Orthodontic Journal of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN <p>The official journal of the Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopedic Association of Nepal (ODOAN). The Orthodontic Journal of Nepal is a peer reviewed journal published biannually with an open access and dealing with the applied as well as theoretical researches in the field of orthodontics. The journal does not charge article processing fees or submission charges.</p> <p>From August 2018, the journal is accepting online submissions. Please register and follow the 5 step submission process.</p> Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopedics Association of Nepal en-US Orthodontic Journal of Nepal 2091-1327 <p>Copyright © held by Orthodontic &amp; Dentofacial Orthopedic Association of Nepal</p> <ul> <li class="show">Copyright on any research article is transferred in full to the&nbsp;Orthodontic &amp; Dentofacial Orthopedic Association of Nepal upon publication in the journal.&nbsp; The copyright transfer includes the right to reproduce and distribute the article in any form of reproduction (printing, electronic media or any other form).</li> <li class="show">Articles in the Orthodontic Journal of Nepal are Open Access articles published under the Creative Commons CC BY License (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/</a>)</li> <li class="show">This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</li> </ul> Battlefield where Doctors and Paramedics are on Frontline https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28401 <p>Not available.</p> Dashrath Kafle, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 5 5 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28401 Periodontal Parameters Alterations with Use of Conventional Bracket and Self-ligating Brackets https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28403 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Different bracket systems are available in the market claiming to have some advantage over the other. Conventional brackets and the self-ligating brackets are the most common. Though both the systems work basically similarly, the difference between the two system is principally in the ligating technique. The advantage of conventional brackets claimed are faster tooth movements and improved oral health of the patient.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Method: </strong>A total number of 20 patients were shorted from the waiting list meeting the selection criteria. With the help of random number generator, two groups with 10 subjects each were created for conventional brackets (0.022 Slot MBT brackets) and self-ligating brackets (0.022 Slot DAMON prescription) respectively. The patients were blinded regarding the selection of the brackets. The brackets were bonded according to the random number allocation. After the bonding, the periodontal parameters i.e. gingival index (GI), plaque Index (PI) were measured again at an interval of 60 (T1) and 120 days (T2). Periodontal indices were calculated by summing the mean score of each examined tooth and dividing by the number of the evaluated teeth. Data collection was done with the help of a periodontal probe. All the records were taken by the same periodontist to avoid inter-examiner variability. To reassure that there is no any intra-examiner variation for periodontal status, the same periodontist re-measured the periodontal parameters again of 10 individuals selected randomly after 7 days from the initial measurements. To examine the intra-examination variability, Dahlberg’s formula was used between the two readings taken at a span of 7 days of the same subjects. The mean value of Plaque index and Gingival index was checked for normal distribution applying Kolmogorov- Smirnov test. One-way ANOVA test was applied for comparison between and within groups for plaque index and Gingival index during three different period in Conventional brackets and Self-ligating brackets. Post hoc Bonferroni test was applied for multiple comparison. Independent t-test was applied for comparison between conventional brackets and self-ligating brackets to compare the plaque index and gingival index. All data were test were analyzed at P&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>There was no any significant difference between T0 and T1 and between T1 and T2 in both the conventional brackets and self-ligating brackets. However, there was statistical difference between the time period from T0 to T2. There was also no any significant difference between conventional bracket and self-ligating brackets in terms of plaque index and gingival index.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There are no advantages of self-ligating brackets over conventional brackets in terms of periodontal status.</p> Manish Bajracharya, Dr Ranjita Shrestha Gorkhali, Dr Abhilasha Khanal, Dr Neesha Shrestha, Dr Umesh Parajuli, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 6 12 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28403 Evaluation of Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticle Coated Stainless Steel Band Material – An In vitro Study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28404 <p><strong>Correction:</strong> On 23<sup>rd</sup> April 2020, corrections were made to page 16:</p> <p>The caption of Figure 6 (p.16) was changed <strong>FROM</strong> Figure 4: Petridishes showing Lactobacillus colonies of control samples at (a) 24 hours, (b) 48 hours and (c) 1 week <strong>TO</strong> Figure 6: Petridishes showing streptococcus mutans colonies of control group at (a) 24 hours, (b) 48 hours and (c) 1 week.</p> <p>The caption of Figure 7 (p.16) was changed <strong>FROM</strong> Figure 5: Petridishes showing Lactobacillus colonies of test samples at (a) 24 hours, (b) 48 hours and (c) 1 week <strong>TO</strong> Figure 7: Petridishes showing Streptococcus mutans colonies of test samples at (a) 24 hours (b) 48 hours and (c) 1 week.</p> <p><strong>Abstract<br></strong><strong>Introduction: </strong>Decalcification, caries, inflammatory periodontal disease are the most common iatrogenic effects of orthodontic treatment because of failure to maintain proper oral hygiene. Although various methods have been tried to minimize the incidence of white spot lesions, none of them proved to be effective. The purpose of this study was to develop a hard coating of silver nanoparticles on stainless steel band material and to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy against most common cariogenic pathogens.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Method: </strong>Stainless steel band material was cut into 45 pieces of about 0.5 x 1 cm in dimension, of these 25 band material strips were coated with silver nanoparticles using thermal evaporation technology in a Vacuum coating unit (Indovision, India) at a vacuum of 4.5 ×10<sup>−5</sup> millibar at 961°C for 5 minutes and remaining strips served as control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of coated band material showed a uniform deposition of silver nanoparticles of about 18.63 percent by weight. Five coated and five uncoated band material strips were utilized for each test to evaluate the antibacterial effect of the coated band material against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus using zone of inhibition and direct contact test. In zone of inhibition test, the bacterial growth inhibition zone was measured after a period of 24-48 hours, where as in direct contact test, the number of bacterial colonies were counted after 24 hours, 48 hours and 1 week. Five coated band materials were immersed separately in a container having 5 ml of artificial saliva and the amount of silver nanoparticles released from coated samples was evaluated after 24 hrs, 48 hrs, and 1 week using atomic absorption spectrophotometer.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>A stable uniform coating of silver nanoparticles on the band material was obtained by physical vapor deposition. The coated band material showed a potent antibacterial activity against L.acidophilus and S.mutans. The maximum amount of silver nanoparticles released from the silver nanoparticle coated band material was 0.0236 ± 0.0067 ppm, which is below the maximum permissible level set by WHO [0.1 mg /l], proving it as biocompatible.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Silver nanoparticle coating on orthodontic band surfaces can provide suitable antimicrobial activity during active orthodontic treatment.</p> S Hima Bindu, Dr S V Kala Vani, Dr G Nirisha, Dr N Madhuri, Dr B Sai Deepa, Dr S Hemadri, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 13 19 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28404 Hyoid Bone Position in Orthodontic Patients https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28405 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Hyoid bone is attached to mandible and cranium by different ligaments and muscular attachments and plays important role in maintaining of functions of oral cavity such as posture of tongue. Hyoid bone is attached to mandible and cranium by different ligaments and muscular attachments and plays important role in maintaining of functions of oral cavity such as posture of tongue.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Method: </strong>Study was carried out in Nishtar Institute of Dentistry, Multan in May-June 2019. Lateral cephalogram of 113 patients were taken from orthodontic department and drawn by using 3H pencil and acetate matte sheets. Skeletal malocclusions were distributed into Class I, Class II and Class III on the bases of ANB angle. Hyoid bone position was determined using method devised by Bibby and Preston. IBM SPSS was used to assess the statistical data and mean, correlations and one sample t-test were applied.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Data shows that in population of Multan, Pakistan, hyoid bone is posterior and downward in position and lies close to mandibular plane. Mean value of C3-H, Hyoid angle and H-RGn was 28.76mm ± 4.01mm, 15.26º ± 5.85º and 33.6mm ± 6.12mm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is concluded that hyoid bone is positioned more downward and backward direction in Skeletal Class I cases from given sample, moderately in Class III and less in Class II cases.</p> Faisal Rasheed, Dr Zubair Hassan Awaisi, Dr Muhammad Inam Elahi, Dr Abid Hussain Kanju, Dr Zeenat Naz Sahito, Dr Junaid Dayar, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 20 22 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28405 Prevalence and Distribution of Dental Anomalies among Orthodontic Patients of Kathmandu, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28407 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Dental anomalies are commonly seen during regular dental check-up. It occurs due to abnormal morphodifferentiation of teeth during different stages of tooth development. The purpose of this study was to find out the of dental anomalies among orthodontic patients of Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Method: </strong>A total of 601 patients (242 males and 359 females) of aged 10 to 35 years (mean age= 16.42±3.42 years) who require orthodontic treatment were selected. The patients were assessed clinically and dental panoramic radiographs were evaluated for disturbance in number and other anomalies. A chi-square test was used to determine the difference in the prevalence of dental anomalies between genders and among different classes of malocclusion.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The prevalence of dental anomalies was 15.3% that is 92 participants were exhibited at least one dental anomaly among 601 orthodontic patients. Among dental anomalies, hypodontia was the most prevalent (7.48%) followed by hyperdontia (2.99%), microdontia (2.16%), macrodontia (0.66%), transposition (0.66%), taurodontism (0.49%), double teeth (0.33%), amelogenesis imperfecta (0.33%) and dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.16%). The prevalence of oligodontia was 0.33%. There were no statistically significant difference in prevalence of anomalies in between gender and among different classes of malocclusion.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Prevalence and distribution of some dental anomalies in orthodontic patients of Kathmandu differed from other studies. Maxillary lateral incisor was the most commonly missing and microdontic tooth. Orthodontists have the responsibility to observe each patient carefully for dental anomalies to correct or improvise this condition without any complications.</p> Sanjay Prasad Gupta, Dr Shristi Rauniyar, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 23 28 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28407 Oxidative Stress Levels in Orthodontic Patients and Efficacy of Antioxidant Supplements in Combating Its Effects- A Randomized Clinical Study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28409 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Orthodontic appliances are considered to be biocompatible although adverse effects attributed to release of nickel ion which are free radicals in oral cavity. These free radical produce damages both in cellular and extracellular components phospholipid membrane, proteins, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA leading to Oxidative stress which is normally counter balanced by the action antioxidant mechanisms. However in higher concentrations of free radicals resulting in cellular death and apoptosis Orthodontic appliances such as brackets, wire, resins has considered as potential allergen leading to release of free radicals. The study was conducted to determine and compare the role of oxidative stress and role of antioxidants in saliva of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic appliances therapy at different time intervals.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Method: </strong>A double-blinded, parallel, randomized clinical study was designed consisting of 40 healthy participants, aged 15-30yrs. The samples were divided into two groups Group A without antioxidants supplements and Group B with antioxidants supplements. Salivary MDA levels and gingival health index was recorded at different time intervals from each group. Salivary Lipid peroxidation (Malondialdehyde) level was estimated using Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method and gingival status was investigated using Silness &amp; Loe gingival index. Intragroup and intergroup comparison was statistically analyzed using student’s paired T test.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Increased salivary MDA levels and mild to moderate amount of gingivitis is seen in both groups. This is more pronounced after 24 hours of appliance placement. Improvement in salivary MDA levels and gingival health status is observed during the course of treatment, In Group B the salivary MDA levels and gingival health index score reached below their pretreatment values. However even after a span of 3 months the levels remained higher to their base values in Group A.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Improvement in salivary MDA levels and gingival health status is observed following antioxidant therapy during course of treatment, indicating combating nature of antioxidant supplements in orthodontic patients.</p> Sheetal Yamyar, Dr Suchita Daokar, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 29 34 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28409 Structured Quiz for Teaching of CVM Stages to the Undergraduate Orthodontic Students https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28410 <p>&nbsp;<strong>Introduction: </strong>There are several methods of teaching out of which didactic lectures and student centered lecturesa re commonly practiced all over the world in medical and dental schools. The aim of the study was to find out the impact of introducing structured quiz as a method for teaching of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages to the undergraduate orthodontic students.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Method: </strong>Current study was conducted on 30 undergraduate orthodontic students of final year. Duration of Study was 2018-19. Initial MCQs test was followed by the lecture and hands-on on quiz pattern and this was followed by the MCQs final-tests. The scores were calculated and presented in form of mean. Student paired t test was applied to compare the initial-test quiz scores with final-test quiz scores.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Results showed significant differences between initial-test and final-test which showed a significant improvement.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The introduction of structured quiz as a method for teaching of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages resulted in significant improvement in the knowledge of undergraduate orthodontic students.</p> Muhammad Azeem, Dr Arfan Ul Haq, Dr Zubair Hassan Awaisi, Dr Ambreen Afzal Ehsan, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 35 37 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28410 Pattern of Impacted Mandibular Third Molar in Patients Presenting to Tertiary Care Hospital in Chitwan, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28412 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Impacted third molars are a major cause of visit to the oral surgeon and are associated with various complications like pain, inflammation of associated soft tissue and trismus leading to a need for their surgical removal. They are widely classified on the basis of angulation, depth and position as evident from orthopantomogram however they present in a diverse panorama of patterns each presenting different level of difficulty and different techniques for their removal. Our study describes different pattern of impacted lower third molars and perform brief literature review of dental and skeletal implications of impacted third molars.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Method: </strong>A retrospective study was designed in which 401 orthopantomogram were examined and the sex of patient, side of impaction and winters angulation based classification, depth and position classification as given by Pell and Gregory were recorded. Descriptive data analysis was performed with SPSS version 24 software.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Out of total number of impactions 191(47.6%) were in females and 210(52.4%) were in males. Right sided impaction was seen in 199(49.6%) cases and 202(50.4%) were seen on left side. Mesioangular impaction was most common 203(50.6%) followed by distoangular 97(24.2%), horizontal 51(12.7%) and vertical 17(4.2%). Most common depth level of impaction was level I with 203(50.6%) followed by level II 178(44.4%) and level III 20(5%). Most common position was position B 355(88.5%) followed by position A 43(10.7%) and position C 3(0.7%). The most common pattern was IB (n=170) and IIB (n=166).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The most common impaction is mesioangular followed by distoangular and horizontal. Most of the impacted third molars are in moderately difficult position.</p> Ashutosh Kumar Singh, Dr Safal Dhungel, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 38 42 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28412 Evaluation of Cranial Base Morphology of Pakistani Population in Skeletal Class I, II and III Malocclusions https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28413 <p>&nbsp;<strong>Introduction: </strong>Cranial Base integrate different patterns of growth in various regions of the skull such as the nasal cavity, the oral cavity, and the pharynx. Anteroposterior jaw position is thought to be affected by cranial base growth. Although scientific literature shows conflicting results regarding both positive and negative correlation between the cranial base and skeletal malocclusions.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Method: </strong>138 patients selected according to the Inclusion criteria were divided into three major categories depending upon ANB angle. Class I, class II group and class III group. Pretreatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken. Linear and Angular measurements were measured. All the data was entered in SPSS version 25 and then analyzed by using descriptive statistics including mean, standard deviation and by using inferential statistics including Pearson correlation and ANOVA test.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>No significant differences were recorded between cranial base deflection angles (N-S-Ar and N-S-Ba) and malocclusions groups while Anterior cranial base length S-N was found to be maximum in class III and posterior cranial base length S-Ba was greater in class I.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Cranial base angles N-S-Ar and N-S-Ba did not demonstrate any statistically significant correlation with three malocclusion groups i.e. Class I, Class II and Class III and their correlation was negative.</p> Faizan Alia, Dr Rabia Aziz, Dr Amna Malik, Dr Hadiqa Afzal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 43 46 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28413 Delaying Premolar Extraction for Conservation of Anchorage: A Prospective Case Control Study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28414 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Anchor loss (AL) is the most common side effect of orthodontic treatment. Anchorage planning is the vital step of every orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of anchor loss of maxillary first permanent molar in early v/s delayed premolar extraction cases treated using fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Method: </strong>Sixty orthodontic patients, having either Class I or Class II Division 1 malocclusion with no or minimal crowding were divided equally into early extraction and the delayed extraction group (30 each). The patients were treated using MBT prescription 022” slot brackets with standard wire sequencing until 0.019”x 0.025” stainless-steel wire. Pre and post levelling study models were used for assessing the amount of space loss using palatal rugae as a stable point from the points marked on the 1st molar (point A on mesiobuccal cusp and point B on the distobuccal cusp). The obtained data was tabulated and was subjected to statistical t test (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The distance of point A to the 3rd rugae reduced after treatment by 0.39mm (3.4%) and by 0.48 mm (3.24%) in delayed and early extraction groups respectively. Similarly, the distance from point B was reduced by 0.48 mm (3.24%) and by 1.77mm (6.28%) in delayed and early extraction group respectively. The change in point A and point B in Early extraction cast group was 76% and 71% more respectively than the delayed Extraction cast group. All the findings were statistically significant (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Anchor loss is an inevitable after effect following premolar extraction. Greater chances of anchor loss in early extraction group is noted. And delaying premolar extraction in cases with mild crowding (&lt;4mm) can effectively help in anchorage preservation.</p> Tarulatha R Shyagali, Dr Tanvee Tiwari, Dr Abhishek Gupta, Dr Rishi Joshi, Dr Anil Tiwari, Dr Pushp Raj, Dr Ruchi Jha, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 47 51 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28414 Correlation between Chronological Age, Cervical Vertebral Maturation and Fishman’s Skeletal Maturity Indicators in Central India Population https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28415 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Skeletal maturity indicators are very important indicators when diagnosing and panning the treatment in growing population. Cervical Vertebrae Method (CVM) and Fishman’s Skeletal Maturity Indicators are two commonly used methods for the diagnosis and treatment planning. The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between cervical vertebral maturation (CVM)and Fishman’s hand-wrist skeletal maturity indicator and chronological age by including subjects within the range of circumpubertal growth spurt in Central India.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Method: </strong>One Twenty Five contemporary hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs from population of Central India were randomly selected and analyzed. All subjects were within the circumpubertal period i.e. female subjects were between 10 and 15 years of age, and the male subjects were between 12 and 17 years of age. The hand-wrist bone analysis was evaluated using the method developed by Fishman whereas cervical vertebra bone analysis was evaluated using the method developed by Baccetti and co-workers. These two methods and chronological age were correlated using the Spearman rank correlation analysis.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>CVM was significantly correlated with hand-wrist maturation (r=0.8868). However low correlation was found between the CVM and chronological age( r =0.7139) and little correlation was found between the HWM and chronological age ( r =0.6892).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth during the circumpubertal growth period and has a high correlation with the HWM for the Central India population. However chronological age is not suitable to measure skeletal maturity as shown by the low correlations found between the chronological age and both CVM and HWM.</p> Natasha Patil, Dr Neha Maheshwari, Dr Rohit Sharma, Dr Shashank Soni, Dr Ashish Kushwah, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 52 56 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28415 Comparison of Orthodontic Treatment Duration Among Extraction Versus Non Extraction Therapies https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28416 <p class="Default"><strong>Introduction:</strong> Orthodontic treatment is usually perceived as a lengthy treatment as average treatment time usually last more than a year and may go up to even five years. So, in orthodontic practice the optimum treatment result with minimal treatment time should be the goal of clinicians. Treatment duration varies based on different clinico-environmental factors.</p> <p class="Default"><strong>Materials &amp; Method:</strong> Total 200 cases were randomly selected from the archives of debonded treatment records from the department of orthodontics, Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Teaching Hospital. Out of the 200 records, 103 records were fit for the study based on previously set inclusion and exclusion criteria. The selected cases were divided into three different groups: extraction n= 28 (extraction of 4 premolars), partial extraction= 19, (extraction of 1-3 teeth) and non-extraction n=56. Furthermore, the cases were also divided into Class I, II and III malocclusion patterns. After doing the test of normality, descriptive statistics, independent samples t test and ANOVA test were performed to compare the treatment duration with respect to gender, malocclusion pattern and treatment modalities.</p> <p class="Default"><strong>Result:</strong> Out of the 103 selected cases, maximum number of cases were of Class I(60) followed by Class II(37) and Class III(6). There was no statistical significance on treatment duration among male and female subjects (p= 0.933) as well as among different malocclusion pattern ( p= 0.255). On the contrary, there was statistical difference on treatment duration among non extraction, partial extraction and extraction groups ( p=0.0004). The average treatment duration for non extraction, partial extraction and extraction group were 22, 28 and 29 months respectively.</p> <p class="Default"><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Orthodontic treatment duration is shorter for therapies done by non extraction than extraction. The average treatment duration for non extraction and extraction therapy is 22 and 29 months respectively. The treatment duration is not affected by gender and type of malocclusion.</p> Dashrath Kafle, Dr Rajeev Kumar Mishra, Dr Ravi Kumar Mahto, Dr Sanjeev Luintel, Dr Suja Shrestha, Dr Samikshya Sangroula, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 57 60 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28416 Comparison of Knowledge and Attitude Towards Orthodontic Treatment Among High School Students https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28418 <p class="Default"><strong>Introduction:</strong> Adolescence is the time when a person attains awareness including the self-awareness about his/her health. Hence if proper knowledge is instilled during this time, it will be effective and good oral health behavior can last lifetime. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and attitude towards orthodontic treatment among the students of public and private schools and compare between them.</p> <p class="Default"><strong>Materials &amp; Method:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was performed among 700 students (350 from private and 350 from government schools around Kathmandu valley) of grade 8-10. Questionnaire consisted of 14 questions about knowledge and 10 questions about attitude relating to orthodontic treatment. Each response as “yes” was given score ‘1’ and responses “no” and “don’t know” were given score ‘0’. Total score was calculated, followed by mean and compared between that of private and government schools and between genders.</p> <p class="Default"><strong>Result:</strong> No significant difference was found in the knowledge between the students of private and government schools. The difference in attitude score was found to be statistically significant (p=0.00). 54.29% of participants had never heard of an orthodontists, 48.57% never thought that crooked teeth have ill effects, and around 50% of participants were not aware that orthodontic treatment would improve the facial appearance. 47% of participants would not undergo treatment if it took 1-2 years, 53% would not agree for extractions and 42% were not willing to wear retainers.</p> <p class="Default"><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The knowledge and attitude level on orthodontics can be improved by incorporating the basic aspects of oral health in the syllabus of school education.</p> Jyoti Dhakal, Dr Manish Shrestha, Dr Meenu Shrestha, Dr Asal Acharya, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 61 65 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28418 Prediction of Combined Mesiodistal Width of Unerupted Permanent Canine and Premolars using Moyer’s Mixed Dentition Analysis in Nepalese Newar Population https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28419 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Moyer’s probability table is most commonly used to predict the mesiodistal width of permanent canines and premolars in mixed dentition. However, the table was formulated using data from Caucasian population. This study was performed to compare the Moyer’s prediction table with actual value in Nepalese Newar population as ethnicity is one of the important factor to determine teeth width.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Method: </strong>Combined mesiodistal width of permanent canine and premolars were measured in 150 study models of Nepalese Newar orthodontic patients (75males and 75 females). The value was compared with the Moyer’s prediction table at all probability level.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>There was no statistically significant difference between the actual combined width and that predicted from Moyer’s table at 85% probability level for maxilla and at 75% level for mandible in male, at 95% probability level for maxilla and at 85% probability level for mandible in female.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Moyer’s probability level can be used to predict the combined mesiodistal width of permanent canines and premolars in Nepalese Newar population but at specific probability level.</p> Amrita Shrestha, Dr Dilesh Pradhan, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 66 70 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28419 Allergies in Orthodontics: From Causes to Management https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28420 <p>Concern about allergic reactions in orthodontic patients has been expressed regularly. Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances are exposed to various biomaterials. Awareness of reactions that can occur with these dental materials is important to the orthodontist. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. Diagnosis and treatment should include a multidisciplinary team. In all instances, the patient’s well-being should guide treatment decisions, and general health not just oral health should be the goal.</p> Raj Kumar Singh, Dr Nishant Gupta, Dr Varun Goyal, Dr Gurkeerat Singh, Dr Ankit Chaudhari, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 71 76 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28420 Management of Skeletal Class II Malocclusion in Non-Complaint Patient using Powerscope - A Case Report https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28421 <p>Class II malocclusion in pubertal phase presents a major and a common challenge to orthodontists. Proper diagnosis and treatment planning in early stage help in preventing and intercepting the severity of malocclusion. In pubertal phase skeletal Class II malocclusion due to mandibular retrusion are best treated with functional appliance. In recent time PowerScope fixed functional appliance is gaining immense popularity as noncompliant Class II corrector. In the present case report an adolescent male patient having Class II division 1 malocclusion with functional jaw retrusion was treated using MBT 0.022” prescription and PowerScope appliance. 7-8 months of PowerScope wear obtained stable and successful results with improvement in facial profile, skeletal jaw relationship and mild increase in IMPA. It can thus be concluded that PowerScope gives good results in Class II correction with a combination of patient comfort and ease of use that was unmatched among other appliances</p> Akram Ansari, Dr Abhay Kumar Jain, Dr Ankit Singh, Dr Priya Sharma, Dr Muneeb Adil, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 77 81 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28421 Correction of Anterior Vertical Dysplasia by using Tongue Crib Therapy in An Adult Patient -A Case Report https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/OJN/article/view/28422 <p>A female patient of 26 years reported to the Department of Orthodontics, with a chief complaint of spacing between upper and lower front teeth. Patient has a habit of thumb sucking during night time since last 24 years. On extra oral examination she has mesoprosopic facial form, competent lips, bilaterally asymmetric face, convex profile, acute nasolabial angle, high clinical FMA. Intra oral examination reveals anterior open bite with Angle’s Class I molar relation and class I canine relation, proclined upper and lower anterior teeth slightly crowded. Cephalometrically skeletal class II malocclusion, vertical growth pattern with bidental proclination with 10 mm openbite. Detailing treatment strategies such as bracket repositioning, occlusal adjustment,<br>and elastics were used</p> Kratika Mishra, Dr Amit Bhardwaj, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 2 82 87 10.3126/ojn.v9i2.28422