Our Nature https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON <p><em>Our Nature</em> is the journal brought out by the Nature Conservation and Health Care Council. <em>Our Nature</em> places a special emphasis on research papers, miscellaneous notes, and book review in all fields of biological sciences. It also includes papers in the general fields of theoretical, experimental and descriptive ecology and environmental science.</p> Nature Conservation and Health Care Council en-US Our Nature 1991-2951 Perception of transhumant herders on climate change and their adaptation strategies https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/43578 <p>Climate change is becoming one of the greatest challenges of our times questioning the survival of humanity and the coexistence of biodiversity. Its impact is realized globally in aspects of climate-induced disasters, water stresses, rangeland, agricultural, and food production. This case study confers the extent and impact of climate change on transhumant herders along with their coping strategies in Lho and Sirdibas of Chumnurbi Rural Municipality, Gorkha. Focus group discussion, key informant interview, and questionnaire survey were carried out in two wards covering herder's perception towards various climatic variability, impacts on transhumance system, and adaptation strategies undertaken for resilience. Data were analyzed using descriptive, inferential statistics and GIS such as percentage, frequency, weighted mean, index of relative ranking, Chi-square test, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI), etc. were presented in figures and charts. This study showed that temperature is rising and precipitation is falling in the rural mountainous areas along with a decrease in snow cover and an increase in vegetation cover over a period of time. Seasonal movement of livestock is mainly guided by the search of forage resources and for adjusting the temperature. The impacts such as the decrease in pasture resources, increase in drought, decrease in agricultural production, etc. were perceived by the herders. Adaptation strategies such as the seasonal movement of livestock, diversification of income sources, and grazing resources were most noticed. Most of them were autonomous based on indigenous knowledge and innovation. The study recommends that the perceived changes and possible impacts of climate change to the transhumance systems need to be monitored scientifically over time. Further, more programs and policies should be developed for the resilience of the community.</p> Mahesh Neupane Rajeev Joshi Dinesh Bhandari Nripesh Awasthi Copyright (c) 2022 Mahesh Neupane, Rajeev Joshi, Dinesh Bhandari, Nripesh Awasthi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-06 2022-06-06 20 1 1 13 10.3126/on.v20i1.43578 Spatial and temporal variation of ichthyo-faunal diversity with relation to environmental variables in the Lohandra River of eastern, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/43605 <p>The present study aimed to examine space and time variation in fish community structure with relation to environmental variables in the Lohandra River. Fish samples were collected based on different habitat representations from March 2020 to February 2021, covering 12 months.&nbsp; Fish sampling took place from 6 am to 9 am.&nbsp; For the fish sampling, two cast nets of different sizes were used, one having a large mesh size of having a mesh size of 1 cm, 5 m diameter, and 5 kg weight and another having 0.5 cm, 3 m diameter, and 2 kg weight, covering 200 to 250m across each station to cover all possible areas. In addition, monofilament gill nets with mesh sizes of 6, 8, and 10 cm were used to capture the fish. In each station, 9-gill nets were left late in the evening (5 pm – 6 pm) and taken out early in the morning (6 am – 7 am) in a sampling distance of 200 - 250m. A total of 1178 specimens representing 72 species belonging to 10 orders and 25 families were documented. An analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) testing for both time (<em>R</em>=-0.25, <em>P</em>&gt;0.05) and space (<em>R</em>=-0.28, <em>P</em>&gt;0.05) showed no significant dissimilarity in fish assemblage structure. Results from the similarity percentage analysis (SIMPER) indicated that the fish species: <em>Cirrhinus reba, Labeo bata, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo boga, Puntius sophore, Salmostoma bacaila, Channa orientalis, Chagunius chagunio, Glossogobius giuris, Labeo caeruleus, Barilius bendelisis, Colisa faciatus, Esomus danricus, Salmostoma acinaces, </em>and <em>Chitala chitala.</em> The CCA revealed that of the selected environmental variables, three parameters namely, transparency, water temperature, and water velocity (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) were found to be influencing factors to determine the fish assemblage structure of the Lohandra River.</p> Prakash Kumar Jamuna Rajbanshi Dipak Rajbanshi Dil Kumar Limbu Copyright (c) 2022 Prakash Kumar, Jamuna Rajbanshi, Jash Hang Limbu, Dipak Rajbanshi, Dil Kumar Limbu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-06 2022-06-06 20 1 14 26 10.3126/on.v20i1.43605 Assessment of rate and drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in the lower-tropical region: a case of Punarbas Municipality, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/44789 <p>Deforestation and forest degradation (D and D), the most imminent threats to the survival of species and the viability of forests as a whole, is crucial to research its rate, as well as the underlying causes. The present study examined the rate and drivers that contribute to D and D in the Punarbas municipality of Kanchanpur district, Nepal. With the help of ArcGIS 10.8, an overall pattern and rate of D and D in the study area was identified using Land Satellite images from two different years (2000 AD and 2019 AD). 11 focus group discussions and 120 household surveys were carried out to collect data on key drivers of D and D. For data collection, stratified random sampling with a sampling intensity of 1% was used, and the Friedman test was applied for one-way repeated measures analysis of drivers by ranks. The study found that the annual rate of D and D of the study area from 2000 to 2019 AD was 0.63% and the major drivers were infrastructure development followed by illegal logging, agricultural expansion, livestock grazing forest fire, fuelwood collection, settlement/ resettlement, alien invasive species, and flood and landslide. Awareness programs are highly suggested to uplift the understanding level of local people, so they can act for themselves in the conservation of their local forest and ecosystem resources.</p> Prajwol Babu Subedi Prakash Ojha Sandeep Mahara Deepak Gautam Copyright (c) 2022 Prajwol Babu Subedi, Prakash Ojha, Sandeep Mahara, Deepak Gautam http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-06 2022-06-06 20 1 27 40 10.3126/on.v20i1.44789 Study of fungal diseases on Swertia chirayita from cultivated fields of Dolakha district, central Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/44951 <p><em>Swertia chirayita </em>is a medicinally and economically important herb of the family Gentinaceae. It is one of the highly traded, traditionally important medicinal plants. Fungal Pathogens corrupt the quality and amount of <em>Swertia chirayita</em> development, and production and cause terrible well-being of plants as well as monetary problem to the traders. This study was carried out to identify some diseases associated with <em>S. chirayita </em>cultivated fields in Bigu, Khartal, and Boch regions of Dolakha district. The samples were collected from selected sites and cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar media for fungal pathogens. During the investigation, five species of fungal pathogens were identified. <em>Alternaria alternata</em>, <em>Colletotrichum gleosporioides </em>and <em>Curvularia </em>sp. were isolated from leaf. They caused <em>Alternaria </em>leaf spot, <em>Colletotrichum </em>leaf blight, and <em>Curvularia </em>leaf spot. Similarly, stem possesses canker disease and root had root canker, <em>Fusarium oxysporum </em>causing <em>Fusarium </em>wilt, <em>Rhizoctonia </em>sp. causing <em>Rhizoctonia </em>root rot. The presence of illnesses in <em>S. chirayita </em>shows the need for proper plant care.</p> Rabindra Thapa Sanjay Kumar Jha Copyright (c) 2022 Rabindra Thapa, Sanjay Kumar Jha http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-06 2022-06-06 20 1 41 47 10.3126/on.v20i1.44951 Fish species composition, distribution and community structure in the Pathariya River of Kailali, Farwestern, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/45207 <p>This study examined the status of fish resources in the Pathariya River, from September 2017 to August 2018 covering four seasons- Autumn (September, October, and November), Winter (December, January, and February), Spring (March, April, and May) and summer (June, July, and August). We used a cast net of 1.5 cm to 2.5 cm and a Gill net having 2-3 cm mesh size, 30-35 feet long and 3-4 feet width, with the help of a local fisherman. A total of 407 individuals belonging to 4 orders, 8 families, 16 genera, and 25 species were collected from Malbhanga, Thakurwdara, Sonalipur, and Dhunganatol of Pathariya River. The majority of the fishes belonged to the family Cyprinidae (53.56%) followed by Bagridae (17.44%), Mastacembelidae (11.31%), Channidae (8.11%), Cobitidae (5.65%), Claridae (1.72%), Nandidae (1.47%), and Siluridae (0.74%). The most abundant species were <em>Puntius ticto, Puntius sophore</em>, and<em> Mystus tengra. </em>The one-way analysis of variance on Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) confirmed that dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, and total hardness were the influencing factors (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) in shaping the fish community structure. The difference in fish assemblage structure and diversity in the Pathariya river are probably related to habitat type, altitude, season, several environmental factors, and anthropogenic activities.</p> Netra Neupane Dipak Rajbanshi Copyright (c) 2022 Netra Neupane, Dipak Rajbanshi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-06 2022-06-06 20 1 48 56 10.3126/on.v20i1.45207 Soil organic carbon stocks in the forests of different continents https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/45219 <p>Carbon stocks in soil vary substantially across the globe depending on the type of forests, their locations, and soil depths. We applied meta-analysis to 64 relevant published data with no restriction of published date, country, and journals. However, it was always kept in mind to include high impacted journals. The aim of this review was to evaluate whether soil organic carbon (SOC) varies with forest types, soil depths, and altitudes. Globally, the SOC stocks in the forests were found in the order of Boreal forest (BF) &gt; Subalpine forest (SAF) &gt; Temperate forest (TeF) &gt; Afromontane forest (AfMF) &gt; Montane forest (MF)&gt; Subtropical forest (SF) &gt; Alpine forest (AF) &gt; Tropical forest (TF) ranging from 64.3 t/ha to 206.6 t/ha, the minimum is in tropical forest and maximum in the boreal forest. The SOC stocks were also found varied with soil depths and forests of different continents too. The maximum value of SOC stocks was 366.94 t/ha in 0-40 cm soil depth and the minimum value was 20.16 t/ha in the 80-100 cm soil depth. Linear relationship of SOC stocks was obtained with altitudes, the value increases along the increasing elevations. In conclusion, SOC stocks varied as forests, soil depths, and elevations as well.</p> Pramila Gachhadar Chitra Bahadur Baniya Tejnarayan Mandal Copyright (c) 2022 Pramila Gachhadar, Chitra Bahadur Baniya, Tejnarayan Mandal http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-06 2022-06-06 20 1 57 69 10.3126/on.v20i1.45219