The Third Pole: Journal of Geography Education <p>The Third Pole is designed to disseminate geographical education and provide opportunity to stimulate scholars in contributing the innovative, thought provoking and research based articles to support the development of Nepal and also disciplinary profession.</p> Department of Geography Education, Tribhuvan University en-US The Third Pole: Journal of Geography Education 2392-4322 Development of Pilgrimage Tourism in Pashupat-Kshetra at Different Festivals <p>Pilgrimage tourism is a holistic phenomenon which provides religious and secular foundations for the development of tourism sites. This paper aims to analyse the development of pilgrimage tourism in Pashupat-Kshetra, a holiest place of Nepal situated in the Kathmandu valley. Pashupat-Kshetra is the place of Lord Shiva and an important pilgrimage site especially for the Saivism community. Shaivism is considered as the most ancient religion of Aryans and Hindus. Lord Shiva is known as the owner of the open field and the husband of the animal or Pashupat. Overtime, Pashupat became special name of Pashupati as a symbolic name of Lord Shiva. This paper has used mixture of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Relevant information were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected from field survey through counting of tourist flow, observation, tourist interactions and key informant survey. Secondary data were collected from published and unpublished documents including Shivapuran and e-resources. The findings show that thousands of pilgrims come to visit Pashupat-Kshetra from different countries. They not only visit for Shiva Lingadarsan at different fairs and festivals, but also visit it other temples around the Pashupat-Kshetra. They also observe idols of gods and goddesses, art and architecture, festivals, regular and occasional worship, Pradakshina etc. as well to study scriptures of Eastern philosophy. However, pilgrims face a lot of problems due to lack of different types of service facilities that support to tourism carrying capacity.</p> Tara Prasad Awasthi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 1 14 10.3126/ttp.v22i01.52549 Uses of Ponds in Nawalparasi West District, Lumbini Province of Nepal <p>This study analyzes the existing uses of ponds in the Nawalparasi West district of Lumbini Province of Nepal. Ponds are of great importance for various aspects of nature and human life. Its importance varies from nature wonder to religion and culture to economic importance. There are various uses of ponds depending on their locality, topography, society, climate, and accessibility. Knowing the uses and the importance of the pond by local people for better development planning, for maximum benefits and sustainable management is a must. In this paper, data were collected from the Tarai plain areas using maps and through field study itself where several ponds are used by local people. The study revealed that the ponds have multiple uses. Most of the ponds are privately owned and mostly used for fishing, which is directly related to the income of the households. Many public ponds are also economically important for fishing at the community level. Additionally, many public ponds are historically tied to the religion and cultural practices of local indigenous people. Some ponds are ecologically important in the study site.</p> Chhabi Lal Chidi Sunita Aryal Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 15 28 10.3126/ttp.v22i01.52551 Use of Spatial Technology for Land Cover Change Assessment in Protected Area Management <p>Land cover assessment and monitoring of land cover dynamics are important to understand social and ecological processes in protected areas and it is helpful in monitoring, modeling and detection of environmental changes. Land cover is the characteristics of the physical material on the ground surface. Change in land cover is among the most important human alteration affecting the surface of earth that directly impacts on biological diversity. Such changes affect and increase the vulnerability of population, environment and ecosystem to global phenomena of climate change. This study has assessed the changes in land cover in Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park (SNNP) along with its Buffer Zone during twenty-seven years. The main objective of this study is to identify the changed scenario on land cover condition of the study area based on available topographic maps (1994), Google Earth images (2021) and Key Informant Interview (KII). The study has adopted Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) approach supported by secondary data and focus group discussion for classification and mapping of land cover. Among the different land cover classes, forest land, sandy area, water bodies and others land particularly built up area have been increased whereas, the bush/shrub land, cultivated land and grass land have been found decreased in the park area. On the other hand, the cultivated land, grass land and water bodies have been found decreased, while the bush/ shrub land, forest land, sandy area and others land particularly built up areas have been found significantly increased during 1994 to 2021 in the BZ area. It will provide a baseline for planners and policy makers to make proper plans to sustainably manage the protected area’s land cover.</p> Bhola Nath Dhakal Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 29 40 10.3126/ttp.v22i01.52554 Perception of Secondary Level Students Towards Social Studies Subject <p>This study examines the perception of secondary level students toward the social studies subject in community schools of the Madi Municipality, Bagmati Province of Nepal. This study is based on a quantitative research design and primary data source. Primary data are collected from field observation and a structured questionnaire method. Likert scale has been used to measure students' perceptions of social studies subject. A total of 194 students from six community schools studying in grade nine and ten were selected using a random sampling method from Madi Municipality. The modified Likert scale has been used to measure students' perceptions which ranges from 4-1 for strongly agreed (4), agreed (3), disagreed (2), and strongly disagreed (1). The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software is used for data tabulation and interpretation. The result indicates that there is a positive attitude of students toward secondary level social studies subject. They have no anxieties about different aspects of the social studies classroom. The result further asserts that the largest percentage of the respondents agreed about their interest in the subject and disagreed with anxiety about social studies as a school subject.</p> Keshav Raj Dhakal Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 41 48 10.3126/ttp.v22i01.52556 Land Use and Land Cover Change Analysis Using Google Earth Engine in Manamati Watershed of Kathmandu District, Nepal <p>Understanding the changes in land use and land cover (LULC) is essential in managing and monitoring the resources and planning. This study has analyzed the LULC changes in the years between 1992 and 2017 in Manamati watershed, Kathmandu district. Google Earth Engine Java Script API has been used to prepare LULC database. The supervised classification of a maximum likelihood algorithm is also used to prepare LULC database. The result shows that more than 6% land of the cultivated area has been converted into built-up area from 1992 to 2017, and 2.43 km<sup>2</sup> area has increased in built-up area. The forest-covered area seems to be constant, and it is not a significant change over the last 25 years. However, proper watershed management practice and land use planning require to control the threats to watershed resources. The results of this study could be a reference to the future planning of watershed resource management.</p> Lalmani Gautam Raju Rai Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 49 60 10.3126/ttp.v22i01.52560 Professionalism of Tourism in Sudurpaschim Province of Nepal <p>This paper examines the professionalism of tourism in Sudurpaschim province of Nepal. Tourism is a multidimensional discipline which covers various tourism-related phenomenon- accommodation, food and beverage services, recreation and entertainment, transportation, and travel services. All these sectors require competent, efficient and skilled human resources to provide better services. In order to gain all these skills for professionalism employees get training, education and code of ethics through different organizations. So, professionalism of tourism is a process of obtaining competencies, skills, qualifications, and experiences for working effectively and appropriately in tourism sector. This paper is based on both primary and secondary data sources. Primary data are collected from semi-structured questionnaire, field observation, and key informants survey. Secondary data are collected from various sources- published and unpublished documents, journals and e-resources. The finding indicates that Sudurpaschim Province is a potential tourism development area. Its pristine natural and cultural diversities provide foundations for tourism development that encompass sites for emerging both religious and secular contexts. However, professionalism of tourism is a prerequisite for success in tourism industry. It supports to enhance knowledge, skills and practice through education and training programs. It requires a strong policy effort for identifying the effective professionalism that needs for increasing entrepreneurs' skills. It can only be achieved by the collective actions of professional organizations, state government and local governments.</p> Shiv Raj Joshi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 61 72 10.3126/ttp.v22i01.52562 Probabilistic Determination of Groundwater Using Semi-Qualitative MCDA-Based Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach in Sunsari District, Nepal <p>Groundwater served as the major source of water for existing biophysical species in an ecosystem. In recent years, depletion of the level of groundwater becomes an emerging serious environmental issue due to the anti-reciprocal man and human activities such as global climate change. This study aims to examine the groundwater potential areas using the semi-qualitative research design, based on Analytic Hierarchy Process. The focused is based on the Geographic Information System for the analysis of determining factors, such as distance from the stream and river, precipitation, pond frequency, normalized difference water index, land-use/land cover, drainage density, slope gradient, soil, and topographic wetness index. The Receiver Operating Characteristics were used to check the accuracy of the final calculated map of the groundwater potential zone. The 5 points Likert scale ranges very poor (1) to very high (5) used to analyse the groundwater potential zones. The result shows that 0.81 percent area is very poor for the potentiality of groundwater in the study area. Other scale contained 8.13 for poor, moderate (19.94%), high (39.72%) and very high potential zones (31.41%). The Receiver Operating Characteristics result showed that under the curve success rate is 0.64% and the prediction rate is 0.76%. This result shows a reliable degree of predictability of groundwater near the spatial distribution of marshes, lakes, and water bodies in the study area. The finding shows that the very high potentiality of groundwater areas are determining by the factors of precipitation, pond frequency, distance from river and stream, drainage density, land-use/land cover, soil, and slope in the study area. The result of this empirical analysis can be applied to analyze sustainable and effective water resources management activities.</p> Tika Ram Linkha Shambhu Prasad Khatiwada Furbe Lama Dil Kumar Rai Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 73 96 10.3126/ttp.v22i01.52574 Returnee Migrants’ Reintegration into Agriculture in Nepal after COVID-19 Pandemic <p>This paper aims to analyze the reintegration of returnee migrants into agriculture after COVID-19 in Nepal. The analysis is focused on how migration affects local economy and livelihoods of the people and what measures are taken by community and government to mitigate the effects of COVID -19 in reintegration of returnee migrants and engage them to revive the economy especially in agriculture sector. The economy of the world has been affected by COVID 19 pandemic outbreak since December 2019. Overarching effect of COVID -19 has impacted the multiple sectors along with migration, remittance, agriculture and food security systems of Nepal. The agriculture system impacted by outmigration of youths can be revived through engaging returnee migrants and remittances. People of all over the world are migrated globally and Nepalese young people are also the part of migrating in search of better opportunities abroad have been affected and returned to Nepal. The contribution of agriculture on rural economy of Nepal has been declining day by day due to outmigration of youth labour force and the lack of working manpower has created opportunity to rebound and strengthen taking as an opportunity. The major finding of this paper is that labor migrants, their livelihoods and food security were largely affected in the pandemic situation. There are high chances to reintegrate the returnee migrants in agriculture sector for better livelihood along with other sectors because agriculture is such a sector where mostly skilled and unskilled labour force can be absorbed. This article is primarily based on secondary sources of information along with direct observation and interaction of authors to different stakeholders related to present study.</p> Devi Prasad Paudel Tribhuban Paudel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 97 108 10.3126/ttp.v22i01.52575 Climate Change and Adaptative Strategies of the Communities of Panchkhaal Municipality <p>Climate change has now become an unquestionable fact that affects the complex relationships between physical landscapes, natural resources, and their modification by local communities to adapt the impact of climate change. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the climate change and adaptive strategies of the community of Panchkhaal Municipality Ward No.13. The data were collected from both primary and secondary sources using mixed[1]method research design. Primary data were collected from field observation, questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions and key informant survey. Secondary data were collected from reviews of published and unpublished documents. The finding shows that traditional adaptive strategies have been changing due to decline in food crop production since the last two decades. As a result, 52.5 percent households seem to be adapting new opportunities for diversifications- altering cropping times, application of agricultural inputs, tunneling and organic farming to adjust to the consequences of climate change. However, the adaption rates are varying depending on time and space and also it is varying on the basis of adaptive capacity of local community. Thus, strong policy efforts should be prepared to mitigate adverse impact of climate change on traditional farming methods.</p> Suman Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 109 122 10.3126/ttp.v22i01.52576