Our Nature https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON <p><em>Our Nature</em> is the journal brought out by the Nature Conservation and Health Care Council. <em>Our Nature</em> places a special emphasis on research papers, miscellaneous notes, and book review in all fields of biological sciences. It also includes papers in the general fields of theoretical, experimental and descriptive ecology and environmental science.</p> Nature Conservation and Health Care Council en-US Our Nature 1991-2951 <p>Copyright on any research article in the Our Nature is retained by the author(s).</p><p>The authors grant Our Nature a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.</p><p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br />Articles in the Our Nature are Open Access articles published under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a> (CC BY-NC).</p><p>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.</p> Effect of disturbance on plant species diversity in moist tropical forest of eastern Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/21558 <p>Species diversity is a key factor for the stability of ecosystems but the increasing disturbances in tropical forests resulted in the shrinkage of biological diversity. This study was conducted in undisturbed and disturbed stands of Sal (<em>Shorea robusta</em> Gaertn.) dominated moist tropical forest of Sunsari district, eastern Nepal in order to understand the herb, shrub and tree diversity. Present study reported the 47, 16 and 60 species of herbs, shrubs and trees, respectively. The species richness and the Shannon–Wiener index for tree species were higher in undisturbed forest (9.11 and 3.08, respectively), while the Simpson’s index (index of dominance) was higher in disturbed forest (0.11).  On the other hand, reverse case was found for shrubs and herbs where species richness and Shannon–Wiener index were higher but index of dominance was lower in disturbed forest. Changes in species diversity pattern reflect the effect of disturbance.</p> Tilak Prasad Gautam Tej Narayan Mandal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 16 1 1 7 10.3126/on.v16i1.21558 Potential substrates for periphyton enhancement in Carp-SIS polyculture https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/21559 A field trial was carried out to test performance of four locally available substrates (split bamboo, whole bamboo, banana midrib and plastic bottle) for periphyton enhancement in farmer's ponds at Seri and Nandapur in Nawalparasi district for 7 months. Six carp species were stocked at 15000 fish/hectare and SIS at unrecorded densities. Carp was fed with rice bran and mustard oil cake at 1.5% BW while grass carp was fed with grass and banana leaves at 50% BW. There was no significant effect of substrates on growth and production of carp. Combined NFY was 19% higher in plastic bottle ponds than control ponds, while NFY of SIS was 50% higher in banana midrib ponds than control and other substrate ponds. FCR was significantly better (P&lt;0.05) in split bamboo ponds than control ponds. Banana midrib decayed fast and was replaced 3-4 times during experimental period while plastic bottles performed better in terms of production and profit. Sunila Rai Kamala Gharti Madhav Shrestha Rahul Ranjan James Diana Hillary Egna ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 16 1 8 16 10.3126/on.v16i1.21559 Conservation value of Beeshhazari Lake: an insight into diversity and abundance of wetland birds https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/21563 <p>Beeshazari and associated lakes play the vital roles in providing feeding and breeding grounds for a large number of wetland fauna including many migratory birds. Wetland dependent birds in Beeshazari lake system was studied by using Area Search and Scan Sampling methods. We recorded a total of 44 wetland bird species belonging to 11 families and 9 orders. These lakes support a total of 7.5% of globally threatened and 8.93% of the nationally threatened birds. The species diversity and abundance were more in winter than in summer seasons. Fishermen and tourist pressure caused significantly negative impact on abundance and distribution of wetland birds. The major threats to wetland birds in this area were human disturbance, habitat degradation and declining water quality due to eutrophication and invasion of alien plant species such as water Hyacinth and Southern Cutgrass. Therefore, such threats need to be addressed for the long-term survival of wetland birds and extension of conservation value of Beeshazari lake system.</p> Jagan Nath Adhikari Bishnu Prasad Bhattarai Dina Nath Dhakal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 16 1 17 26 10.3126/on.v16i1.21563 Relative condition factor, length-weight relationship and sex ratio of copper mahseer, Neolissochilus hexagonolepis (McClelland, 1839) from Tamor River, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/21569 <p>The present investigation was carried out for establishing the length weight relationship and to enumerate the relative condition factor and the sex ratio of <em>Neolissochilus hexagonolepis</em> from Tamor River, Nepal. Altogether 198 fishes were investigated from December 2014 till the end of November 2016. The sex ratio of the fish was found to be in the ratio of 1:1.2 with female dominating the catch for most parts of the year. Analysis of t-test showed a highly significant relationship (p˂0.05) between length and weight for male, female and sexes pooled. The fish was found to show isometric growth pattern with exponential value (b) equal to 2.962 for sexes pooled. The mean value of Fulton's condition factor (K) for sexes pooled was found to be 1.29 ± 0.49 giving the indication that the general well being of the fish was good. Sudden increase in the value of relative condition factor (Kn) in the size group 30-33 cm in male and 42-45 cm in female indicated their length range during which they showed the sign of maturation for the first time. Steep fall in the value of 'Kn' in size groups 33-36 cm onwards in male and 45-48 cm in female indicated their length range at spent phase.</p> Suren Subba Bharat Raj Subba Vinod Kumar Mahaseth ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 16 1 27 34 10.3126/on.v16i1.21569 Response of mass selection in maize (Zea mays L.) https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/22119 <p>This study was conducted to quantify the progress towards grain yield and agronomic traits in maize genotypes through mass selection. The original maize population and the population derived after five cycles of mass selection were planted for comparison at research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during winter season of 2011-2012. The maize genotypes were Arun-1EV, Arun-4, Pool-17, P501SRCO × P502SRCO, BGBYPOP, Across9942 × Across9944, S99TLYQ-B, S99TLYQ-AB and S01SIWQ-3, respectively. The experiment was laid down in randomized complete block design with three replications. Each replication consisted of 180 rows; 20 rows of each genotypes. The results showed that there was significant reduction in plant height, ear height, tasseling days, silking days, disease severity however significant increment in grain yield. The results showed that phenotypic superiority of the selected population over the original population was obvious.</p> Jiban Shrestha Chitra Bahadur Kunwar Balram Bhandari ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 16 1 35 42 10.3126/on.v16i1.22119 Substitution of chemical fertilizer nitrogen through Rhizobium inoculation technology https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/22121 <p>Nitrogen is one of the most essential elements for plants growth and development. Urea is commonly used as a substitute for chemical nitrogen. <em>Rhizobium</em> inoculation technology for legume crop was evaluated in a number of field experiments comparing with 80kg urea per hectare application. The inoculation and urea application trial showed almost similar biomass accumulation, nodule number and nodule dry weight compared to un-inoculated control. The symbiotic effectiveness with inoculated and urea application showed similar results. The inoculant strains isolated locally from <em>Mucuna</em> <em>pruriens</em> (velvet bean) were found suitable for inoculants production. The bio-technology of inoculation can be a promising and cheap alternative of urea for the legume crops.</p> Som Prasad Paudyal V.N.P. Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 16 1 43 47 10.3126/on.v16i1.22121 Effect of red algal bloom on growth and production of carps https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/22122 <p>An experiment was carried to assess the effect of red algal bloom on growth and production of carp, water quality and profit from carp for 120 days at Aquaculture Farm of Agriculture and Forestry University, Chitwan. The experiment included two treatments: carp polyculture in non-red pond and carp polyculture in red pond with algal bloom each with three replicates. Carp fingerlings were stocked at 1 fish/m<sup>2 </sup>and fed with pellet containing 24% CP at 3% body weight. Net yield of rohu was found significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) in non-red ponds (0.38±0.01 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) than red ponds (0.24±0.05 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). Survival of rohu (84.9±1.4%), bighead (95.2±2.0%) and mrigal (88.1±14.4%) were also significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) in non-red ponds than red ponds. Red algal bloom affected DO, nitrate and chlorophyll-a, nitrite, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total dissolved solids and conductivity. However, overall carp production and profit from carp remained unaffected.</p> Ram Bhajan Mandal Sunila Rai Madhav Kumar Shrestha Dilip Kumar Jha Narayan Prasad Pandit ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 16 1 48 54 10.3126/on.v16i1.22122 Ethnobotanical study of plants used by Thami community in Ilam District, eastern Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/22123 <p>An ethnobotanical survey was carried out on the utilization of plants by <em>Thami </em>communities in Gorkhe, Jogmai and Nayabazar areas of Ilam by interviewing traditional herbalists and different age groups of men and women in June 2016. A total of 30 plants belonging to 24 families and 29 genera have been documented. These plants were used for food, fodder, firewood, medicine and in rituals. The documented medicinal plants were used to treat various human ailments of 12 categories; with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders (15 spp.) followed by ENT problems (14 spp.).&nbsp; Most of the medicines were prepared from underground parts in the form of paste and used orally. Informant Consensus Factor (<em>F<sub>ic</sub></em>) ranges from 0.6 to 0.9 with an average of 0.82. Dermatological disorders have the highest <em>F<sub>ic</sub></em> (0.90) and other categories have the lowest (0.6). <em>Aconitum palmatum</em>, <em>Begonia picta, Bergenia ciliata, Astilbe rivularis, Swertia chirayita, Drymaria cordata </em>and<em> Remusatia pumila</em> have the highest fidelity level (100% each) and <em>Galium asperifolium</em> has the lowest FL (16%). According to the use value, <em>Swertia chirayita</em> (UV=2.83) was the most important with uses against 6 ailments and <em>Hypericum cordifolium</em> has the least (UV=0.08), used in only one ailment. A variation in ethnobotanical knowledge was found according to age, gender and occupation in this community.</p> Krishna Ram Bhattarai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 16 1 55 67 10.3126/on.v16i1.22123 Variation in carbon stock in litterfall, fine root and soil in Sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn.) forests of eastern Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/22124 <p>Global climate change is a major problem generated by increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Forests and their soils are major sink of carbon and thus constitute an effective role in the global carbon cycle. Present study was conducted to quantify and compare the amount of carbon stock in litterfall, fine root and soil between Tarai Sal forest and Hill Sal forest of eastern Nepal. Carbon stock in litter and fine root was estimated by ash content method and in soil by multiplying the value of soil organic carbon, bulk density and soil depth. Carbon stock in litterfall was higher (3.94 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>) in TSF than HSF (3.26 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and in fine root (0-5 mm size) in 0-30 cm soil depth it was higher in HSF (2.76 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>) than TSF (2.19 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>). In soil (0-30 cm depth) the value was higher in HSF (58.23 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>) than TSF (50.81Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>). Tarai Sal forest accumulated higher carbon stock in the litterfall and lower in fine root than Hill Sal forest which was mainly attributed to the amount of litterfall and fine root biomass rather than organic carbon concentration. In Tarai Sal forest the carbon stock in soil was relatively low than Hill Sal forest that may be due to the higher net uptake and mineralization of carbon in the situation of higher growth rate of plant. These outcomes verified that the forest plays important role for mitigation of global warming by storing the atmospheric carbon dioxide in plant parts and the soil. So, it concludes that conserving the considerable quantity of carbon in forests is inevitable for proper forest management.</p> Krishna Prasad Bhattarai Tej Narayan Mandal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 16 1 68 73 10.3126/on.v16i1.22124 Branchial muscles of a Hill-stream Cyprinid fish Neolissochilus hexagonolepis (McClelland,1839) https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/22125 <p>Different branchial muscles associated with the gill arches and gill filaments in a hill-stream cyprinid fish<em> Neolissochilus hexagonolepis</em> have been studied. The main branchial muscles observed are the constrictors branchiales, levatores arcuum branchialium epiarcualia obliqui, epiarcualia recti, subarcualia obliqui, subarcualia recti and subarcualia transversi. In the general plan the branchial muscles of <em>N. hexagonolepis</em> show similarity with those of other cyprinid fishes. However, the fish bears three pairs of coracobranchiales, common to cyprinid fishes.</p> Jawan Tumbahangfe Bharat Raj Subba Archana Prasad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 16 1 74 79 10.3126/on.v16i1.22125 Phytosociology of temperate forest at Tinjure-Milke-Jaljale (TMJ) area, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/view/22133 <p>Tinjure-Milke-Jaljale (TMJ) Conservation Area (Lat. 27°6ʹ57ʺ-27°30ʹ28ʺ N, Long. 87°19ʹ46ʺ -87°38ʹ14ʺ E; alt. 1700-5000 m; area 585.26 km<sup>2</sup>) lies between Arun and Tamor rivers in eastern Nepal. This area is popular for <em>Rhododendron</em>, the national flower of Nepal, and has been recognized by “The capital of <em>Rhododendron</em>”.</p> Bhabindra Niroula Shiva Kumar Rai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 16 1 80 81 10.3126/on.v16i1.22133