The Third Pole: Journal of Geography Education 2018-05-23T16:06:05+00:00 Prof. Dr. Krishna Prasad Poudel Open Journal Systems <p>The Third Pole is designed to disseminate geographical education and provide opportunity to stimulate scholars in contributing the innovative, thought provoking and research based articles to support the development of Nepal and also disciplinary profession.</p> Space of Geography Content in Social Studies of School Education Curriculum in Nepal 2018-05-23T16:05:13+00:00 Krishna Prasad Poudel <p>Social studies education (SSE) is placed among the major academic disciplinary subjects within the school curriculum even from the primary/basic to the secondary level. It is a compulsory subject in the Secondary Education Examination (SEE) as well as it was also in the School Leaving Certificate (SLC) Examination. Importance of the subject itself has no question, despite that the content inside the subject and the delivery of the subject to the student are the major concerns. By the principle, the SSE is the combination of knowledge, skill and values of the society. It is the composition of the academic disciplinary subjects of social sciences, such as, geography, history, sociology, anthropology, civics, economics, psychology, culture including numbers of social issues and agendas in an integrated form including the past events in the study enables and inspires students to understand the present and become the bona fide citizens. The present paper has focused the position of geography content in the social studies of school education curriculum in Nepal. It has been over viewed in the context of content incorporated inside the subject according to the grades from basic to the secondary level and the delivery systems in each chapter. At the end, the final outcomes have been summarized as a form of suggestions to improve the disciplinary development of geography content in the social studies of school education curriculum.<em> </em></p><p><em></em><strong>The Third Pole</strong>: Journal of Geography Vol. 17: 1-20, 2017</p> 2018-05-23T16:05:13+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Changing Rural Livelihood Strategies in the Community of Goljung, Rasuwa 2018-05-23T16:05:20+00:00 Dhyanendra Bahadur Rai <p class="Default"> Different patterns of livelihood are found in different places within same community or different communities over the generation. Therefore livelihood strategy is a changing process of an individual or a household level of economic and social activities in order to fulfill daily livelihood needs. This paper seeks to explore the changing rural livelihood strategies of a community in mountain region of Nepal. The study is mainly based on primary data collected from field survey, focus group discussion (FGD) and key informant interview (KII). Questionnaire survey was conducted within 52 households by applying random sampling method. Likewise five KII and three FGDs were conducted and participants belonged to different field i.e. ward chairperson, ward women member, businessmen, wage labor, farmer and social worker. The finding indicates that livelihood strategies are changing rapidly in the rural areas. Similarly, multiple sources of income of a household have resulted into secured livelihood system in Goljung. Despite the fact that the agriculture with livestock farming was an important traditional source of livelihood in the past, the roles of non-agricultural sectors have become significant for livelihood sustaining in the rural community in Goljung, Rasuwa in the present days. After a decade, development of the hydro-electricity projects and trade route between Nepal and China has played the catalyst role for changing rural livelihoods of local people in this village.</p><p class="Default"> <strong>The Third Pole: Journal of Geography</strong></p><p>Vol. 17: 20-36, 2017</p> 2018-05-23T16:05:20+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Forest Resource Management and Livelihood of Local People in Panchase Area of Western Hilly Region, Nepal 2018-05-23T16:05:28+00:00 Devi Prasad Paudel <p class="Default"> This paper attempts to explore the local people’s perception of forest resources management and identify the contribution of forest resources for the livelihood of local people of Panchase area of western Nepal. Panchase area is very rich in biodiversity and natural beauty. A large part of the Panchase area is covered by forests and pasture land. The settlement of this area is situated in the middle of lower part of the Panchase hill. The study for the paper is based on both qualitative and quantitative methods. Both primary and secondary sources of information were used for this paper. Field observation, focus group discussion, key informant interview and informal discussion were conducted for exploring the local people’s perception of resource management. A checklist was developed for key informant interview and informal discussion with local people in the study area. The relevant published and unpublished documents, books and journal were also reviewed as a secondary source of information for this paper. The paper is descriptive and qualitative in nature.</p><p><strong>The Third Pole: Journal of Geography</strong><br />Vol. 17: 37-50, 2017</p><p class="Default"> </p> 2018-05-23T16:05:28+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Availability and Utilization of Instructional Materials in Teaching Geography in Secondary Schools 2018-05-23T16:05:34+00:00 Keshav Raj Dhakal <p>This study examines the availability and utilization of instructional materials in geography teaching in community secondary schools in Kathmandu district. There are altogether sixteen community secondary schools offering geography as an optional subject. Out of sixteen secondary schools offering geography as an optional subject eight schools are selected for the study on the basis of random sampling. The sample for this study comprised of one hundred seventy four students from selected secondary schools. The survey and observation are used for primary data collection. The data are analyzed using percentage. The results reveal that printed and graphic instructional materials for teaching geography in secondary schools are available and their utilization is of high extent while audio, visual and audio-visual instructional materials for teaching geography are not available sufficiently and they are used less often in the classrooms for teaching geography. The local materials are rarely utilized in schools by the teachers. All stakeholders in education must rise to the challenges of making instructional materials are available and utilized in secondary schools.<strong></strong></p><p><strong>The Third Pole: Journal of Geography</strong> Vol. 17: 51-58, 2017</p> 2018-05-23T16:05:34+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Spatial Variation in the Level of Agricultural Development in Districts of Western Development Region, Nepal 2018-05-23T16:05:39+00:00 Bhola Nath Dhakal <p>In the present paper an attempt has been made to assess the spatial variation in the level of agriculture development in the Western Development Region of Nepal. Nine variables are used in determining the level of agricultural development. Those are net sown area, cropping intensity, crops productivity, irrigated area, use of High Yield Variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilizer (NPK) consumption, agricultural implements, agricultural labours and support from commercial and development banks. Besides, districts are classified as their respective categories viz. high, medium and low on the basis of scores (like mean and SD) of these variables. These analyses have been carried out by transforming and combining the data related to nine variables, using ‘Z’ score to get the composite ‘Z’ score. On the basis of composite score, developments of districts have been again categorized into three categories i.e. high, medium and low. On an aggregate four districts range their composite Z-score value above 0.1, are highly developed districts, six districts fall under medium category (value ranged from -0.25 to 0.1) and remaining six districts lie under low category having their composite Z-score below -0.25.<strong></strong></p><p><strong> The Third Pole: Journal of Geography</strong></p><p>Vol. 17: 59-72, 2017</p> 2018-05-23T16:05:39+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Female Ownership of Fixed Assets in Nepal: A Regional Perspective 2018-05-23T16:05:45+00:00 Shiba Prasad Rijal <p> Fixed assets especially house and land have significant importance in wealth, social security and power in Nepal. Ownership over these assets has greater implications in women’s status within households and communities. This also decides the economic dependence or independence and provides the means to be engaged in productive economic activity. The present study aims at analyzing the regional pattern of female ownership of fixed assets- house and land. Relevant data were acquired from a desk review of published and unpublished literature including online database. The study finds that there is a great gender discrepancy in ownership of fixed assets in Nepal and this varies across ecological zones and provinces. Female ownership of both land and house is associated with 10.7 percent while only 9.0 percent have ownership of land only. Tarai shows relatively positive condition as compared to other ecological zones with female ownership of 12.3 percent households with house and land and 10.5 percent with only land. Among provinces, the most negative situation exists in the province six as compared to others. The socio-cultural barriers are still a major challenge for women’s ownership of property in Nepal.</p><p><strong>The Third Pole: Journal of Geography</strong><br />Vol. 17: 73-82, 2017</p> 2018-05-23T16:05:45+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Social Status and Livelihood Strategies in Rural Area: A Case Study of Sinurjoda VDC, Dhanusha 2018-05-23T16:05:51+00:00 Narayan Prasad Paudyal <p class="Default">Sustainable livelihood is an integrated and holistic concept particularly for addressing poverty. This paper highlights the copping livelihood strategies in Sinurjoda Village Development Committee of Dhanusha district basing the social status of local people. The study is based on primary and secondary sources of data. Qualitative and quantitative methods have been used to analyze the information. The findings of the study apparently revel that due to illiteracy, high family size, deep rooted blind belief on religion and local language, people in the study area do not hold good status in the VDC as compared to the national scenario. Agriculture and livestock farming have been paramount activities of the local people. About 62.30 percent people are involved in this profession. Remittance holds second position in this respect. People seem to be eager to fly abroad specially to gulf countries for employment including India. The study also depicts that this VDC has some (8.93%) squatters who are spending very miserable lives as compared to the people having own land.</p><p><strong>The Third Pole: Journal of Geography</strong><br />Vol. 17: 83-98, 2017</p> 2018-05-23T16:05:51+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Disaster Risk Management: From Preparedness to Response in Thecho of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal 2018-05-23T16:05:57+00:00 Sony Maharjan Shova Shrestha <p class="Default"> Disaster preparedness is one of the component of disaster risk management among Prevention, Mitigation, Preparedness and Response (FAO, 2008) . Earthquake is one of the most destructive natural hazards, which occur at any time causing disaster. The current study explores the status of earthquake disaster awareness and preparedness in ward number 12 of Godawari Municipality (previously, Thecho VDC). The study is based on pre and post-earthquake disaster survey of 25 April, 2015 through household questionnaire survey, KIS, FGD and field observation. The study found that although majority of households are aware and have knowledge of earthquake, preparedness at both household and community level was very low before the earthquake. Saving money was the most practiced emergency preparedness whereas only five percent households have emergency kit for the disaster. The knowledge on awareness and preparedness rose from eighty percent before earthquake to ninety-two percent after the earthquake. Similarly, perception on vulnerability of human loss and physical property rose from seventy-three percent to ninety-five percent. Individual household and community role was identified as key for disaster risk reduction and survival strategy (e.g. arrangement of emergency kit) which rose from five percent to ninety-five percent after earthquake. The study revealed that people were aware and have knowledge on earthquake disaster but preparedness strategies are not implemented neither existed any disaster response plans at household or community level. People’s risk acceptance and preparedness is determined by direct event experience in contrast to risk perception of potential disaster. Earthquake risk reduction and implementation of the action plan at community level is important. It is concluded that media and local organizations could play major role in awareness on preparedness whereas individual household and community are key for implementing the preparedness strategies to reduce disaster loss and damage. Knowledge, awareness and preparedness at individual household level are key and most effective for reducing earthquake vulnerability at local level.</p><p><strong>The Third Pole: Journal of Geography</strong><br />Vol. 17: 98-108, 2017</p> 2018-05-23T16:05:57+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##