Technical Journal <p>Technical Journal is published by the Nepal Engineers' Association, Gandaki Province, Nepal.</p> en-US <p>© Technical Journal</p> <p>Authors are required to transfer their copyright to the journal.</p> (Er. Keshav Basnet, Ph.D.) (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 14 Feb 2020 14:47:18 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial Message Vol.1(1) <p>No abstract available.</p> Babu Ram Bhandari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Hybrid Approach for Sarcasm Detection <p>There is an excessive growth in user generated textual data due to increment in internet and social media users which includes enormous amount of sarcastic words, emoji, sentences. Sarcasm is a nuanced form of communication where individual states opposite of what is implied which is done in order to insult someone, to show irritation, or to be funny. Sarcasm is considered as one of the most difficult problems in sentiment analysis due to its ambiguous nature. Recognizing sarcasm in the texts can promote many sentiment analysis and text summarization applications. So for addressing the problem of sarcasm many steps have been adopted for sarcasm detection. Different preprocessing techniques such as Hypertext markup language removal, stop words removal, etc. have been done. Similarly, conversion of the emoji and smileys into their textual equivalent has been performed. Most frequent features has been selected and a hybrid cascade and hybrid weighted average approaches which are the combinations of the algorithms random forest, naïve Bayes and support vector machine have been used for sarcasm detection. The comparison of these two approaches on different basis has been done which has shown cascade outperformed weighted approach. Moreover, comparison of cascade approaches in terms of the algorithm placement has also been performed in which random forest has proved to be the best.</p> S. Luintel, R.K. Sah, B.R. Lamichhane ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Hybrid Cryptosystem Developed Using Blowfish and ECC with Different Key Size <p>Hybridization is always done in search of better system which may not be always achieved. But most of the time hybridization has proved to produce a system with advantages of the algorithms used in developing that hybrid system. Even if the system doesn’t have performance enhancement it will act as multi-layer security. Here, combing of Blowfish algorithm along with ECC algorithm is performed. After hybridization their performance analysis is done based on five different parameters with different key size of Blowfish algorithm i.e. 32 bit, 128 bit, 192 bit, 256 bit, 448 bit. Among these different hybrid cryptosystem we found that the Blowfish ECC system with key size 448 bit has better performance than all other bit size.</p> Suresh Timilsina, Sarmila Gautam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Watersheds in Gandaki Province, Nepal Using QGIS <p>Gandaki province has the good potentiality of hydro-electricity generation with existing twenty-nine hydro-electricity projects. Since the Province is rich in water resources, analysis of watersheds needs to be done for management, planning and identification of water as well as natural resources. GIS offers integration of spatial and no spatial data to understand and analyze the watershed processes and helps in drawing a plan for integrated watershed development and management. The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) available on the NASA-Earth data has been taken as a primary data for morphometric analysis of watershed in Gandaki Province using QGIS. Delineation of watershed was conducted from a DEM by computing the flow direction and using it in the Watershed tool. Necessary fill sink correction was made before proceeding to delineation. A raster representing the direction of flow was created using Flow Direction tool to determine contributing area. Flow accumulation raster was created from flow direction raster using Flow Accumulation Tool. A point-based method has been used to delineate watershed for each selected point. The selected point may be an outlet, a gauge station or a dam. The annual rainfall data from ground meteorological stations has been used in QGIS to generate rainfall map for the study of rainfall pattern in the province and watersheds using IDW Interpolation method. The present research work provides some major morphometric watershed parameters like drainage area, flow length, slope, drainage density and rainfall patterns for watersheds in Gandaki Province. Furthermore, the parameters were compared among the watersheds in Kaski. The results of this study can be used as a reference for proposing infrastructures in those watersheds and it can also be used for making policy by local government authorities related to Energy, Water Resources, Irrigation, and Infrastructures.</p> Keshav Basnet, Ram Chandra Paudel, Bikash Sherchan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation between Concrete Compressive Strength and Rebound Number of River Bed and Crusher Run Coarse Aggregate in Pokhara Valley <p>Concrete is principally composed of the mixture of cement, fine and coarse aggregates, and water and widely used for every building structure and other infrastructure. Aggregate has important functions as concrete making materials for the hardness and strength of concrete. The objective of this research was co – relation of compressive strength of concrete with Rebound number of crusher and river bed coarse aggregate in respect to the M20 grade of concrete with nominal mix. For this research, sample were taken from Hemja Crusher (HC), Hemja River Bed (HR), Kotre Crusher (KC), Kotre River Bed (KR) and considering sand from single source and commercially available single brand OPC cement. Fifteen cubes (150 mm × 150 mm×150mm) were cast for each sampled sources and the Compressive strength and Rebound number was determined after 7 days, 14 days and 28 days of curing.</p> <p>In this research, statistical analysis was carried out to determine the best fit curve by using IBM SPSS. Finally the outcomes of this research indicated that the relationship between rebound number and compressive strength curve is liner.</p> Tek Bahadur Katuwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Development of Optimal Tour Time Model for Tourist Destinations in A City: Application in Pokhara City Network <p>When a tourist visits a city, they tend to visit as many touristic places in the city as possible within their time limit. So, for optimization of their limited time budget and allowing them to spend their maximum time in the destination, this paper proposes a model to find an optimal route for the destination points a tourist is interested into. The computer model developed in this paper makes a sub-tour within the original network and search for an optimal tour route hence giving total travel time and total time required to visit desired destinations, and returning back to the place where you started from. The model enables fast decision support for tourists. The model developed is then applied in network of Pokhara and optimal route is found for a sample set of destinations.</p> Purushottam Baral, Jagat Kumar Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Flood Analysis at Ramghat, Pokhara, Nepal Using HEC-RAS <p>Flooding in Ramghat area of Pokhara, Nepal is the major problem that has to be faced every year by the people residing nearby the area. Main goal of this study was to conduct the flood analysis of Seti River in Ramghat. Catchment area of the Ramghat was calculated to be 574.56 sq. km. using ArcGIS where the area above 5000 m elevation was 52 sq. km. and area below 3000 m elevation was 356 sq. km. Precipitation data of two meteorological stations, Pokhara airport and Lumle, were used in this research for the calculation of peak discharge. PCJ method (1996) was used to estimate the peak flood and also compared with the peak flood calculated using Modified Dicken's formula, WECS/DHM method, Rational method and Sharma and Adhikari (2004) method. Peak flood values were found to be 1918 m<sup>3</sup>/s and 2336 m<sup>3</sup>/s by PCJ method for return period of 50 years and 100 years respectively. The HEC-RAS modelling was performed for these flooding situations to determine the water surface profile along the eight cross-sections of the Ramghat. Finally, the floodplain map was prepared using the topographic map and the Google Earth Map. It was found that 50 years flood in Ramghat could inundate three cemetery shades situated along the river banks. Most importantly, 100 years’ peak flood was found more vulnerable for residential buildings too. The flood plain maps prepared in this study can be used by government authorities for planning, decision making, early warning system and disaster risk management. Additionally, the rating curve was prepared for the outlet section of Ramghat that can be used to estimate the river discharge during flooding in future.</p> Keshav Basnet, Deepak Acharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation into mechanical properties to use recycled Polypropylene/Talc composites for car bumper application <p>In today’s modern dynamic world, automobile industry has seen many revolutions and developments over couple of decades to improve the performance and efficiency. One of the major revolutions was to replace metallic components to high performance polymer composites to reduce total weight of automobiles. As a result we can find more than 50% use of polymer composite and other high performance materials in automobiles like passenger car. In addition to this, the present development is towards making low cost models in cars to make it available to middle class families. Many OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturers) are working for different cost cars for same model to sell across the globe based on the economic status of the countries. Also, unlike metals, which are easily recoverable and recyclable, plastic waste increase forces the government to legislate for the limitation of such waste by introducing the concept of recycling. As a result manufacturers are looking for use of virgin polymer (Polypropylene) along with some percentage of recycled one to reduce the total cost of manufacturing.</p> <p>The present recycling world uses used materials; reprocess them so that they can be used for further applications. This recycling business emphasizes on quantity rather on quality, so mechanical properties actually changes when product made out of Polypropylene are being recycled. The thing is to see how the mechanical strength changes when Polypropylene is recycled and what are the variations in mechanical properties when unused Polypropylene (PP) is mixed with some percentage of Recycled Polypropylene (RPP) along with some percentage of Impact Modifier and Filler material.</p> Sulove Timsina ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Natural Disasters Versus Anthropogenic Activities in Nepal Himalayas: Case Study from Ghatte Khola , Myagdi <p>In the Himalayas, geo-hazards are natural events occurring more or less frequently and of a greater or lesser magnitude. But when natural hazards affect people and property, then it becomes disasters. It’s believed that natural disasters as such do not exist. Everything is just natural hazard and anything can turn into disasters due to anthropogenic activities. Thus, natural phenomenons are hazards while disasters are anthropogenic. In this regard, a case study was being conducted in the Ghatte Khola (Dana) of Myagdi District in Western Central Nepal, where in a context of growing population and haphazard construction of infrastructures, natural dynamics have turned into disasters. The Ghatte Khola is an intermittent, right bank tributary of the Kali Gandaki, which behaves occasionally as a debris flow, in relation with slope instabilities that affect its upstream catchment. The debris flows are usually triggered during heavy cloudbursts, and can cause damages and losses downstream, along the wide alluvial fan built at the tributary junction and upon which Dana village (Myagdi District) is settled. Inhabitants are aware of this ephemeral, yet threatening behaviour of the stream that may also affect the Kali Gandaki valley upstream from the confluence (Lat. 28°32'22" N and Long. 83°39'03" E). The Ghatte Khola is often affected by debris flows bringing sediment fluxes that are eroding its banks every year. A motor bridge was being built over Ghatte Khola near the confluence with Kali Gandaki and further, a large electric power station is being built on the right bank of Ghatte Khola. Sadly, the bridge was washed away by the flash flood in Ghattekhola on 25th May 2019. This study was focused on vulnerability of these man made infrastructures and their future on Ghatte Khola debris flow dynamics, with hazard that might occasionally transform into disaster. &nbsp;</p> Narayan Gurung ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Numerical Simulation of a Creeping Landslide Induced by a Snow Melt Water <p>In this study, a finite element based numerical method has been considered to evaluate the creeping behavior of a landslide induced by snow melt water. A two-dimensional elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model was used to simulate the creeping behavior owing to groundwater level fluctuations of the Tomuro landslide of Gunma, Japan as a case study. Two new control constitutive parameters were incorporated in the numerical model for the first time to better understand the creeping behavior of a landslide induced by snow melt water. Such control constitutive parameters are estimated based on the relation between the total factor of safety, calculated by the Janbu's Simplified Method (i.e., Limit Equilibrium Method), and the field monitoring displacement rate of the Tomuro landslide of Gunma prefecture, Japan. The snowfall precipitation was also considered during the calculation of total factor of safety. Others required material parameters for landslide simulation were obtained from the field investigation and laboratory tests of the collected blocked samples. The simulation results of deformation pattern and shear strain pattern were presented and discussed to understand the creeping behaviour of the Tomuro landslide. Moreover, the predicted and measured time histories of horizontal displacement of the Tomuro landslide were compared for the validity of the proposed numerical model, and found in good agreements with each other. Therefore, it is believed that the proposed numerical method will be applicable to understand the creeping behavior of a landslide induced by snow melt water in the future and at the same time, long-term monitoring and management of such landslide will be much easier.</p> D.R. Bhat, A. Wakai ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Optimal Route Computation for Public Transport with Minimum Travelling Time & Travel Cost: A Case Study of Pokhara City <p>In road networks, it is imperative to discover a shortest way to reach the final destination. When an individual is new to a place, lots of time is wasted in finding the destination. With the advancement of technology, various navigation applications have been developed for guiding private vehicles, but few are designed for public transportation. This study is solely concentrated on finding the possible shortest path in terms of minimum time and cost to reach specific destination for an individual. It requires an appropriate algorithm to search the shortest path. With the implementation of Dijkstra’s algorithm, the shortest path with respect to minimum travel time and travel cost was computed. Public transportation network of Pokhara city was taken for the case study of this research. The results of this analysis indicated that when the “time” impedance was used by the algorithm, it generated the shortest path between the origin and destination along with the path to be followed. This study formulates a framework for generating itinerary for passengers in a transit network that allows the user to find the optimal path with minimum travel time and cost.</p> R. Thapa, J.K. Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Performance Analysis and Recognition of Speech using Recurrent Neural Network <p>Speech is one of the most natural ways to communicate between people. It plays an important role in our daily lives. To make machines able to talk with people is a challenging but very useful task. A crucial step is to enable machines to recognize and understand what people are saying. Hence, speech recognition becomes a key technique providing an interface for communication between machines and humans. There has been a long research history on speech recognition. Neural network is known as a technique that has ability to classify nonlinear problem. Today, lots of research are going in the field of speech recognition with the help of the Neural Network. Even though positive results have been obtained from continuous study, research on minimizing the error rate is still gaining lots attention. The English language offers a number of challenges for speech recognition. This paper implements the RNN to analyze and recognize speech from the set of spoken words.</p> Bishon Lamichanne, Hari K.C. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Perspectives of Existing Storm Water Drainage in Pokhara <p>Addressing issues of waste water is one of the key challenges in the context of Nepal. Being in the highest rainfall area, storm water management is even more crucial in Pokhara. Storm water drains were designed and constructed in Pokhara about two decades ago. Total 50 kilometer long storm water drains have been built which covers the core city area of Pokhara. The design considerations were based on the then available references. Much has been changed since that time and the present data will give different drain cross sections. Further, the concept of discharging storm water in to water bodies without making any pollution need to be reviewed in terms of quality aspects. Review of quantitative as well as qualitative features of the storm water drains could enhance its function more effectively.</p> Kishor Kumar Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Power Flow management among PV, BESS and Grid for EV Charging <p>Electric Vehicles (EVs) are the cleanest means of transportation compared to the conventional vehicles. Unlike conventional vehicles, EVs do not depend on petroleum products and thus use of electric vehicle is going to dominate the transportation sector soon. The battery electric vehicles need charging stations for their battery to charge. The proposed topology focuses on power flow management for charging of EV loads. it proposes electric vehicle charging system in which vehicle owners are allowed to park their vehicle in the charging station and EVs are charged up to their desired SOC level. The proposed system promotes penetration of RES to a larger extent which minimizes the kwh cost of grid energy consumption, and hence generating significant economical revenue of the charging station. In this paper, charging station is modeled with PV, battery and grid, and power management strategies are proposed among them. Regulation of load sharing and prevention of mismatch between circulating currents supplied by power sources is implemented using fixed droop method. The trend of power demand by EVs in the charging station is estimated and matching between demand and supply is implemented. Energy storage system is used in order to support continuous power availability in the station. The simulations are successfully implemented to validate the effectiveness of the system and to demonstrate the load management system by the uncoordinated method of charging. The overall system is implemented by algorithm run in MATLAB/Simulink.</p> Menaka Karki, Dol Raj Kunwar, Bijay Sharma, Sunil Paudel, Tanka Nath Ojha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Surface Water Quality Assessment Using Remote Sensing, Gis and Artificial Intelligence <p>The deterioration of surface water quality occurs due to the presence of various types of pollutants from human activities such as agriculture, industry, construction, deforestation, etc. Thus, the presence of various pollutants in water bodies can lead to deterioration of both surface water quality and aquatic life. Conventional surface water quality assessment methods are widely performed using laboratory analysis, which are labour intensive, costly, and time consuming. Moreover, these methods can only provide individual concentration of surface water quality parameters (SWQPs), measured at monitoring stations and shown in a discrete point format, which are difficult for decision-makers to understand without providing the overall patterns of surface water quality. To such problem, Remote Sensing has been a blessing because of its low cost, spatial continuity and temporal consistency. The relationship between SWQPs and satellite data is complex to be modelled accurately by using regression-based methods. Therefore, our study attempts to develop an artificial intelligence modelling method for mapping concentrations of both optical and non-optical SWQPs.</p> <p>This study aims to develop techniques for estimating the concentration of both optical and non-optical SWQPs from Satellite Imagery (Landsat8) which supports coastal studies and mapping the complex relationship between satellite multi-spectral signature and concentration of SWQPs. It will also focus on classifying the most significant SWQPs that contribute to both spatial and temporal surface water quality. In contrast to traditionally performed surface water quality assessment methods, this research project will be focused on identifying such parameters incorporating the new and evolving machine intelligence that is Artificial Intelligence (AI). Significant number of samples have to be collected along with the GPS data which is used to model the relationship. In this context, a remote-sensing framework based on the back-propagation neural network (BPNN) will be developed to quantify concentrations of different SWQPs from the Landsat8 satellite imagery. The study area chosen for this research is Bijayapur River of distance approximately 10 km flowing above, through and down the Pokhara city. The sole purpose of this research is to examine the water quality before it flows through the city and analysing after it passes through the city.</p> A. KC, A. Chalise, D. Parajuli, N. Dhital, S. Shrestha, T. Kandel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Study and Analysis of Pounding Effect between Adjacent RC Buildings <p>Pounding occurs when the adjacent buildings start vibration out of phase during the seismic activity which causes the collision between the adjacent structures. Due to higher cost of land in cities people have tendency to attach the buildings at property line. Earthquakes can cause pounding when adjacent buildings have little gap or no gap providing separation. Due to pounding effect structural and non – structural damage may occur in the adjacent buildings.</p> <p>The main objective of this research is to assess the seismic response of common residential RC buildings that has been constructed with no gap with the adjacent structures and to find the minimum gap requirement for the commonly constructed buildings of Nepal.</p> <p>For this study two different cases with varying separation distance between adjacent buildings have been considered. First case is the adjacent buildings having equal storey height but different number of stories. It includes models having 4 and 2 stories and 4 and 3 stories. Second case is the adjacent buildings having unequal storey height but same number of stories. It includes models having 3 and 3 stories and 4 and 4 stories. In both cases adjacent buildings have same material &amp; sectional properties. Non-linear dynamic analysis is performed using El-centro earthquake data as ground motion. Gap element has been used to simulate the pounding force between buildings. Adjacent buildings having different overall height are modelled in SAP 2000 v 15 using gap element for pounding study. The seismic responses in terms of joint displacement, joint acceleration, pounding force are presented. Joint displacement and joint acceleration comparison for both pounding and no pounding cases are presented.</p> <p>Gap calculation from NBC and IS code, ABS and SRSS method was compared with gap required to avoid pounding force between adjacent structures and appropriate gap was recommended.</p> A.D. Bhatt, G.P. Lamichhane ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Study on the Role of Project Manager in Improving the Project Performance <p>A project manager is the person who has the overall responsibility for the successful initiation, planning, design, execution, monitoring, controlling and closure of a project. Project manager is responsible to complete the project within time, cost and quality towards making the project a success. Construction industry plays an important role in the economy of the country. The industry, however, is beset with many challenges, including delivering projects within cost, time and quality. Therefore project manager is a critical resource in the project to achieve its objectives. Sadly, the role of the project manager is often overlooked. It is assumed that the leadership role of the project manager is measured against time, cost, quality, and customer satisfaction. The importance of this study is to find various roles that project managers ought to play for improving project performance. Good project management practices and competent project managers always deliver better result.</p> Om Prakash Giri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000