AJOIS: Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajois <p>AJOIS: Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies is published by Apollo International College, Lakhechaur Marg, New Baneshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal. It is a peer-reviewed journal that accepts original and scholarly manuscripts relating to emerging issues of interdisciplinary nature on topics related to management, computer application, humanities, and social sciences.</p> Apollo International College en-US AJOIS: Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 3021-9647 Editorial Vol.1 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajois/article/view/62947 <p>No abstract available.</p> Bishnu Prasad Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 1 1 Effect of Monetary Policy on Macro Economic Variables of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajois/article/view/62936 <p>This study examines the effect of monetary policy on macroeconomic variables such as gross domestic product, real interest rate, inflation, unemployment and balance of payment etc. All the variables are intertwined with each other, and one way or the other it affects each other in both short run and long run. It is secondary research with causal comparative research design. It has quantitative nature and time series data are extracted from year 1990 to 2017 of six different macro-economic variables for the study. Statistical tools and applied econometrics namely, descriptive statistics, ADF, Johansen cointegration test, Engle- Granger error correction model are applied. The result from the statistical analysis shows that instruments of monetary policy has influence on the selected macroeconomic variables to some extent and satisfies to be relatively effective. Findings of the study reveals that there is long-run relationship between monetary policy and the selected macroeconomic variables in the Nepalese economy significantly from the error correction mechanism.</p> Nirajan Basnet Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 1 1 1 15 10.3126/ajois.v1i1.62936 COVID-19 and Role of Data Science for Anti-Corruption https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajois/article/view/62937 <p>Corruptions prevail in various forms. Many governments have adopted e-governance system to control corruption. According to the Transparency International-2021, Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) becomes higher when there are political instabilities. CPI for Afghanistan is 16 while for Bhutan it is 68 South Asian countries. Corruption negatively impacts both public and private bonds. Many corrupted people thrive well at the cost of infrastructure. E-governance allows citizens to monitor the activities of government directly through computers, smartphones, and the Internet. Maintaining transparency will help the government and public more accountable. In developing countries like Nepal where all aspects of the government have not been digitalized, e-governance may not solve all the problems. The quantity of numerical data is growing in parallel with the digitalisation of our social and economic activities. Big data is considered to be the “new oil" of AI. AI/ML is that it can pore through vast quantities of data in a short time, and can enable users to detect anomalies more quickly and accurately, make predictions and/or find meaning in high volumes of data. The data of CPI is analyzed 2018-2021 of South Asian countries by ANN, AI and ML. Algorithms have been proven to be highly accurate by academic literature. algorithm was able to predict with more than 90 percent accuracy whether there was corruption or not based on the data that was available.</p> Dila Ram Bhandari Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 1 1 16 24 10.3126/ajois.v1i1.62937 Occupational Stress among School Teachers Working in Kathmandu, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajois/article/view/62938 <p>The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of occupational stress among male and female school teachers working in Kathmandu, Nepal. The study was conducted on 210 male (105) and female (105) teachers were chosen as convenient sampling method. For this study, the occupational stress index (OSI) developed by Srivastava and Singh, 1981 was used. A Pearson correlation coefficient was computed between age and occupational stress which was statistically insignificant, R = .001, N=210, p=0.988. A Chi-Square test between gender and occupational stress was significant, χ2 (2, N=210) = 28.007. T-test was conducted to compare occupational stress for males and females. There was a significant difference in the scores for male (M=132.81, SD=17.504) and female (M=145.72, SD=21.708); t (199.056) =-4.745.</p> Padma Raj Joshi Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 1 1 25 31 10.3126/ajois.v1i1.62938 Contribution and Effectiveness of Remuneration Tax in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajois/article/view/62939 <p>The research has been carried out with the aim to examine the contribution and effectiveness of remuneration tax in Nepal. Both primary and secondary sources of data have been used in the study. Opinion survey technique has been adopted while collecting primary data. Tax experts and employees from Kathmandu valley covering sample size 120 are taken. The remuneration tax has a significant contribution on total government revenues. Remuneration tax has 2% to 20% contribution on total income tax during ten fiscal years. Highest 22% opined unfair and weak administration is found as major problem of remuneration tax. The main factor that should be initiated to increase the contribution of remuneration tax in Nepal is making tax deduction at source (TDS) effective. The other factors should be initiated to increase the contribution of remuneration tax in Nepal are, reform in the income tax policy, rules and regulation, reduction in exemption limit and increase in tax rates.</p> Deepak Basnet Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 1 1 32 43 10.3126/ajois.v1i1.62939 Investor's Preference and Awareness in Financial Instruments in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajois/article/view/62940 <p>The research aimed to examine the Nepalese investors' awareness and preference for investment in different sectors of investment An analytical approach has been followed to analyze the related data and relationship among variables. This study mainly based on primary data. Information was collected through questionnaire. Mail questionnaire method of collection data are employed to collect primary data. Only 60 filled up questionnaires has been systematically analyzed.</p> <p>It is imperative to conclude that investors seem to be less concern over social status and to be concern over sufficient return and less risk so far as the matter of investing in securities is concerned. Earnings per share (EPS), rate of return, dividend per share (DPS) and management of company are the consideration factor those can be regarded as the most important factor determining their choice of security. Dividend, capital gain, bonus share and liquidity are the major motivating factors for investors to invest in securities, whereas right share and voting rights is only important factors. The debt and preferred stock in Nepalese securities market have no provision of handsome return that compensates the perceived risk of investors. So, investors are less inclined toward these securities. The reason that these securities are illiquid and less marketable, investors tends to have negative attitude towards these securities. Most of the investors set the investment policy while investing in securities.</p> Krishna Basnet Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 1 1 44 56 10.3126/ajois.v1i1.62940 Cost Benefit Analysis of Chaudhary Bakery Udhyog https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajois/article/view/62941 <p>The research aims to explore the cost analysis and cost-benefit analysis with the help of Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return in Chaudhary Bakery Udhyog (CBU). The research attempted to show the relationship between cost and benefit of the Chaudhary Bakery Udhyog. It followed descriptive cum analytical research design. The present re­search work covered a time period of five years 2017 to 2021. The presentation and analysis of benefit (net profit), benefit cost ratio (BCR), net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR).</p> <p>Benefit cost ratio (BCR) has been found greater than 1. Hence it can be concluded that this BCR greater than 1 may be due to the longer experience and good managerial ability. BCR is greater than 1 is represents the ratio of total benefits over total costs. It has been found that the bakery udhyog is running in profit. In the analysis NPV is greater than zero in every year. NPV is greater than zero is indicate that the total discounted value of benefit is greater than the total discounted value of costs. It is represent the udhyog performance is well. So, it is generating satisfactory profit in study period. The udhyog has a internal rate of return is 10.19%. It represents the discount rate at the NPV of Chaudhary Bakery Udhyog is equal to zero. It means present value of benefits equal to present value of costs of the udhyog. The IRR is greater than discount rate. It can be concluded that the udhyog is running well and performance is better.</p> Sarad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 1 1 57 70 10.3126/ajois.v1i1.62941 Contribution of Foreign Direct Investment on Real Gross Domestic Product of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajois/article/view/62943 <p>The objective of this article is to measure the contribution of Real Foreign Direct Investment (RFDI) on Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) covering the sample period of 2000 – 2021 AD, employing time-series data. The period 2000 AD was the peak policy changes of Nepal’s openness and updated data are available up to 2021AD. Co-integration analysis is introduced to capture long-run relationship, and Pairwise Engel Granger test, and Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) are for short-run relationship among variables. On the paper, RFDI contributes to RGDP; the coefficient is positive as well as significant at the 5 percent level in the short run only. In the long run, RFDI is not effective for the Nepalese RGDP growth like African country of Botswana. The research finds remittance, domestic capital and export, tourism earning, are important tools to RGDP growth for long run and these variables are positive and significant at 5 percent level. All the stability and diagnostic test of the model has no symbols of misspecification, residuals are normally distributed, homoscedasticity and no serially correlated.</p> Santa Prasad Bhusal Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 1 1 71 84 10.3126/ajois.v1i1.62943 Career Planning of Higher Secondary School Students https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajois/article/view/62944 <p>The research aimed to assess the career planning of higher secondary students. The main focus of the study is concerned with career planning and management of 10 + 2 students under HSEB. Only the respondents are the 10 + 2 students studying in Kathmandu Valley. The survey design adopted by this study appeared to be a successful research attempt. Findings showed similarities of responses among different groups therefore, the findings of the study could be generalized among the respondents. The research revealed that a career is the pattern of job related experiences gained during ones working life. Career planning itself is changing rapidly to respond to dynamic world economy. Career planning is career building in which the emphasis is to help people become healthy, self-reliant citizens able to cope with constant change in rapidly changing labour market and maintain balance between work and life roles.</p> Keshab Gautam Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 1 1 85 98 10.3126/ajois.v1i1.62944 Critique of Essentialist Culture in Koirala’s Sumnima https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajois/article/view/62945 <p>This paper attempts to analyze how Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala’s novel Sumnima critiques essentialist culture by the rulers of the contemporary time. Presenting two characters from diverse cultural background, Koirala makes a subtle distinction between the culture and way of life. In doing so, he snubs the superiority or inferiority of the cultures and shows that they are unique in their own terms. By taking insights on culture and ethnicity embedded in the identity of a person, this paper reveals that Koirala chides the essentialist thoughts of the rulers.</p> Prabal Koirala Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 1 1 99 104 10.3126/ajois.v1i1.62945 Ethos of Revisionist History in Krishna Sen Ichchhuk’s Poems https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ajois/article/view/62946 <p>This study attempts to explore and analyze how Ichchhuk revisits the official history of Nepal and rewrites it from the perspective of marginalized group in his poems “Haata Lagyo Sunya” (Achieved Zero in Hand), “Machha-Machha Bhyaguto” (Fish-Fish Frog) and “Euta Gauleko Diary” (One Villager’s Diary). It also projects how the poet blurs the boundary between fact and fiction in the light of new-historicist perspective that gives equal value to both history and literature. This research seeks to find out how the poet brings forth the history from the below and problematizes the history from the top model that has been characterized with the deceptive discourse of freedom, equality, democracy and human rights. The paper displays what contributing factors are responsible to dismantle the mainstream history and write history of the people. It also depicts the poet’s appeal to people with optimistic feeling and revolutionary spirit to create unity among the people of the margin and fight back against the powerful rulers to bring new sunshine in human life being liberated from the oppressive clutch of the feudal and fascist leaders who always deceive the people with illusive fish history. This article demonstrates Ichchhuk’s courage, will power and life force to valorize the common people’s history and to defy the official history. To justify how history should be rewritten, the researcher uses the new-historicist ideas of Michel Foucault, Stephen Greenblatt and Catherine Gallagher. This research work shows how poets like Ichchhuk raise consciousness in marginalized people of the world and raise voice in order to establish an egalitarian human society dismantling the official history and writing the inclusive history of the people.</p> Nabaraj Dhungel Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 1 1 105 117 10.3126/ajois.v1i1.62946