Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Nepal Journal of Science and Technology en-US <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a></p> (Ms. Luna Vajra) (Sioux Cumming) Sun, 10 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial Message from the Editor-in-Chief <p>N/A</p> Sunil Babu Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 10 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Biology of Zygogramma Bicolorata Pallister on Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. under Laboratory Conditions <p><em>Parthenium hysterophorus</em> Linn. is one of the most aggressive, invasive weeds threatening natural and agricultural ecosystems in the world including Nepal. Augmentative release of host-specific, leaf feeding beetle, <em>Zygogramma bicolorata</em> Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is one of the sustainable management approaches of parthenium weed. Successful mass rearing program requires knowledge on biology of<em> Z. bicolorata</em> for augmentative release. Thus, life cycle and biology of <em>Z. bicolorata</em> were studied in lab at 26±2 °C temperature and 70±10% relative humidity at NARC, Lalitpur, Nepal during March to September, 2016. The average incubation, larval and pupal periods of the insect were 4.33, 12.20, and 11.00 days, respectively. A single female could lay 1,837 eggs in 58.80 days oviposition period with 73.01% egg hatchability. The insect completed its life cycle in 108.40 and 105.50 days with adult longevity of 91.90 and 75.00 days for females and males, respectively. The average length of egg, pupa, adult female and male was 1.19 mm, 5.90 mm, 6.58 mm and 5.32 mm and breadth 0.51 mm, 3.74 mm, 3.94 mm and 3.20 mm, respectively. The average lengths of the first, second, third and fourth instar larvae were found 1.30 mm, 3.02 mm, 4.96 mm and 8.08 mm and breadth of 0.44 mm, 1.13 mm, 2.02 mm and 3.16 mm, respectively. These findings will help in mass multiplication of <em>Z. bicolorata</em> for biological control of parthenium weed.</p> Ajaya Shree Ratna Bajracharya, Resham Bahadur Thapa, Gopal Bahadur K.C, Shree Baba Pradhan, Jagat Devi Ranjit Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Weight Decay Regularization Techniques for Stock Price Prediction using Gated Recurrent Unit Network <p>Stock price forecasting in the field of interest for many stock investors to earn more profit from stock trading. Nowadays, machine learning researchers are also involved in this research field so that fast, accurate and automatic stock price forecasting can be achieved. This research paper evaluated GRU network’s performance with weight decay reg-ularization techniques for predicting price of stocks listed NEPSE. Three weight decay regularization technique analyzed in this research work were (1) L1 regularization (2) L2 regularization and (3) L1_L2 regularization. In this research work, six randomly selected stocks from NEPSE were experimented. From the experimental results, we observed that L2 regularization could outperform L1 and L1_L2 reg-ularization techniques for all six stocks. The average MSE obtained with L2 regularization was 4.12% to 33.52% lower than the average MSE obtained with L1 regularization, and it was 10.92% to 37.1% lower than the average MSE obtained with L1_L2 regularization. Thus, we concluded that the L2 regularization is best choice among weight regularization for stock price prediction.</p> Arjun Singh Saud, Subarna Shakya Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Potato Genotypes for Plant and YieldCharactersin Field at Dailekh <p>A field experiment was conducted at Horticulture Research Station (HRS), Dailekh, in Mid-Western hills of Nepal during 2019 and 2020, to evaluate the performance of ten potato genotypes for plant, and tuber yield characters. The potato genotypes were evaluated during spring season in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The genotypes showed highly significant difference for all the traits except tuber emergence. The mean squares for the year were also significant for all the traits except tuber emergence, stem numberplant -1 and total tuber yield. The interaction between genotypes and years did not show significant differences in all the traits except stem numberplant -1. Genotype CIP392797.22 produced more marketable yield (27.5 tha -1) and total tuber yield (30.2tha -1) than all other genotypes. The genotype CIP392797.22 is characterized as medium maturing, oval-shaped and dark red-skinned one with shallow eye depth in the tuber, and it imparted 13.2% higher marketable yield than Kufri Jyoti (24.3 tha -1). Thus, the genotype CIP392797.22 is recommended to evaluate on-farm for the verification and up-scaling among farmers at Mid-Western Nepal.</p> Binod Prasad Luitel, Bishnu Bahadur Bhandari, Bihani Thapa Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Medicinal Plants BerberisAsiatica and Cassia Fistula and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-bacterial Activities <p>The application of silver nanoparticles in various sectors including health related field is remarkably profound. Nowadays, the research of synthesizing metal nanoparticles (MNPs) using plant extracts is fascinating field as it offers the eco-friendly and cost-effective method for nanoparticle synthesis. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using methanolic extract of <em>B.asiatica</em> and <em>C. fistula</em> regarding their ethnomedical importance. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). UV-vis spectroscopy exhibited the characteristic Surface Plasmon Peak of silver nanoparticle~420 nm.FTIR data were measured to get a preliminary idea on the functional groups responsible for the stabilization of AgNPs. XRD data confirmed the natural crystal structure with a face centered cubic of AgNPs. The antibacterial activity of biosynthesized AgNPs was assessed by testing promptly available gram-positive <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and gram-negative <em>Escherichia coli</em> bacterial strain and antioxidant activity was calculated by DPPH assay. The overall outcomes of the studies concluded that the application of the biogenic synthesis of AgNPs of <em>B. asiatica</em>as an antioxidant and antibacterial agent is more potent showing IC<sub>50</sub> value 65.1±1.30 μg/mL and the highest zone of inhibition 15 mm in diameter against <em>S. aureus</em>.</p> Deegendra Khadka, Rachana Regmi, Mitesh Shrestha, Megha Raj Banjara Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation on Lateral Loading on Masonry Walls <p>5)</p> <p>Though a traditional material used for construction for ages, masonry is a complex composite material, and its mechanical behavior is influenced by a large number of factors, is not generally well understood. This research aims to study the methodology available in the literature to evaluate the increase in performance of masonry by applying different reinforcement options under in-plane lateral loading. Nonlinear static analysis has been carried out as part of this research to achieve the above objectives. Different unreinforced masonry wall panels were analyzed at various load conditions. Material properties for the masonry wall were taken from the experimental test results of previous literature. The walls were first checked for two failure mechanisms. The stress distributions of walls were checked in each step of analysis and shear failure, and rocking failure was found. Each wall was then analyzed for six different reinforcement options. The comparison of results obtained from the reinforced wall analysis with that of the unreinforced wall indicated significant increase in lateral load-bearing capacity and decreased wall displacement with reinforcement. The maximum increase in load-bearing capacity was achieved by adding chicken wire mesh or CFRP bands throughout the wall while the maximum decrease in displacement was achieved by adding 12 mm diameter bars at the spacing of one meter.</p> Hari Ram Parajuli, Arjun Ghimire Copyright (c) 2021 Hari Ram Parajuli, Arjun Ghimire Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Factors of Production Influencing Gross Domestic Product in Nepal <p>This study has analysed the factors of production, viz; agricultural land, working force and gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) of Nepal between 2000/01-2017/18 AD and has determined their effects on national income, viz; Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by using Cobb-Douglas regression function. The results showed an average growth rate of GDP, agricultural land, working force and GFCF to be 3.9%, 0.8%, 1.5% and 7.9%, respectively, with the values plummeting in 2015/16, due to occurrence of the devastating earthquake in 2015, but then again variable values skyrocketed following years. The regression analysis found that GDP was affected significantly by agricultural land and working force, but insignificant with GFCF. On an average, with the increase in agricultural land and working force by 1 %, GDP increased by 1.1% and 1.7%, respectively. Thus, policy regarding an increment of agricultural land use and employment of labour force must be framed to improve the Nepalese economy.</p> Prabhat Jha, Shiva Chandra Dhakal Copyright (c) 2021 Prabhat Jha, Shiva Chandra Dhakal Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Application of Multivariate Approaches to the Hydro-chemical Assessment of the Ghodaghodi Lake, Sudurpaschim Province, Nepal <p>Wetlands are considered the most diverse and productive ecosystems in the world, providing life-sustaining ecological services. Hydrochemical variables of the Ghodaghodi Lake situated in Far west Nepal were studied using multivariate statistical approaches to investigate the characteristics of water quality of the lake. A total of 10water samples were collected and analyzed for water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, salinity, dissolved oxygen, major ions, and dissolved Si in the pre-monsoon season during 2017.The water quality assessment was carried out by applying sodium percentage, sodium adsorption ratio, permeability index, Kelly’s ratio, magnesium adsorption ratio, action ratio of soil structural stability, and water quality index. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to evaluate the geochemical and anthropogenic processes and to identify factors influencing the ionic concentrations. The results revealed that the water was slightly alkaline with low ionic strength and remarkable spatial variations. The hydrochemistry of the lake was mainly controlled by rock weathering as the dominant Ca2+-HCO<sub>3-</sub> facies. The principal component analysis provided three major components exhibiting the diverse sources of natural and anthropogenic chemicals, including agricultural fertilizers, leakage of sewages near the human settlements, etc. The measured hydrochemical parameters indicate that lake water lies within the safe drinking water and irrigational standards. However, special consideration should be taken to control the concentrations of NO<sub>3-</sub> due to increasing anthropic activities.</p> Ramesh Raj Pant, Khadka Bahadur Pal, Kiran Bishwakarma, Lal B Thapa, Alina Dangol, Binod Dawadi, Pramod Poudel, Binod Bhattarai, Tarka Raj Joshi, Youb Raj Bhatt Copyright (c) 2021 Ramesh Raj Pant, Khadka Bahadur Pal, Kiran Bishwakarma, Lal B Thapa, Alina Dangol, Binod Dawadi, Pramod Poudel, Binod Bhattarai, Tarka Raj Joshi, Youb Raj Bhatt Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Mahonia napaulensis (Jamanemandro) Bark Extract <p><em>Mahonia napaulensis</em> also known as “<em>Jamanemandro</em>” in Nepali is a medium-sized stiff evergreen shrub widely distributed in South East Asia at an altitude of 1000-2000m, is traditionally used to treat dysentery and eye inflammation. This research focuses on screening of the phytochemicals, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties of this plant. The methanolic extract was prepared using a Soxhlet apparatus. The antioxidant properties of extract were carried out by 50% inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) values from 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging. The phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of terpenoids, reducing sugars, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides including cardiac glycosides and steroids. The antimicrobial activity was studied using the disc diffusion method in five different human pathogens named <em>Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus,</em> <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Salmonella typhi,</em> and <em>Shigella</em> spps. The methanol extract was compared with standard chloramphenicol and showed that methanolic extract of <em>is M.napaulensis</em> exhibit maximum effect against <em>S. aureus</em> with higher growth inhibition zones (27.3 mm), followed by <em>P. aeruginosa, Shigella</em> spps<em>., E. coli</em> and <em>S.</em> <em>typhi</em>. These antimicrobial properties showed similar effect to that of positive control, chloramphenicol. The IC<sub>50</sub> values from DPPH radical scavenging were 230.89 µg/mL and 182.73 µg/mL of methanol extract and ascorbic acid, respectively. Due to this antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of <em>M. napaulensis</em> it was widely applicable in biomedical field.</p> Ranjan Paudel , Rabi Kiran Sharma, Shreeya Bhandari, Manan Koirala, Ganesh Bhandari, Netra Lal Bhandari Copyright (c) 2021 Ranjan Paudel , Rabi Kiran Sharma, Shreeya Bhandari, Manan Koirala, Ganesh Bhandari, Netra Lal Bhandari Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Rooftop Hydroponics: Opportunity for Urban Agriculture in Godawari Municipality of Nepal <p>Urbanization is growing in Nepal at a rapid pace with an increasing number of municipalities. Due to rapid urbanization, agricultural lands have been converting into buildings and infrastructures. This has negatively impacted the urban environment with decreased greeneries, open space, local food production, and groundwater recharge. In this context, this study aimed to explore the opportunity of roof-top hydroponics for urban agriculture in Godawari Municipality. A questionnaire survey was done in ward-14 of Godawari Municipality from November 2018 to December 2018 with a sample size of 64 households. A stratified random sampling method was applied for the household selection. Out of 64 respondents, 45 (71.31%) achieved high opportunity scores based on eight factors: Space, Willingness, Affordability, Manpower, Time, Knowledge, Technology, and Acceptance with incentives. Thus, roof-top hydroponics has a high opportunity for practicing urban agriculture to provide greeneries, fresh vegetables and fruits to the city dwellers locally in Godawari Municipality for realizing the concept of Food Green City.</p> Sunil Babu Shrestha , Bijan Shrestha, Marina Vaidya Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Sunil Babu Shrestha , Bijan Shrestha, Marina Vaidya Shrestha Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Fuel Briquettes from Sal (Shorea robusta) Forest Litter as an Alternative Cooking Fuel <p>Sal (<em>Shorea robusta</em>) forest leaf litter strongly influences seed germination and seedling survivorship. Therefore, it is crucial to open up the litter layer in such a forest with abundant leaf litter. Briquetting of Sal forest leaf litter can be an option for its management and meet the increasing energy demand. This research work is performed to quantify the amount of Sal forest litter and study the briquette’s combustion properties. The study was carried out in the Namuna Community Forest of Jhapa district. The average weight of leaf litter in the field was observed to be 851 g/m<sup>2</sup> . Five varieties of briquettes were produced using different briquetting technologies. Proximate analysis results, calorific value and water boiling tests show these briquettes have good fuel characteristics and can be used as alternative cooking fuel.</p> Sushmita Dulal, Ramesh Man Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Sushmita Dulal, Ramesh Man Singh Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Applications of Multiparameter Eigenvalue Problems <p>It was mainly due to Atkinson works, who introduced Linear Multiparameter Eigenvalue problems (LMEPs), based on determinantal operators on the Tensor Product Space. Later, in the area of Multiparameter eigenvalue problems has received attention from the Mathematicians in the recent years also, who pointed out that there exist a variety of mixed eigenvalue problems with several parameters in different scientific domains. This article aims to bring into a light variety of scientific problems that appear naturally as LMEPs. Of course, with all certainty, the list of collection of applications presented here are far from complete, and there are bound to be many more applications of which we are currently unaware. The paper may provide a review on applications of Multiparameter eigenvalue problems in different scientific domains and future possible applicatios both in theoretical and applied disciplines.</p> Niranjan Bora Copyright (c) 2021 Niranjan Bora Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study of Cleansing Action of Some Detergents Available in Nepalese Market <p>Detergents commercially available in the Nepalese market were studied and several parameters such as surface tension, pH, critical micelle concentration, foaming stability test, hard water test, emulsions stability test were performed. Different medium such as ground water (G.W.), tap water (T.W.), distilled water (D.W.) and 5% ethanol in distilled water were selected for this study. The decrease in surface tension and critical micelle concentration (CMC) in ground water, tap water, distilled water and 5% ethanol in distilled water, ease of cleansing action of the detergents in this medium have been found of the following order: 5% ethanol in distilled water &gt; distilled water (D.W.) &gt; tap water (T.W.) &gt; ground water (G.W.). Among the four detergents, the D1 have shown the least surface tension, CMC value, foam collapsing time, the weight of scum formed when treated with hard water. And maximum emulsion stability of the detergent D1 determines good quality detergent.</p> Arvind Pathak, Pratima Khadka, Prabin Karki Copyright (c) 2021 Arvind Pathak, Pratima Khadka, Prabin Karki Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Bacterial Assessment of Buffalo Meat in Kathmandu Valley <p>Meat is highly nutritious and mostly consumed food. Usually, meat gets contaminated because of improper handling, open transportation practice, unhygienic cutting tools, and can cause various food–borne illnesses. This study was focused to determine bacterial load and occurrences of potential pathogenic bacteria in the raw buffalo meat sold in Kathmandu valley. Altogether 40 raw buffalo meat samples were collected and assessed. In addition, antibiotic susceptibility of gram-negative bacterial isolates was tested. The total plate count (TPC), and coliform count (CC) in the samples were found comparatively highest from the Asan area of Kathmandu with 9.6±0.02 log CFU/gm and 8.9±0.00 log CFU/gm respectively. Altogether 10 genera of gram-negative bacteria were identified based on the various biochemical tests. The isolated gram-negative bacteria included <em>Proteus</em> spp (39%, 21/54), <em>Pseudomonas</em> (19%, 10/54) <em>Citrobacter</em> spp. (9%, 5/54)<em>, E. coli</em> (7%, 4/54), <em>Serratia marcescens</em> (5%, 3/54), <em>Salmonella</em> spp. (9%, 5/54), <em>Enterobacter</em> spp. (2%,1/54), <em>Morganella morganeii</em> (2%,1/54), <em>Klebsiella</em> (2%, 1/54), <em>Yersinia enterocolitica</em> (6%,3/54). The antibiotic susceptibility tests for the isolates was carried against six different antibiotics including-Ofloxacin (OF), Ciprofloxacin (CIP), Nalidixic Acid (NA), Nitrofurantoin (NIT 300), Amoxycillin (AMX) and Chloramphenicol (C). Out of total 54 isolates, 36 were found to be multidrug- resistant. The results of this study clearly revealed buffalo meat sold in Kathmandu valley was contaminated with potential bacterial pathogens which may cause various food- borne illnesses. The occurrence of multi - drug resistant bacteria in the meat samples is alarming threat to public health. Adequate measures to protect bacterial contamination in buffalo meat is highly recommended.</p> Barsha Koirala, Radha Bhattarai, Rashmi Maharjan, Sanjeet Maharjan, Shova Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Barsha Koirala, Radha Bhattarai, Rashmi Maharjan, Sanjeet Maharjan, Shova Shrestha Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gynaecological Problems among Elderly Women Living in Old Age Homes of Kathmandu Valley <p>Ageing is a natural process. The elderly population is increasing in Nepal.When there is presence of diseases, physical inability, and financial harshness, the elderly in Nepal have to face many problems. This study was thus conducted to assess the socio-economic milieu and spectrum of gynaecological problems among women living in old age homes of Kathmandu valley. For this a cross sectional study was conducted in 21old age homes of three districts of Kathmandu valley. In this study, they were 234 particants. Privacy and confidentiality of information about the individual were strictly maintained. One-third of the aged women living in the old age homes belonged to 70-80 years.50.9% were from outside Kathmandu valley, while 49.1% were from the valley. The elderly were mostly not visited by their relatives and friends. Most of them (74.4%) were interested in praying than other activities. Out of the total Urine samples (190), 68.4% were normal, and 9.4% had a urinary tract infection. There were only 15.6% uterine prolapse cases. Out of total, 70.9% of Pap smear report was normal, while 25.1% had inflammatory smear. This study revealed that the old age homes have become a shelter for most of elderly women. The socio-economic condition was poor. Gynaecological probems like UTI, Urinary incontinence were not high but the prolapse cases (uterine proplase, cystocele, rectocele) were remarkably high. Cervical cancer screening through Pap smear showed negative results.</p> Marina Vaidya Shrestha, Sunil Kumar Joshi Copyright (c) 2021 Marina Vaidya Shrestha, Sunil Kumar Joshi Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic Diversity of Nepalese Indigenous Cattle Breeds Based on D-Loop Mitochondrial DNA <p>Nepalese cattle are known for their genetic potentiality concerning inhabitant in extreme climatic conditions, surviving in the scarce food supply, and resistant to several diseases. We aimed to assess Nepal’s ancestral origin and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle breeds based on hyper-variable D loop mtDNA sequences. Three cattle breeds (Siri, Achammi, &amp; Lulu) comprising the total sample population (n= 75) were employed in the study where the mt DNA information of two breeds (Achammi &amp; Lulu) were retrieved from the published source. Hyper-variable D loop (910bp) of Siri cattle was PCR amplified and sequenced. This study claims that the possible ancestral origin of <em>Bos taurus</em> and <em>Bos indicus</em> mtDNA lineage in the Nepalese cattle population is majorly influenced by China and India, respectively. This study suggests that Nepalese cattle can be divided into two major groups: <em>Bos taurus</em> and <em>Bos indicus,</em> where most of the cattle population was of <em>Bos indicus</em> origin. The sampled population can be classified into three significant haplogroups: T3 (25%), I1 (48%), and I2 (27%) revealing a higher genetic diversity among the Nepalese cattle population. Only T3 taurine haplogroup was found in the sampled population. It was consistent with the fact that the absence of T1 haplogroup in North-East Asian cattle. In terms of <em>Bos indicus</em>, the I1 haplogroup was dominant over I2. Higher genetic diversity can be appropriate reasoning for Nepalese cattle’s survival in a harsh environment and low food conditions.</p> Neena Amatya Gorkhali, Chhiring Sherpa, Aashish Dhakal, Sanjay Dhungana, Saroj Sapkota, Prashanna Koirala, Bhoj Raj Pokhrel, Manaraj Kolachhapati , Nirajan Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2021 Neena Amatya Gorkhali, Chhiring Sherpa, Aashish Dhakal, Sanjay Dhungana, Saroj Sapkota, Prashanna Koirala, Bhoj Raj Pokhrel, Manaraj Kolachhapati , Nirajan Bhattarai Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Production and Economic Feasibility of Hydroponics Maize Fodder on Performance of Piglets <p>An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of hydroponics maize fodder on growth and nutrient digestibility of weaned piglets from July 1st, 2017 to August 11th, 2017, for six weeks. The experiment consisted of 75 days old, 15 crossbreed piglets (Duroc x Nagpuri &amp; Duroc) in a Completely Randomized Design with three treatments and five replications. Treatment 1 (T1) contained 100% concentrate feed, Treatment 2 (T2) 90% concentrate feed and 10% hydroponics maize fodder and Treatment 3 (T3) 80% concentrate feed and 20% hydroponics maize fodder in the diet. The study revealed that hydroponics maize fodder contained DM 13.80%, CP 12.54%, NDF 47.04%, and ADL 16.51%. The treatments had non-significant effect (P &gt; 0.05) on daily weight gain, final weight and feed conversion ratio of the piglets. However, piglets fed with 90% concentrate and 10% hydroponics maize fodder had the highest final weight (35.8±5.0 kg), while the lowest (33.6±5.00 kg) was recorded in piglets fed with 80% concentrate and 20% hydroponics maize fodder. The cost of hydroponics maize fodder production was Rs. 20.62 per kg, which was higher than the cost in the Indian context. The difference in Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) was also not significant. However, piglets fed with T2 (1:2.58) diet recorded higher FCR than T3 (1:2.56) and T1 (1:2.51). In conclusion, the inclusion of hydroponics maize fodder in piglets diet appeared promising in growth, nutrient digestibility and cost of production.</p> Sujaya Upreti, Ram P. Ghimire, Megh Raj Tiwari, Niraj Banskota Copyright (c) 2021 Sujaya Upreti, Ram P. Ghimire, Megh Raj Tiwari, Niraj Banskota Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Scientific Uncertainty and Biodiversity Inventory <p>All sciences, including biological science, have uncertainty, and they complicate theoretical questions. Uncertainty essentially is a mark of good science, and its efficacious communication is even essential for better decisions. Explaining the research work uncertainties indicates that the scientists are aware of the vital difference between the known and the unknown. Uncertainty is equally significant in biodiversity studies. Species composition of any area can’t be predicted with certainty because of interwoven relationships between species diversity and climatic and anthropogenic factors. Good survey planning with acceptable animal welfare practices could lead to asymptote for inventory of any particular area. Scientists can handle uncertainty in their studies by sensible statistics and reasonably large sample size.</p> Indra Prasad Subedi Copyright (c) 2021 Indra Prasad Subedi Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Militarisation and Privatisation of Outer Space: A Grave Threat to Humanity <p>Nations are spending millions of amounts in amassing arms and nuclear weapons on Earth and even in Space. Such a situation is bound to lead humanity to the brink of a catastrophic war on Earth and even in Space. In this context, sensible human beings should oppose all war-mongering activities that could ultimately invite the very extinction of humanity. This paper tries to emphasize the consequences of the misuse of arms and ammunition on Earth and in Space. This paper focuses on spreading the need for co-existence of people worldwide and eschews the thoughts of waging a war that may wipe out the humanity’s face from the Earth.</p> Prabhu Ray Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 Prabhu Ray Yadav Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Potential Lethal Co-infections in COVID-19: A Study Based on Literature Review <p>Co-infection with other respiratory pathogens has been reported in patients with COVID-19. Common respiratory pathogens can infect as co-pathogens during SARS-nCoV-2 infections. The aim of this article is to spread knowledge regarding possible co-infections during COVID-19, and reduce their occurrence. Google scholar was used to search the literature for possible co-infections in the people with COVID-19 and reviewed the existing published data. In most cases, co-infections are common due to <em>Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumonia, Legionella pneumophila</em>, and <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em>.Prevalence of fungal and viral co-infections is low. However, <em>Candida</em> species and <em>Aspergillus flavus</em>are the common co-infective fungi. Viruses such as Influenza, Corona virus, Rhinovirus/ Enterovirus, Parainfluenza, Metapneumo virus, Influenza B virus, and Human immunodeficiency virus have also been reported as co-infecting agents during COVID-19. Influenza A was one of the most common co-infective viruses, which may have caused initial false-negative results of a real-time RT-PCR for severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The prevalence of co-infections could be up to 50% among non-survivors. Only newly developed syndromic multiplex panels that incorporate SARS-CoV-2 may facilitate the early detection of co-infections. The suitable antimicrobial agents can be recommended for the co-infections caused by other respiratory pathogens during COVID-19.</p> Shiv Nandan Sah , Arjun Ghimire, Ranjit Kumar Sah, Pradeep Kumar Sah, Neena Caplash, Prince Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Shiv Nandan Sah , Arjun Ghimire, Ranjit Kumar Sah, Pradeep Kumar Sah, Neena Caplash, Prince Sharma Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Mineralization and Structural Geology of the Porphyry Copper Deposits of Pakistan <p>The purpose of this review is to shed light on copper deposits found in different regions of Pakistan. The geological attributes of copper deposits have been considered with their tectonic context. The porphyry copper deposits can be traced in Pakistan from the north through Kohistan Island Arc (KIA) up to the south to Chaghi Magmatic Arc (CMA). These deposits are mainly found in and around the Late Tertiary–Early Tertiary Himalayan Belt, Kohistan magmatic arc, Karakorum Block Foreland fold and thrust belt, Ophiolite Thrust belt, Suture zone and Chaghi Magmatic Arc. These deposits in Pakistan are chiefly established in different episodes of tectonic regimes, including subduction processes, oceanic island arc, continental arc, along with Chaman- OrnachNal Fault system and post-collisional settings.</p> Syed Tallataf Hussain Shah, Nangyal Ghani Khan, Muhammad Imran Hafeez Abbasi, Kamran Tabassum, Syed Khaizer Wahab Shah Copyright (c) 2021 Syed Tallataf Hussain Shah, Nangyal Ghani Khan, Muhammad Imran Hafeez Abbasi, Kamran Tabassum, Syed Khaizer Wahab Shah Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000