Researcher: A Research Journal of Culture and Society <p>Official journal of the Research Development Centre, Nepal. Full text articles available.</p> Research Development Centre Nepal en-US Researcher: A Research Journal of Culture and Society 2091-2374 <p class="Default">© Research Development Centre, Nepal</p> BEAUTY AND MYSTERY OF GANDHARA ART <p class="Default"> </p><p> This paper is a short history to establish the location, era and the main actors involved in the creation of a civilization what is generally known as Gandhara. It also includes a brief history of the Art and Architecture of Gandhara as the main feature and the beauty and mystery associated therein. Limitation of the length of paper will keep our discussion on three main centers as below. Necessary visual evidence is also included to justify the Beauty and the Mystery attached to the art of Gandhara for which this paper is initiated. Fact of the matter is that hundreds of books are written on Gandhara Civilization but this point “Beauty and Mystery of Gandhara” has hardly been addressed. This paper is therefore an attempt to fill the gap long felt by the author and last but not the least this paper is dedicated to the love and affection to the artwork of the monks who produced the Master Pieces of Gandhara, both in Stone and Stucco. The analysis is made according to the existing literature and author's own experience and interpretation.</p><p> <strong>Researcher:</strong> <em>A Research Journal of Culture and Society </em></p><p><em>Vol. 3, No. 3, January 2018, Page: 1-12</em></p> Shahid Ahmad Rajput ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 3 3 1 12 10.3126/researcher.v3i3.21546 SACRAMENT AS A CULTURAL TRAIT IN RAJVAMSHI COMMUNITY OF NEPAL <p> Rajvamshi is a local ethnic cultural group of eastern low land Nepal. Their traditional villages are scattered mainly in Morang and Jhapa districts. However, they reside in different provinces of West Bengal India also. They are said Rajvamshis as the children of royal family. Their ancestors used to rule in this region centering Kuchvihar of West Bengal in medieval period. They follow Hinduism. Therefore, their sacraments are related with Hindu social organization. They perform different kinds of sacraments. However, they practice more in three cycle of the life. They are naming, marriage and death ceremony. Naming sacrament is done at the sixth day of a child birth. In the same way marriage is another sacrament, which is done after the age of 14. Child marriage, widow marriage and remarriage are also accepted in the society. They perform death ceremony after the death of a person. This ceremony is also performed in the basis of Hindu system. Bengali Brahmin becomes the priests to perform death sacraments. Shradha and Tarpana is also done in the name of dead person in this community.</p><p><strong>Researcher:</strong> <em>A Research Journal of Culture and Society</em></p><p><em>Vol. 3, No. 3, January 2018, Page: 13-32</em></p> Som Prasad Khatiwada ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 3 3 13 32 10.3126/researcher.v3i3.21547 METAPHYSICS IN THE BHAGAVAD GITA COMPARED WITH THE WESTERN PHILOSOPHIES: A HERMENEUTIC GAZE <p> This article is an outcome of hermeneutical research carried out on the Bhagavad Gita, a core eastern text of Vedic philosophy. The main purpose of this article is to explore philosophical insights embedded in this historical scripture and help the readers to gain its greater understanding and insights. It also searches metaphysical principles consisted in the Bhagavad Gita and provides answer of the questions: what metaphysical principles can be seen in the Bhagavad Gita? How can it be interpreted? How the metaphysical principles of the Bhagavad Gita associates/disassociates with western theories of philosophy? Considering the questions, the Bhagavad Gita provides theory of creation, cycle of creation and destruction and discusses about Brahma element that is seed of creative principles, Atma, Paramatta, the God. It also includes theory of being (existence). In comparison with western philosophy, it comprises wider and in-depth metaphysical principles. In order to interpret metaphysical principles, this article elaborates general introduction of the Bhagavad Gita, general concept of metaphysics and metaphysical principle can be seen in the Bhagavad Gita. It also searches associations/ disassociations of metaphysical principles of the Bhagavad Gita with metaphysics of western schools of thought. Finally, it draws implication and conclusion.</p><p><strong>Researcher</strong>: <em>A Research Journal of Culture and Society</em></p><p><em>Vol. 3, No. 3, January 2018, Page: 33-46</em></p> Janardan Ghimire ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 3 3 33 46 10.3126/researcher.v3i3.21548 TRENDS OF WOMEN'S CANDIDACY IN NATIONAL ELECTIONS OF NEPAL <p> The study area of this article is women's candidacy in national elections of Nepal. It focuses on five national elections held from 1991 to 2013. It is based on secondary source of data. The Election Commission of Nepal publishes a report after every election. Data are extracted from the reports published by the Election Commission and analyzed with the help of the software SPSS. This article analyzes only facts regarding the first-past-the-post (FPTP) electoral system. Such a study is important in order to lead to new affirmative action policies that will enhance gender mainstreaming and effective participation in all leadership and development processes. The findings will also be resourceful to scholars who are working in this field. The findings from this investigation provide evidence that the number of women candidates in national elections seems almost invisible in an overwhelming crowd of men candidates. The number of elected women candidates is very few. Similarly, distribution of women candidates is unequal in geographical regions. Where the human development rate is high the number of women candidates is greater. The roles of political parties of Nepal are not profoundly positive to increase women's candidacy. Likewise, electoral systems are responsible to influence women‟s chances of being elected. FPTP electoral system is not more favorable for women candidates. This article recommends that if a constituency would reserve only for women among three through FPTP then the chances of 33 percent to win the elections by women would be secured.</p><p><strong> Researcher:</strong> <em>A Research Journal of Culture and Society</em></p><p><em>Vol. 3, No. 3, January 2018, Page: 47-62</em></p> Amrit Kumar Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 3 3 47 62 10.3126/researcher.v3i3.21549 STAFF EXPENSES AND ITS EFFECT ON THE BANK'S NET PROFIT <p>The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between a net profit of Nepalese commercial banks with staff expenses and staff bonus. This study is based on panel data which is collected from five sampled banks through the review of the annual report during the study period of fiscal year 2012/13 to 2016/17. These collected data are analyzed by using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, and log-log multiple regression models. The Mini-Tab software is used for the analysis of data. The results indicate that the predictor variable staff expenses do not significantly impact on net profits of the bank even though they are positively correlated. On the other hand, the response variable (net profit) is significantly affected by the predictor variable staff bonus.</p><p><strong> Researcher:</strong> <em>A Research Journal of Culture and Society</em></p><p><em>Vol. 3, No. 3, January 2018, Page: 63-71</em></p><p><em> </em></p> Prem Bahadur Budhathoki Chandra Kumar Rai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 3 3 63 71 10.3126/researcher.v3i3.21550 RECENT TREND OF CHANGE OF FERTILITY IN NEPAL <p class="Default"> </p><p> Fertility is one of the most predominant demographic factors of population dynamics. This article tries to analyze the trend of fertility of Nepal comparing with Global trend and the trends of other SAARC countries. This paper follows the quantitative analysis. The entire scope of discussion in this study is based on secondary sources of data. The results show that both ASFR and TFR have been continuously decreasing since 1990s. The decreasing rate is seen more in between 1998-2005s. Now the TFR is 2.3, so Nepal is in nearer to the replacement level of fertility rate. The marriage in early age is not still reduced remarkably that's why the fertility rate of this age group is not decreased as comparison to other age groups in Nepal. In the beginning, the TFRs of all SAARC countries were more than that of world. But in between past sixty decades, the TFR of this region is remarkably reduced and now it is similar to the world's figure except the Pakistan's. The TFR of Pakistan is still high in comparison to its neighbors. Fertility decline in Nepal has been occurring for several decades to till now. The reduction of fertility is beneficial in many domains, as it opens up completely for new employment and educational prospects for young women. It also creates new manpower for job market which helps to boost the economic growth. But continuous declination of fertility rate below the replacement level is not a good scenario in demography because it causes the negative growth rate of population and increase the dependency ratio.</p><p><strong>Researcher:</strong> <em>A Research Journal of Culture and Society</em></p><p><em>Vol. 3, No. 3, January 2018, Page: 72-80</em></p> Hikmat Bahadur Raya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 3 3 72 80 10.3126/researcher.v3i3.21551 FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION: A TOOL FOR QUALITATIVE INQUIRY <p>This article focused on to explore the concept, use, strengths and weakness of focus groups discussion. It also provides the ideas about searching qualitative information in field setting. This tool has the potential to become a central approach in sociological and educational research, whether focused on the pragmatic end of evaluation or the abstract goal of theory building. Moreover, focus group discussion is an efficient and effective way to gain insights into social process. During focus group discussion, the moderator facilitates all informants in active participation and dig out the richer information.</p><p><strong>Researcher</strong>: <em>A Research Journal of Culture and Society</em> <br />Vol. 3, No. 3, January 2018, Page: 81-88</p> Hom Bahadur Basnet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 3 3 81 88 10.3126/researcher.v3i3.21553