Journal of Productive Discourse <p>The Journal of Productive Discourse is an international, not for profit, double anonymised peer-reviewed journal of critical readings across disciplines. It aims to provide teachers, students and learned members of the community an authentic open-access platform featuring scholarly research, reviews and perspectives on the state of current discourse on topics of interdisciplinary interest. It is published by Madan Bhandari Memorial College, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> en-US <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator. </span></p> (Assoc. Prof. Anjay Kumar Mishra) (Sioux Cumming) Mon, 13 May 2024 10:58:47 +0000 OJS 60 Artificial Look: Body Narcissism in the Fashion and Cosmetic Industry <p>Consumers universally engage with cosmetic products in pursuit of bodily perfection, often influenced by prevailing fashion trends dictating societal beauty standards through advertising. Consequently, a woman's body serves as a cornerstone of identity, its alignment with these standards transforming it into a commodified entity. While the fashion industry ostensibly champions feminist ideals of empowerment, its underlying motive remains profit generation. This paper endeavors to explore the commodification of women's bodies within the fashion and cosmetic industries, illuminating its enduring implications. Through a historical analysis spanning from the colonial era to contemporary society, we examine the evolution of the body as a commodity, drawing on secondary sources and available data on beauty standards. Grounded in Saussure's structuralist framework, this study aims to unravel the intricate dynamics underpinning the commodification process and its broader societal ramifications.<br><br></p> Sangita Sigdel Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Sat, 11 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Citizen Charter as Governance Reform Initiative for Quality Services <p>The Citizen Charter (CC) is implemented to enhance the capabilities of local government in delivering services to people. It represents the official commitment to providing quality services to the public, and all service recipients need to have clear and concise information about the services and goods being provided. At the heart of the discussion on governance reform and the CC lies the question of whether public institutions foster the creation, dissemination, and processing of knowledge on the CC, which could ultimately lead to improved service delivery quality. Thus, this study examines the role of institutional factors such as procedural transparency and clarity, timely service delivery, and grievance handling systems in municipal service delivery post-implementation of the CC. The philosophical underpinning of this study adopts a pragmatic approach, utilizing a sequential explanatory mixed method. The findings reveal that there is increasing procedural transparency, and timely service delivery is gradually improving. However, the grievance handling system within the municipality still appears to be weak. It is evident from the study that the implementation of the Citizen Charter as a governance reform practice must address issues of reliability, responsiveness, and accuracy (RRA) to ensure quality service delivery (QSD) at the local level.</p> Sushmita Kaphle Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Sat, 11 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Collaborating a Dependent Business Model: Corporate Social Responsibility - Evidence from India <p>The research concludes that businesses in developing nations, notably India, exhibit a steadfast commitment to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Despite marked advancements in CSR procedures, there remains a judgment for businesses to transcend self-interest and embrace a broader societal perspective. For multinational corporations (MNCs), robust CSR practices are indispensable for upholding their reputational integrity. The research utilizes secondary data of the Net Profit after taxes, CSR Spending and Budget for the Fiscal Years 2017–18 to 2021–22, Share prices for the fiscal years 2017–18 through 2021–22 on the BSE and NSE, and Sector-wise distribution of CSR initiatives from company websites, online databases, and annual reports. The findings suggest that businesses in developing nations, including India, are committed to CSR. While there has been an improvement in CSR practices, businesses are still not consistently going above and beyond or solely focusing on themselves. This study contributes valuable insights into the evolving CSR terrain within India, shedding light on the strides made and the persistent challenges encountered in fostering a symbiotic relationship between corporate profitability and social responsibility. By delineating these nuances, the research seeks to inform stakeholders and policymakers about the trajectory of CSR evolution, thereby fostering a conducive environment for sustainable and responsible business practices. The study provides valuable insights into the CSR landscape in India and the ongoing efforts to integrate responsible business practices.</p> Kriti Sharma, Tara Prasad Gautam Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Sat, 11 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Early Childhood Development Programs in Nepal: Opportunities and Challenges <p>This article presents a comprehensive examination of the contemporary landscape of Early Childhood Development (ECD) initiatives in Nepal, focusing on both their quality and accessibility. Through a meticulous analysis of secondary data, this study scrutinizes the current state of Early Childhood Education and Development (ECED) centers, the pivotal roles of educators, and the efficacy and caliber of ECD programs, thereby elucidating the prevailing opportunities and obstacles. A high-quality ECD program is fundamental in extending developmental prospects to all children, including those facing adversities, by furnishing them with requisite care, support, and safeguarding. Realizing this necessitates concerted efforts from diverse stakeholders, entailing heightened investments in ECD and the advocacy of its developmental imperatives. Paramount among these stakeholders is the family, serving as the primary gateway to ECD interventions, underscoring the imperative for tailored interventions within familial contexts. Moreover, communities wield significant potential in augmenting ECD initiatives. Thus, a decentralized approach to ECD delivery across all strata of governance emerges as imperative. The realization of quality ECD hinges upon the convergence of multifaceted inputs, harmonized across various domains. By fostering synergy among these inputs, ECD programs can achieve their utmost efficacy and impact, thereby fostering holistic child development.</p> Meenakshi Dahal Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Sat, 11 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancing Event Exploration and Engagement: A Social Events Networking Platform Leveraging Cosine Similarity Recommendations and Google Maps Integration <p>This project introduces a Social Events Networking Platform, strategically engineered to streamline event exploration and engagement through the effective utilization of user preferences. With a comprehensive range of functionalities, users can seamlessly navigate and participate in diverse events, while event planners gain the ability to create and manage their own events. At its core, the platform employs cosine similarity recommendation algorithms to analyze user preferences, providing personalized event suggestions tailored to individual likes and interests. This approach significantly heightens the probability of user attendance and interaction. In tandem with the recommendation feature, the platform seamlessly integrates Google Maps API, offering a map functionality that enables users to visualize event locations alongside pertinent details. This feature empowers users to efficiently plan their attendance by considering factors such as proximity and accessibility. The overarching goal is to cultivate a vibrant, interactive community by connecting event enthusiasts with organizers. The platform's reliance on Firebase Cloud Function APIs for CRUD operations, such as post creation, reading, updating, and deletion, ensures robust support. Additionally, the recommendation function, based on cosine similarity, is deployed as an API to Firebase Cloud Function. These APIs empower administrators to perform CRUD operations on events, while users can access events based on location and receive recommendations rooted in their favorite events. By seamlessly integrating event recommendations and location-based information, the platform elevates the overall event discovery and participation experience, rendering it more engaging and personalized for users.</p> Phul Babu Jha, Bidur Nepal, Anjay Kumar Mishra, Naseeb Dangi, Prajwal Bhandari Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Sat, 11 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Influencing Adoption of Two-Wheeler Electric Vehicles in Nepal <p>This study aimed to explore the factors influencing the adoption of two-wheeler electric vehicles (2WEVs) in Nepal during the 2022/23 period. As the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) gains momentum worldwide, understanding the factors driving or hindering their adoption is critical for policymakers, manufacturers, and distributors in Nepal. The study collected data from 387 respondents through an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included several independent variables, such as financial incentives, social reinforcement, environmental concerns, charging infrastructure, and price. These variables were analyzed to determine their impact on the adoption of 2WEVs. Exploratory Factor Analysis was conducted to simplify the factor structure of the data and identify the suitability of the responses. By using correlation and multiple regression analyses, the findings of the study showed that price, financial incentives, and charging infrastructure had a significant impact on EV adoption. Environmental concern and social reinforcement did not show a significant relationship with the dependent variable. To improve the adoption of 2WEVs in Nepal, manufacturers and distributors need to improve their pricing compared to fuel-driven vehicles. It is also necessary to provide financial incentives, such as tax breaks and subsidies, to promote electric vehicle adoption. Additionally, the government needs to upgrade the charging infrastructure to provide convenience for electric vehicle users. Furthermore, as environmental concerns are not a top priority for Nepalese consumers, it is crucial to raise citizens' environmental awareness through educational campaigns and other initiatives.</p> Samulson Neupane, Binju Shakya Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Mon, 13 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Local Governance Based on Citizens’ Opinion Method in Municipalities of Madhesh Province <p>The local-level election took place in 2017, marking the first such event after two decades following the restructuring of Nepal following the new Constitution. Subsequently, a second local-level election occurred in 2022, facilitating the selection of municipal representatives. Over six years, citizens have had the opportunity to benefit from the services provided by the local government (LG), aligning with the constitutional principle of delivering quality services directly to the people. Achieving this objective necessitates a well-established structure, efficient processes, and competent actors, all guided by the principles of good governance. Nepal's performance, as measured by the World Bank based on World Governance Indicators (WGI), has consistently fallen below the global average across six key indicators spanning from 1996 to 2022. Against this backdrop, efforts have been directed towards assessing the status of local governance in the Madhesh Province and offering viable suggestions for improvement to bolster the federal democratic system. Hence, this study focuses on the intellectual community within the province as its sample population. As opinions were collected, the research revealed that local governance in the Madhesh Province falls below the average standard. In light of this circumstance, local governments should enhance and reinforce local governance to support the institutionalization of federalism and democracy. </p> Dev Raj Rai Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Mon, 13 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Social Security Allowances to Single Women: A Case Study <p>This paper assesses the impacts of social security allowances provided by the Government of Nepal to single women and the various associated aspects. This study was based on the socio[1]economic status of single women, the nature of tasks performed, and the perception of society and family towards them, which were observed and studied in Phedikhola Rural Municipality, Syangja, using descriptive research methods and related tools such as semi-structured questionnaires, key informant interviews, and observations. Similarly, accessible relevant published or unpublished materials, existing legal provisions, and information available via online means were also referred to as secondary sources. A higher percentage of single women took part in decision[1]making in household non-financial affairs, but involvement in financial affairs was relatively less. Most of them were occasionally invited to social functions and were relatively more trusted by society. The study concluded that the social security allowance can be an important step in uplifting the socio-economic condition of single women. However, the allowance amount needs to be increased to help single women be more independent, and it is also crucial to ensure that the allowances are received by single women and that the expenses are at her discretion.</p> Suman Kharel, Chandra Parajuli, Prajwal Man Pradhan Copyright (c) 2024 Sat, 11 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Environmental Sustainability Orientations on organizational Performance: A Review <p>This comprehensive review addresses a critical research gap concerning the relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO), Environmental Sustainability Orientation (ESO), and organizational performance. The study advocates for future research to delve into this uncharted territory, providing valuable insights for organizations and policymakers to promote entrepreneurship and sustainable business practices. It suggests a deeper examination of EO, specifically Innovativeness, Proactiveness, and Risk-Taking, as independent variables, alongside organizational performance as the dependent variable. The review emphasizes the pivotal mediating role of ESO, highlighting its strategic significance in differentiating firms and enhancing performance. It affirms the positive influence of EO on ESO, subsequently improving organizational performance. The review stresses the managerial implications of integrating EO dimensions into strategies for a competitive advantage, along with the importance of embracing ESO for reputation enhancement and cost reduction through eco-friendly practices. The study encourages future researchers to explore additional EO variables and utilize diverse data analysis tools to enhance understanding of the intersection of entrepreneurial and sustainability orientations.</p> Anjay Kumar Mishra, Ritesh Kumar Thakur, Sitaram Dhakal Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Sat, 11 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Intersection of ‘Hindu’, ‘Independence,’ and ‘Sovereignty’ in the Nepali Public Discourse of the 1920s <p>This study analyzes the public discourse on Nepal around the 1923 treaty which rested on its central theme of reassuring Nepal’s independence and sovereignty in the comity of nation-states, studying Nepali national imaginative elements of statehood that unravels intricacies of history for the present discourse of Nepali state in a substantial way. The aim is to unpack the treaty’s reception and assess its consequences in shaping Nepali ‘state’ discourse, shedding fresh light on a historical event that has remained largely understudied. Once a treaty is signed, it becomes public property, capable of igniting change in the behavior of the signing nations or the lives of their citizens, or both. Examining how such changes manifested in the public discourse in Nepal and beyond after the 1923 treaty provides valuable insights into the formative democratic space in the country. For this, it employs a triangulation of primary sources from Nepal's domestic discourse as chronicled in the Gorkhapatra. The second set of data is drawn from the sporadic and emergent Nepali media landscape of the 1920s, primarily based in India. Furthermore, a third set of sources is assembled from English-language newspapers from India and the United Kingdom that reported on the 1923 treaty as it unfolded. This approach, hitherto unapplied in the study of this treaty, provides a comprehensive understanding of the public discourse surrounding it.</p> Tika Prasad Dhakal Copyright (c) 2024 Sat, 11 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial Vol.2(1) <p>Not Available</p> Babu Ram Adhikari Copyright (c) 2024 Sat, 11 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000