epistemology that embodies ecological principle of diversity, ecosystem resilience, interconnectedness, self-organizing complexity, and life sustaining environmental services provides the basis for building social and environmental sustainability. This necessitates the need for the integration of environmental ethics into development framework that can provide the guiding principle for human behavioral conduct. It is argued here that there is a need for a pragmatic environmental ethical paradigm that can integrate both the instrumental and intrinsic values in Nature and promote sustainable development that can lay the foundation for eco-civilization. Recognizing our fundamental interconnectedness with other life forms, self-organizing complexity of the living system and the interdependent nature of our existence, it behooves that development be pursued with a pragmatic environmental ethics that recognizes both the instrumental and intrinsic values in sociosphere (society) and ecosphere (nature). Ecosociocentrism, the proposed ethical framework, recognizes instrumental and intrinsic values in ecosphere and sociosphere. Ecosociocentrism envisages to integrate these values prevalent in ecosphere and sociosphere. Ecosociocentrism claims to provide a pragmatic environmental and development ethical framework for human behavioral conduct to live sustainably in good stewardship with Planet Earth, thus, paving the way to a new era of ecocivilization. </p> Gopi Upreti Copyright (c) 2021 Gopi Upreti 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 20 2 33 48 10.3126/njst.v20i2.45771 MUNAA Agriculture Market: Connecting Home to Abroad <p>Nepalese diaspora has globalized Nepal’s culture, tradition, value, festival, celebration, food, and goods. The Nepalese people have special liking of inherent tastes, flavor, ingredients, cuisine specificities, and indigenous commodities of Nepal. The Non-Resident Nepalese Association (NRNA) and its vast memberships abroad seek such commodities in places where they live. An organization under the Joint Cooperation of Agriculture Promotion Committee of NRNA, Mutual Understanding between NRNA and Agriculture Authority (MUNAA) Agriculture Limited, a company registered with the Bagmati Province with a mandate to work in all provinces of Nepal and abroad, has a mission to connect Nepalese people at home and abroad with the Nepalese agricultural products. MUNAA trades hygienic, safe, fresh, and processed Nepalese food products with the ‘safe food, safe life’ slogan under the ‘MUNAA’ brand. The government of Nepal has adopted favorable agricultural policies that aim to increase production sustainably, substitute imports, and expand export to minimize trade deficits. In addition to following government policies, MUNAA has plans to import technologies for value addition that will benefit both the producers and consumers as per the expectation of the government and Nepalese people at home and abroad. </p> Govinda Rizal Yogendra Kumar Karki Jiwan Prabha Lama Yubaraj Gurung Copyright (c) 2021 Govinda Rizal, Yogendra Kumar Karki, Jiwan Prabha Lama, Yubaraj Gurung 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 20 2 49 54 10.3126/njst.v20i2.45772 First-Principles Study of Defected Single Layer Hexagonal Boron-Nitride (h-BN) <p>The novel properties of pristine h-BN, oxygen (O) atom impurity defects in h-BN (h-B(N-O) and h-(B-O)N), one boron (1B) atom vacancy defect in h-BN (h-BN_1B) and one nitrogen (1N) atom vacancy defect in h-BN (h-BN_1N) materials are investigated by spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT) using computational tool Quantum ESPRESSO. We found that they are stable materials. From the band structure calculations, we found that all the considered systems are wide bandgap materials. The bandgap energy of pristine h-BN, impurity defects h-B(N-O) and h-(B-O)N, and vacancy defects h-BN_1B and h-BN_1Nmaterials have values 4.98 eV, 4.19 eV&amp; 2.47 eV,and 4.84 eV&amp; 3.62 eV respectively. Also, it is found that h-B(N-O) and h-BN_1N materials have n-type Schottky contact while h-(B-O)N and h-BN_1B materials have p-type Schottky contact. From the analysis ofdensity of states (DOS) and partial density of states (PDOS) calculations, we found that non-magnetic pristine h-BN changes to magnetic h-B(N-O) andh-(B-O)N materials due to presence of impurity defects,and h-BN_1B andh-BN_1N materials due to presence of vacancy defects. Magnetic moments of h-B(N-O), h-(B-O)N, h-BN_1B and h-BN_1N materials are 1.00 µB/cell, 0.94 µB/cell, 3.00 µB/cell and 1.00 µB/cell respectively. They are obtained due to unpaired up and down spins state of electrons in 2p orbital of B and N atoms in the structures.</p> Hari Krishna Neupane Narayan Prasad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2021 Hari Krishna Neupane, Narayan Prasad Adhikari 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 20 2 55 66 10.3126/njst.v20i2.45775 Capacity Enhancement in Rock and Tunnel Engineering in Nepal <p>In the recent past, infrastructure development activities have gained momentum in Nepal. Many roads are being and will be upgraded to enhance transport efficiency. The hydropower development activities are in full momentum. However, often occurring natural hazards caused by monsoon rain and large-scale earthquakes are major challenges to Nepal’s infrastructure and resilience hydropower projects. Developing an efficient transport network functioning in allweather conditions and resilience hydropower is not possible without the construction of tunnels. The experience indicates that the construction cost for tunnels is considerably higher due to insufficient capacity and knowledge base within Nepal and dependency on foreign agencies who have limited knowledge on the Himalayan geological condition. It is important to enhance ability through specialized high-level education and research within Rock and Tunnel Engineering (both MSc and Ph.D. Levels). This manuscript discusses a new curriculum developed for MSc education in Rock and Tunnel Engineering for the Institute of Engineering (IoE) of Tribhuvan University with the direct help from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), which helped to start the MSc program and first batch of students are enrolled for the academic year 2020/2021 at IoE-WRC Pokhara. NTNU collaborates with IoE through a research grant NORHED II Project 70141 6; Capacity Enhancement in Rock and Tunnel Engineering in Nepal received from the Norwegian Agency for Development Aid (NORAD).</p> Krishna Kanta Panthi Copyright (c) 2021 Krishna Kanta Panthi 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 20 2 67 74 10.3126/njst.v20i2.45776 COVID-19: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among the Scholarly Cohorts of Nepal <p>COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered microorganism called corona virus, a pandemic. Knowledge, attitudes and practices are prime components that play a crucial role in spreading the disease. These elements would support focusing on the people with underlying medical problems, and old-aged people, including children, are more likely to be susceptible. The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices amongst the students, teachers, and health workers, including staff members of the NGOs/INGOs. This cross-sectional study was done, including 224 respondents. A self-administered-structured questionnaire comprised of nineteen structured questions exploring the pandemic’s knowledge, attitudes and practices was done. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 25.0. Of the total, 67.4% were males, and 32.6% were females. Nearly 50% of the respondents were with M-Phil/PhD degrees, while 4.9% had a secondary level. The study revealed that 28.0% of the participants knew about the pandemic, 41.0% had positive attitudes, and 54.0% experienced good practices. The knowledge level on the pandemic was statistically significant where attitudes and practices were poor. This study suggests that public health approaches such as awareness, masseducation campaigns, etc., are urgently required to control the outbreaks strongly associated with the community’s knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours.</p> Mohan Kumar Sharma Shanti Prasad Khanal Jib Acharya Ramesh Adhikari Chitra Bahadur Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2021 Mohan Kumar Sharma, Shanti Prasad Khanal, Jib Acharya, Ramesh Adhikari, Chitra Bahadur Budhathoki 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 20 2 75 84 10.3126/njst.v20i2.45777 Implementation of National Science Technology and Innovation Policy 2019: Assessment of Challenges in Government Organizations of Nepal <p>Government of Nepal promulgated the third policy on science and technology including innovation in 2019 (NSTIP-2019). This policy being aligned with the federal and provincial governance system has given stronger emphasis on innovation and entrepreneurship for economic development. Online questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the status and capabilities of governmental research organizations and universities because they are in the forefront in executing action plans formulated in NSTIP-2019. An encouraging response from a total of 36 respondents representing 17 organizations was received. All respondents have reported the poor infrastructure and lack of budget for research activities in their respective organization. Low productivities of research institutes and academia were attributed to erroneous understanding existing in policy makers and underdeveloped research culture prevalent in research and academic institutions including limitations in governments’ system of budget al.. location, leader/staff recruitment and procurement of necessary research materials. Based on the information and suggestions provided by a wide range of expertise in survey respondents, this paper identifies enablers of positive research and innovation culture in Nepalese perspectives. Key attributes of ‘sound research and innovation ecosystem’ discussed here are most likely to guide implementation process of NSTIP-2019 with higher levels of confidence and effectiveness.</p> Ram Chandra Poudel Copyright (c) 2021 Ram Chandra Poudel 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 20 2 85 102 10.3126/njst.v20i2.45779 Comparative Analysis of Diffusers for Micro Wind Turbine <p>With the increase in demand for clean energy, a micro wind turbine would be the best option for remote and urban residential areas. Installing wind turbines is not feasible in most land areas due to low or inadequate wind speed. The energy generated by the wind turbine is directly proportional to the cube of wind velocity. So, if we manage to increase wind speed slightly, it would increase energy significantly. One approach to solving problems in areas with low wind speed is using Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine (DAWT). In DAWT, the turbine blades are typically surrounded by a duct which increases the cross-sectional area in the stream-wise direction. Since a diffuser encloses the wind turbine, the pressure behind the turbine will drop, which results in an increasing wind velocity. Different types of diffusers have been introduced to increase wind velocity. The main aim of the research is to perform a comparative analysis of four different types of diffusers to increase the power output of wind turbines. The CFD simulation of Plain Diffuser, Plain Diffuser with Inlet Shroud, Flanged Diffuser, and Flanged Diffuser with Inlet Shroud is performed to determine the maximum velocity each diffuser produced. With the solution from the simulation, a comparative analysis of each diffuser is conducted, and the results are further verified with the previous studies on DWAT. And Flanged Diffuser is found to be optimum with an increase in power generation up to 3.6 times compared to a bare wind turbine.</p> Roshan Kumar Chhetri Dilip Bhattarai Upadhyay Nirajan Ghimire Copyright (c) 2021 Roshan Kumar Chhetri, Dilip Bhattarai Upadhyay, Nirajan Ghimire 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 20 2 103 112 10.3126/njst.v20i2.45796 Spring Water Sources Assessment and Forest Area Dynamics in Roshi and Melamchi Watersheds <p>Spring-water sources mapping was carried out in eight wards of Dhulikhel and four wards of Melamchi Municipality and forest area dynamics in Roshi and Melamchi Watersheds. Ward number 9 and 10 of Dhulikhel Municipality were rich in water sources. Whereas ward number 6 of Melamchi Municipality has a good amount of water sources compared to other wards. The major spring types were depression, fractured, and contact in both the Municipalities.The percentage of forest areas in the Roshi and Melamchi watersheds seems to be fluctuating with the data compared in 2010 and 2020. There is an increase in forest areas in both municipalities in 2020. Also, the perennial spring sourceswith good discharge are prominent in having a good forest area and large watershed recharge area.</p> Santosh Chaudhary Kumud Raj Kafle Govinda Baniya Suman Shrestha Rajiv Giri Bim Prasad Shrestha Ekraj Sigdel Copyright (c) 2021 Santosh Chaudhary, Kumud Raj Kafle, Govinda Baniya, Suman Shrestha, Rajiv Giri, Bim Prasad Shrestha, Ekraj Sigdel 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 20 2 113 124 10.3126/njst.v20i2.45801 The Two Worlds of Palliative Care: Bridging the Gap with Nepal <p>Despite past geo-political turbulence, Nepal has made significant progress in societal and economic initiatives, particularly in relation to social determinants of health. These improvements, however, belie the suffering of those with life-limiting disease due to pain, stigma, social and financial distress, consequent upon low patient, caregiver and health professional awareness of the need for, and availability of, appropriate care and support. Two Worlds Cancer Collaboration (INCTR-Canada) has been working with partners in Nepal to build capacity for palliative care by: (a) organizational and administrative support – establishing the Nepal Association of Palliative Care (NAPCare), and the creation of the Nepal Strategy for Palliative Care, approved by government in 2017; (b) “twinning” between 2 hospital palliative care units in Nepal and the Nanaimo Hospice and Victoria Hospice, BC, Canada; (c) sustainable growth of palliative care according to WHO foundational measures, implementing facility-based clinical programs, and home-based care aligned with the cultural, social, and economic environment of Nepal; (d) training of health professionals in adult and paediatricpalliative carethrough interactive on-line “distance learning” (Extension of Community Healthcare Outcomes, ECHO);(e) leveraging palliative care training and expertise across the government health system, and (f) local and international support to build a newfacility for Hospice Nepal to provide more support for more patients in a rural ambience on the outskirts of Kathmandu. Palliative care needs to become standard-of-care, providing peace, comfort and dignity for adults and children. Working collaboratively with partners in Nepal, the collective vision is a capable professional Nepali community leading palliative care services for all in need, wherever in need.</p> Simon B. Sutcliffe Puneet Bains Fraser Black Sandra S. Broughton Stuart Brown Simon Colgan Megan E. Doherty Gillian Fyles Robin Love Gayatri Palat Bishnu Paudel Charles Russell Leslie Sundby Max Watson Copyright (c) 2021 Simon B. Sutcliffe, Puneet Bains, Fraser Black, Sandra S. Broughton, Stuart Brown, Simon Colgan, Megan E. Doherty, Gillian Fyles, Robin Love, Gayatri Palat, Bishnu Paudel, Charles Russell, Leslie Sundby, Max Watson 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 20 2 125 130 10.3126/njst.v20i2.45802 Complementing Food and Nutrition Security Using Toxin Minimizing Dry Chain and Integrated Pest Management: A Review <p>Global programs are involved to improve food and nutrition security in the low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Increasing agrobiodiversity by maintaining local genetic resources has been proposed to achieve food and nutrition security. However, technology to maintain local germplasms/seed stocks are not available to the smallholders. This inability to save seeds translates into 25% annual low moisture food losses to rainfall/floods. As moisture builds up in improperly stored foods, insects, and carcinogenic molds proliferate along with nutrient loss. A dry chain (drying and moisture-proof packaging) could minimize these losses and even enable disaster resiliency. About 40% high moisture foods (fruits and vegetables) are lost due to lack of the cold chain facilities. Additionally, most people in the LMICs ingest artificial toxins daily through high moisture foods due to improper pesticide use. The prevalence of health compromising food toxins in nutritious foods has been complicating malnutrition alleviation efforts in the LMICs. Adopting Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies followed by sensitive monitoring could reduce pesticide residues to CODEX standards and enable healthy food systems. A way forward to achieve quality food and nutrition security in the post-Covid-19 era with a particular reference to LMICs like Nepal is presented.</p> Sundar Tiwari Kshitij Shrestha Meghnath Dhima Jagadish Timsina Krishna Belbase Peetambar Dahal Copyright (c) 2021 Sundar Tiwari, Kshitij Shrestha, Meghnath Dhima, Jagadish Timsina, Krishna Belbase, Peetambar Dahal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 20 2 131 146 10.3126/njst.v20i2.45804 Food Green Cities: A Pathway to Sustainable Urban Development of Nepal <p>Urbanization is undergoing rapidly in Nepal. The causes are rural to urban migration and addition of municipalities by merging a number of rural areas. During the restructuring of the state, Government of Nepal declared 293 as municipalities among 753 local government units. Considering the municipalities as urban areas, urban population has reached more than sixty percent of Nepal’s total population. But the urban areas still have rural characteristics and insufficient infrastructures. Due to the increasing urbanization, the maintenance of sufficient open spaces, greeneries and the preservation of agricultural lands has become important urban issues in Nepal. The loss of productive lands has resulted in decrease of food self-sufficiency and green spaces in the cities. To tackle this urban issue, the Fourteenth National Development Plan has emphasized the concept of Food Green City (FGC) by integrating urban agriculture into urban planning. This paper aims to elaborate the concept of FGC and explore necessary policy intervention to realize the concept of FGC in practice based on the study of Godawari Municipality of Nepal. Finally, this study recommends FGC as a pathway for sustainable urban development of Nepal by highlighting FGC contribution in achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).</p> Sunil Babu Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Sunil Babu Shrestha 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 20 2 147 159 10.3126/njst.v20i2.45808 Editorial Message <p>N/A</p> NJST Editorial Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 Board Members <p>N/A</p> NJST Editorial Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 Table of Content <p>N/A</p> NJST Editorial Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 List of Reviewers and Editors <p>N/A</p> NJST Editorial Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2