AMC Journal (Dhangadhi) <p>AMC Journal (Dhangadhi) is published by the Research Management Cell, Aishwarya Multiple Campus, Dhangadhi, Kailali, Nepal. It is a multidisciplinary journal, so it includes articles related to natural and social sciences.</p> Aishwarya Multiple Campus en-US AMC Journal (Dhangadhi) 2661-6114 Study of Some Fungal Diseases of Tomato in Kathmandu Valley <p>Tomato plants were observed and collected the infected part from Jitpurphedi of Kathmandu, Nepal. These infected parts were kept in pathology lab for fungal isolation. The isolated fungus from the infected tomato plants were as <em>Septoria lycopersici, Cladosporium oxysporum </em>were responsible for leaf spot, <em>Phytophthora infestans and Rhizoctonia solani </em>were responsible for Leaf blight, <em>Cladosporium cladosporioides </em>was responsible for fruit rot, <em>Leveilullataurica </em>was responsible for powdery mildew and <em>Plasmoparaviticola </em>was responsible for downey mildew disease. In the survey period, the highest incidence was found at leaf blight (30.08%) and lowest at stem rot (4.64%). In the case of severity, the maximum severity was found at Downey mildew (77%) and minimum was recorded at fruit rot (5.25%) on five different plastic houses.</p> Sanjay Kumar Jha Sita Lamichhane Copyright (c) 2023 Sanjay Kumar Jha, Sita Lamichhane 2023-09-27 2023-09-27 4 1 1 7 10.3126/amcjd.v4i1.58826 An Ecological Assessment of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Jokhar Lake Area of Kailali District, Nepal <p>Invasive alien plant species (IAPS) have been creating adverse impacts on native diversity. Diversity of Nepal’s wetland ecosystems are also threatened by several IAPS but the related studies are very scarce. This study has assessed the status of IAPS found in Jokhar Lake of Kailali district, Nepal. The IAPS survey was carried out by sampling 30 plots of (1×1)m<sup>2</sup> each in and around the lake area. A total of 17 species of IAPS were reported from the study site. Most of the IAPS were the members of the family Asteraceae. The diversity of IAPS in the lake represents about 65% of the total IAPS in Nepal. Around the lake periphery, <em>Ageratum houstonianum </em>and <em>Argemone mexicana </em>and inside the lake <em>Eichornia crassipes </em>and <em>Pistia stratiotes </em>were major IAPS. The natural beauty of the lake has been ruined by these IAPS. A detailed study on the impacts and ecology of these IAPS in the lake and lake periphery is still lacking. Hence, it is recommended that the IAPS in the lake area should be controlled to conserve the native diversity and the natural beauty of the lake.</p> Gunanand Pant Lal B Thapa Anita Bist Copyright (c) 2023 Gunanand Pant, Lal B Thapa, Anita Bist 2023-09-27 2023-09-27 4 1 8 15 10.3126/amcjd.v4i1.58827 Causes and Consequences of Teenage Marriage Among Dalit Teenagers <p>The study seeks to identify the different causes and its consequences women's health. The study is based on quantitative research design. To achieve the devised objectives of the study, the researcher has selected 90 respondents from Barbardiya Municipality using purposive sampling method. The data was collected from primary source. The only tool for collecting data was semi structured interview schedule. The collected data was coded, edited and proceed manually. Number and percent were major statistics measures used in analyzing and interpreting the data. Out of 90 respondents i.e. sample population 61.11 percent respondents are illiterate. It is also found that 64.66 percent respondents got married between the ages of 15-19 years. 60 percent women became pregnant within one year after the marriage. Likewise, 19.33 percent respondent did not checkup their health during pregnancy. Most of the respondents have involved in agriculture. 58.88 percent respondents belong to joint family. The most of respondents, 66.66 percent got teenage marriage because of their parent's decision. Most of the respondents have knowledge about family planning devices. 38.88 percent respondents used family planning devices. In this study area, most of respondents (45%) have more than two children. Likewise, 68.81 percent respondents suffered from miscarriage due to teen age marriage. 82.22 percent respondents’ place of delivery was at home. In conclusion, it was found that the main cause of early marriage has lack of education, tradition, socio-economic condition, poverty.</p> Lalmani Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 Lalmani Acharya 2023-09-27 2023-09-27 4 1 16 27 10.3126/amcjd.v4i1.58828 Effectiveness of Collaborative Writing Strategy in Improving EFL Students’ Writing Skill <p>The ability to write efficiently and effectively in English is significant for academic success. The academic achievement of students who are proficient in writing skills tends to be better than that of students who are less proficient. So, the teachers have to choose effective teaching writing strategies which can assist in enhancing students’ writing skill. In this perspective, the present quantitative study conducted employing quasi-experimental methodologies attempts to explore the effectiveness of Collaborative Writing (CW) in improving the writing skill of grade or class ten English as Foreign Language (EFL) students. The sample population consisted of 60 students studying in grade 10 at one secondary-level institutional school located in Banke district. I employed convenience sampling to select the school and typical case sampling, a kind of purposive sampling to select the sample population. Selected students were divided into Control Group (CG) and Experimental Group (EG) based on the sections to which they studied or related. CG was taught using the conventional strategy whereas EG was taught by using the CW strategy. I employed test (pre and post-test) technique to collect the data and the collected data were analysed employing the descriptive analysis technique of quantitative data analysis. The result of the study indicated that CW is more effective for developing the writing skill of secondary-level EFL students. Therefore, teachers are suggested to employ CW technique to enhance the writing skill of the students in English.</p> Hari Prasad Tiwari Copyright (c) 2023 Hari Prasad Tiwari 2023-09-27 2023-09-27 4 1 28 37 10.3126/amcjd.v4i1.58829 Eight Moments in the History of Qualitative Research <p>This article provides an overview of the history of qualitative research, from its origins in colonial ethnographies to the development of formalized methods, and the pluralism and interpretive approaches of the blurred genres period. The article also discusses the challenges and controversies faced by qualitative research in the present and future, leading to the rise of new approaches such as mixed-method research and critical conversations about diversity, moral discourse, and global society. The article also describes the three perspectives used to classify research: application, objective, and mode of inquiry. Qualitative research is a method of scientific inquiry that uses data collection and analysis, primarily focused on understanding an issue or solving a problem. The article explores the eight moments of qualitative research development as identified in 'The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research', from the traditional phase to the fractured future. Each moment is characterized by a different paradigm, ontology, and methodology, and has been influenced by key contributors such as Bronislaw Malinowski and Margaret Mead.</p> <p>Finally, the article highlights the growing importance of qualitative research in the field of social science research, which is now considered equal to quantitative research. The mixed method approach, which links both quantitative and qualitative research, has also gained popularity. The article concludes by emphasizing the value of scientific inquiry and the importance of understanding the world around us in all its complexity and diversity.</p> Khem Raj Pant Copyright (c) 2023 Khem Raj Pant 2023-09-27 2023-09-27 4 1 38 44 10.3126/amcjd.v4i1.58830 Role of remittance in GDP growth of Nepal <p>This article deals with the analysis of role of remittance in gross domestic production (GDP) growth of Nepal where compression is made with import and export as well. Considering the GDP as dependent variable and the remittance, import and export as the independent variables, the analysis is performed based on the secondary sources of data published by Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB) in last 10 years (2012-2022) and other data available in literatures using the linear models under multiple regressions. The role of remittance has been seen significant effect on the GDP. For the mentioned study period, average GDP growth is 4.49% however it was in decreased by 2.36% in the 2019/20. The possible reason of the decrease will be due to the outburst of COVID- 19 pandemic worldwide. At the same time, average remittance inflow was 11.09% where it was negative 0.48% in 2020/21. In addition, the flow of remittance is rising, which boosts economic expansion and import volume. Imports make up two thirds of all trade, with exports accounting for the remaining below one third. Economic growth is positively impacted by both imports and exports. When the effects of exports and imports are combined, exports have a negative impact on Nepal's economic growth. Exports have no beneficial effect on economic growth, despite favorable effects from imports. &nbsp;</p> Chet Raj Pant Sarita Bashyal Keshab Raj Pant Copyright (c) 2023 Chet Raj Pant, Sarita Bashyal, Keshab Raj Pant 2023-09-27 2023-09-27 4 1 45 51 10.3126/amcjd.v4i1.58832 Mathematical Modeling of Communicable Diseases with Yoga as Control Strategy <p>The purpose of this paper is to formulate and analyze the abstract behavior of diseases dynamics. The formulation of the problem in the paper is inspired by ethnographies from different social setting and ancient cultural practices related to human health problems. Many people have been worried for communicable diseases caused by virus due to their complexities and dearth of knowledge. They have been a major cause of morbidity and mortality among humans all over the world. Yoga Sadhak compartment (Y) is added to SIR model. A new SYIR model is developed which contains four governing differential equations to describe the transmission dynamics of these disease. These equations were analyzed. Effectiveness and efficiency of yoga pranayama is calculated. Reproduction number is estimated and sensitivity analysis of parameters used in the model is studied. A distinction is made between infection in naïve susceptible and Yoga Sadhak susceptible individuals. Using the model, association between prevalence of infection and immunity by Yoga Pranayama is analyzed. It is found that Yoga Pranayama induce immunity power in individuals which help to reduce transmission rate of diseases. The model shows that eradication depends on Yoga Pranayama coverage as well as on yoga Pranayama efficacy. This study definitely answers the questions regarding the effectiveness of Yoga Pranayama. Further studies are needed to formulate the model and establish causal relationship between parameters involved in the model. &nbsp;</p> Raghu Bir Bhatta Copyright (c) 2023 Raghu Bir Bhatta 2023-09-27 2023-09-27 4 1 52 62 10.3126/amcjd.v4i1.58833