Apex Journal of Business and Management https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm <p>The Apex Journal of Business and Management is published by Apex College, Mid-Baneshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal. It is an academic, not for profit, peer reviewed journal of business and social sciences across managerial disciplines.</p> en-US <p>This license requires that reusers give credit to the creator. It allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, for noncommercial purposes only.</p> research@apexcollege.edu.np (Kul Prasad Prasai) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Information about Apex Journal of Business and Management https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/62083 <p>No abstract available</p> Kul Prasad Prasai Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/62083 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Novel Machine Learning Framework for Analyzing Performance of Different Prediction Models by Using Automatic Malware Detection (AMD) Algorithm https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61978 <p>The efficiency of the machine learning techniques in context to the detection of malware's has been proved by state-of-the-art research works. Since adversaries are developing various kinds of malware, its detection has become a challenging task. Unfortunately, there is every growing threat to cyberspace due to different kinds of malicious programs termed as malware. Malware detection has become challenging task now days. Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms are used to detect malware in emerging technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT) and distributed computing, there is seamless integration of heterogeneous applications with interoperability The objective of this paper is to explore and evaluate different ML models with empirical study. In this paper, we proposed a ML framework for analyzing performance of different prediction models. An algorithm known as Machine Learning based Automatic Malware Detection (ML-AMD) is proposed. This algorithm is used to realize the framework with supervised learning. This empirical study has resulted in knowledge about ML models such as Decision Tree (DT), Logistic Regression (LR), Random Forest (RF), Multilayer Perception (MLP) and Gradient Boosting (GB). Random Forest model has exhibited highest accuracy with 97.96%. The research outcomes in this paper help in triggering further investigations towards automatic detection of malware.</p> Syed Shabbeer Ahmad, K. Krishna Prasad Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61978 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Skills Development in a Volatile Environment: A Systems View of the Learning Process https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61979 <p>Skills acquisition and development is a vital activity for society. If the latter is subject to volatile operating conditions then this activity becomes, consequentially, more difficult. The requirement to ensure the provision of an adequate supply of skilled personnel at an affordable rate is imperative. This is necessary to guarantee the delivery of services and products for society, ensuring both the level of supply and quality standards allied with development to enhance the future position. Failure in this sphere will lead to stagnation in key sectors, resulting in the decline of the society. This may impact on the technology in use and lead to comparative decline, for instance economically. The requirement to import the vital skills or purchase goods elsewhere, embodying such skills, may incur financial penalties that lead to economic decline.</p> <p>This paper investigates the skills development required for practice, focussing on the crucial areas of business and project management. A literature review was enacted to ascertain the main themes of the topic. This provided a framework of understanding to utilise in an empirical study. Several interviews were held with a current practitioner, who works for a company that runs international projects. These focussed on the requirements for personnel, in terms of industry demand for skills. A perspective of the current requirements, in respect of education for employability, was therefore obtained. The results are summarised using soft systems techniques, in order to highlight the potential learning in this sphere.</p> Garry Blair, Helen Woodcock, Rosane Pagano Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61979 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Women Empowerment in Self Help Groups through Microfinance: A Case Study of Rautahat District https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61980 <p>Microfinance institutions have assumed responsibility for promoting women's empowerment through economic and social development in developing nations. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the impact of microfinance on women's empowerment in Rautahat district. Women empowerment are measured by income &amp; savings, ownership of assets, decision making, and mobility. This study is based on primary data through administered questionnaire to 209 women those who are involved in microfinance program in Rautahat District using convenience sampling method on a five-point Likert scale. The research employed descriptive, correlational, and regression techniques using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). From the study, it is found that microcredit is helpful in empowering women on social and economic dimensions. The provision of various services such as micro saving, microcredit, training and other awareness program through microfinance institutions contributes to the holistic development of women who participate in microfinance. The findings indicate that the women involved in microfinance programs experience a noticeable increase in their income levels and savings. Moreover, they exhibit higher ownership of assets, active involvement in household financial decision-making, and enhanced confidence in their mobility, compared to non-participants. The research has found that the microfinance has brought significant impact on empowerment of women. Based on these findings, microfinance emerges as a vital tool for poverty reduction and driving social change, which are key factors in promoting women's empowerment. The study highlights the significant role of self-help group microfinance empowering women.</p> Rajiv Gubhaju Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61980 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Adaptation of Green Banking Practices in Commercial Banks of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61981 <p>This research project aimed to investigate the current state of green banking practices along with the factors influencing the adoption in commercial banks in Nepal. The findings from the data analyzed through SPSS software revealed the descriptive findings indicate that among the five independent variables, Brand Image has the highest mean value of 3.596, indicating that it is perceived as the most important factor influencing the adoption of green banking practices. This is followed by Financial Benefits with a mean of 3.462, Regulatory Policies with a mean of 3.338, Environmental Interest with a mean of 3.332, and Stakeholder's Demand with the lowest mean of 3.076.Furthermore, the dependent variable, Adoption of Green Banking Practices, has a mean of 3.382, suggesting that respondents agree that the adoption of green banking practices is influenced by the independent variables, including Stakeholder's Demand, Regulatory Policies, Environmental Interest, Financial Benefits, and Brand Image. The study highlighted the importance of brand image as the most influential factor, with the highest mean score among the variables examined. Additionally, it indicated that there was a moderately positive environment for green banking practices among Nepalese commercial banks. Overall, this study contributes to the growing body of knowledge on green banking adoption and offers practical implications for sustainable banking practices in Nepal.</p> Puja Mishra Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61981 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Talent Management on Employee Performance in Construction Industry of Eastern Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61982 <p>The construction industry requires competent and skilled talent to achieve set milestones. Talent management is a human resource strategy designed to attract, develop, and retain manpower. This study aims to explore the impact of talent management on employee performance in the construction industry. The three factors of talent management strategies taken into consideration for this study are training and development, talent retention strategies, and performance management systems. A simple random sampling technique was used to distribute questionnaires to working professionals in Province 1. Linear regression analysis was used to find the correlation between talent management strategies and employee performance. The findings revealed that talent retention strategies and performance management systems significantly affect employee performance in the construction industry, while training and development moderately affect employee performance. The dependent variables were correlated with R2 values of 0.816, 0.793, and 0.549 for talent retention strategies, performance management systems, and training and development, respectively. All independent variables were correlated with an R2 value of 0.896. Succession planning, career development, management feedback, and employee appraisal were identified as key factors in achieving standard quality output in the construction industry. This study highlights the importance of talent management strategies in enhancing employee performance in the construction industry. The findings suggest that organizations should focus on talent retention strategies and performance management systems to improve employee performance.</p> Paribesh Timsina, Priyanka Kumari Jha Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61982 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Application of Information Technology in Construction : A Case from Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61983 <p>This study aimed to identify the functions of information technology (IT) in the development of the construction industry in Chitwan and Nawalparasi. The study utilized a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire survey administered to ten contractors and ten consultants in the area. The survey included remarks about how IT is used in the construction industry, and four areas of IT use in construction were established. The identified outcomes were evaluated using Relative Importance Index (RII) and Ranking. The study found that the operational level, design level, and official level of management were the three most important levels of management by the relative importance index analysis. The mobile phone, laptop, and desktop computer were the primary hardware devices utilized on-site, and Microsoft Office applications such as Excel, Project, PowerPoint, and Word were determined to be the most important applications used in site administration. The study concluded that IT is a critical tool for the administration and management of construction projects. The findings of this study are consistent with other research that highlights the importance of IT in the construction industry. Information technology is streamlining operations in the construction sector, improving construction quality and safety measures, and maximizing efficiency and reliance on data in construction. The adoption of data-driven technologies such as building information modeling (BIM) is transforming the construction industry. Modern technologies and construction software are helping to control the information and disseminate it so it can be available and useful to project teams. Overall, the use of IT in the construction industry is becoming increasingly important, and its benefits are clear.</p> Bindu Aryal, Devendra Chapagain, Bhawani Dhakal, Binod Aryal Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61983 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An Automated Attendance System Using Facial Detection and Recognition Technology https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61984 <p>The proposed system utilizes Haar Cascade algorithms for facial detection and recognition. The system accurately detects and recognizes individuals based on their unique facial features. Facial detection algorithms identify and extract facial regions from input images or video frames, isolating the necessary facial details for further analysis. Subsequently, facial recognition algorithms, LBPH, compare these features with pre-registered faces stored in the system's database, calculating confidence scores to determine individual identities. The system incorporates a user-friendly interface, enabling administrators to easily manage attendance records. They can effortlessly add or remove students from the system's database, access attendance reports, and monitor real-time attendance data.</p> <p>The proposed Attendance Management System revolutionizes the conventional attendance tracking process by offering enhanced accuracy, efficiency, and security while providing real-time monitoring and comprehensive reporting capabilities. With the potential for adoption in various educational institutions, organizations, and industries, this system represents a significant advancement toward streamlined and intelligent attendance management.</p> Phul Babu Jha, Arjun Basnet, Biraj Pokhrel, Bishnu Pokhrel, Gopal Kumar Thakur, Surya Chhetri Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61984 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Alternate Modes of Transportation in International Logistics https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61985 <p>To study the need for alternate modes of transportation in international logistics in general. To analyse the constraints posed by Indian ports and to evaluate the existing modes of transportation other than major ports. To assess the need for an alternative mode of transportation. To discuss the emerging alternate modes of transportation that are in the pipeline. An exploratory research design is used in the research study. A comprehensive literature review of existing literature, such as the Ministry of Shipping in India or port authorities, for the most accurate and up-to-date information on the utilization of capacity in Indian ports, as the latest data on port capacity utilization can provide references or reports to support the claim. Additionally, to review industry reports or publications which may provide insights into the utilization levels of Indian ports. To analyse data released by the Ministry of Commerce, the Director General of Foreign Trade, and the Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways. To analyse logistics and transportation-related journals &amp; newspaper articles relating to emerging transportation. Sea transport through major ports has almost reached its full capacity, air transport though fast is expensive, rail transportation is slow, and road transportation, though offers door-to-door service is unreliable. Further, Indian ports have to overcome 2 main constraints, namely the Port and Vessel Constraints. The recent changes in the international logistics sector include Skylon, Space Elevator, Rope Cars, Metrino Butt, Hyperloop, and UR Air Vehicle. Space ay and Ground Way are viable modes of transportation, but the cost and research interest may delay them. A exploratory study to understand the issues in Indian ports, to analyse the need for other modes of transportation such as air, road, outer harbour, inland water connectivity, etc, and to explore the other modes of transportation that are in the pipeline and at the research stage.</p> B. Mariappa Babu, P.S. Aithal Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61985 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Building a Case for Responsible Management Education in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61986 <p>There is a need for substantial management development, which is a precondition for Nepal's social and economic transformation. Responsible management education can play a crucial role in this transformation, and the Six Principles of Responsible Management Education (PRME) can guide business schools in the development of responsible management education. However, there are specific challenges faced in advancing responsible management education in Nepal. These challenges include the perceived identity of the higher education sector in Nepal, capacity development for management educators, and the need for country-specific teaching resources. The education sector in Nepal needs to prepare skilled human resources necessary to achieve its vision of "rebuilding a resilient nation, promoting entrepreneurial spirit, and creating a knowledge-based society". Responsible management education can contribute to this vision by promoting sustainable development and social transformation. There is a need to examine its impact on the quality of education. The COVID-19 pandemic has also impacted the education system in Nepal, highlighting the need for sustainable solutions to manage the crisis and build a resilient education system. In conclusion, responsible management education is crucial for Nepal's social and economic development. The Six Principles of Responsible Management Education can guide business schools in the development of responsible management education. However, there are specific challenges faced in advancing responsible management education in Nepal, which require a concerted effort from all stakeholders to address. responsible management education should be incorporated.</p> Anup Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61986 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Perceptions of Students on Project-Based Learning: Evidences from Public Schools in Pokhara https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61987 <p>Many initiatives introduced to enhance students learning in Nepal, and Project-Based Learning is one such. It is compulsorily integrated into the school curriculum in all subjects. Despite its timely use and integration in a school course, many arguments are raised regarding its relevance and application. This study explores the lived experiences of the students studying at the secondary level in public schools run by the Nepal government regarding their perception of Project- Based Learning in school. Seven students were interviewed in-depth, and 15 interested students in classes nine contributed reflective notes to the data collection process. The study has coined three themes by processing the data: perceptions of students on project based learning, enhancement of skills and competencies, and challenges students face in the school context of Pokhara. Findings revealed that the project-based learning introduced in school turned out to be supportive to students in shaping their learning autonomously and through real-life learning. Therefore, the research revealed a positive impact on improving classroom practices and enhancing learning among participating students. The research also finds that some students find it burdensome and loaded as many projects are assigned in a hurry. Future research might explore modes of effective interventions for helping students grow in their practices of project-based learning.</p> Laxmi Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61987 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Together We Build Human Capital https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61977 <p>This editorial highlights the need for adopting a unique practice of publication for building human capital under changing social conditions. The perspective is from the desk of the editor based on experiences, observations, and reviews of published and unpublished literature. By investing in education, skills development, collaboration, and well-being, Society 5.0 can create a human-centered environment that harnesses the potential of individuals to drive innovation, economic growth, and social progress. Embracing these strategies will lead to a more inclusive, sustainable, and prosperous future for all members of society.</p> <p>Apex College is dedicated to building human capital, which is essential for success in Society 5.0, and encourages us to start a unique approach of publication as the Apex Journal of Business and Management. This is the inaugural issue of the Apex Journal of Business and Management consisting of 10 articles and this editorial perspective. It is Apex new initiative for building human capital through extensive research and publication. The editorial provides in brief changes in social conditions and strategies that need to be adopted for building human capital along with highlights on the needs of the journal with unique features in the domain of business, management and social sciences including technology. We request your feedback and end with a wish for happy and prosperous Dashain, Tihar, and Chhath, with a hope to overcome the issue of starvation and obesity from the globe.</p> A. K. Mishra Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajbm/article/view/61977 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000