Amrit Journal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/amritj <p>Amrit Journal publishes original research articles, reviews, short communications and research reports on material science, nanotechnology, chemical biology, fuel and energy storage, catalysis, green chemistry, electrochemistry, mechanics, hydrostatics, metallurgy, natural products, environmental chemical engineering, wastewater and air decontamination, data science and machine learning, molecular docking, computational studies, mathematical science, microbiology, biochemistry and polymer science.</p> Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Amrit Campus Unit en-US Amrit Journal 2594-3235 <p>This license enables reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, so long as attribution is given to the creator. The license allows for commercial use. Credit must be given to the creator.</p> Green Synthesis of ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite Using Punica granatum for the Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/amritj/article/view/61537 <p>Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and zinc oxide/copper oxide (ZnO/CuO) nanocomposites were constructed via green-synthesis route involving the use of <em>Punica granatum </em>seed extracts through microwave method. The as-synthesized samples were investigated for their catalytic activities. The fabricated nanomaterials were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Dynamic light scattering (DLS) spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The peak observed at 385 nm in the surface plasmon resonance of ZnO NPs suggests the formation of nanoparticles of different sizes. The successful synthesis of composite was inferred from the shifting of UV-vis absorbance peak. Furthermore, the band gap energy of ZnO/CuO (with 10 wt.% of CuO precursor) was obtained to be 2.52 eV which was found lesser than that of nanoparticles. Phase morphology studied <em>via </em>XRD revealed the nanoparticles of crystalline nature. The mean crystallite size of extract mediated ZnO NPs and ZnO/CuO nanocomposites were found to be 61.5 and 53 nm, correspondingly. Similarly, morphological analysis of as-synthesized nanoparticles <em>via </em>HR-TEM showed the irregular to roughly spherical shape with size 100-200 nm. Nanomaterials generated in this manner were employed for the catalytic reduction of toxic 4-nitrophenol. The ZnO/CuO (with 10 wt.% of CuO) nanocomposites showed the higher degradation efficiency towards reduction of 4-nitrophenol compared to ZnO/CuO (5 wt.%) nanocomposites.</p> Jenuka Tamang Kamal Prasad Sapkota Santu Shrestha Sharmila Pradhan Copyright (c) 2023 Jenuka Tamang, Kamal Prasad Sapkota, Santu Shrestha, Sharmila Pradhan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 3 1 1 15 10.3126/amritj.v3i1.61537 Antibiotic Resistant Profile of Coliform and Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Paneer Sample of Kathmandu Valley https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/amritj/article/view/61539 <p>Microbial contamination with antibiotic- resistant bacteria are major threats to public health in Nepal. This study aims to detect microbial quality of paneer and determine antibiotic susceptibility pattern of coliforms and <em>S. aureus </em>isolated from Paneer. For this, 30 paneer samples were randomly collected from dairy shops in Kathmandu and respective bacterial count were determined by using pour plate technique. All isolated organisms were identified by biochemical tests using appropriate selective media. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (AST) was carried out by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. In this study, Total Bacterial Count (TBC) of 18 (60.1%) samples, Total Coliform Count (TCC) of 5 (16.6%) samples and Total Staphylococcal Count (TSC) of 6 (50%) samples were within the limit of FSSAI guideline (2012). A total of forty-six bacteria were isolated in this study, of which 34 (73.9%) were identified as coliforms and 12 (26.1%) were identified as <em>S. aureus. </em>The coliform bacteria showed higher resistance towards Azithromycin (100%) followed by Cefoxitin, Ampicillin, Amikacin, Levofloxacin, Nalidixic acid, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline and Gentamicin in descending order. While in case of <em>S. aureus, </em>higher resistance was shown against Penicillin. G (41.7%) and Nalidixic acid (41.7%) followed by Cefoxitin, Ampicillin, Azithromycin, Chloramphenicol and Levofloxacin. 4 (33.4%) MRSA were identified based on their full resistance towards Cefoxitin. Also, 24 multiple-drug resistance (MDR) bacteria were detected and higher MDR was observed among coliforms 21 (87.5%). To summarize, the maximum number of samples exceeding microbial quality specification and presence of multiple antibiotic resistance among isolated bacteria signifies poor quality of the paneer available in the market and can be considered a possible threat to consumers. Therefore, it is utmost necessary to monitor and control the quality of paneer sold in Kathmandu.</p> Manisha Pradhan Vagyashree Khanal Atmaz Kumar Shrestha Suchitra Thapa Copyright (c) 2023 Manisha Pradhan, Vagyashree Khanal, Atmaz Kumar Shrestha, Suchitra Thapa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 3 1 16 24 10.3126/amritj.v3i1.61539 A Comprehensive Assessment of the Quality of Supplied Drinking Water in Galyang Municipality of Syangja, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/amritj/article/view/61540 <p>A thorough assessment on the municipally supplied water samples from Malunga and Galyang cities; two different places in the Syangja district focused on analyzing various water quality parameters. These parameters included pH value, alkalinity, electrical conductivity, turbidity/suspended solids, chloride contents, and the presence of acid and basic radicals (heavy metal ions).</p> <p>The results obtained from standard laboratory probes carried out on-site and at the chemistry laboratory of Amrit Campus, indicated that the pH value, alkalinity, electrical conductivity, chloride contents, and the presence of acid radicals (nitrate, sulfate, and chloride) and basic radicals (toxic heavy metal ions) in the water samples were all within the safe limits for potable water as suggested by both the National Drinking Water Quality Standards (NDWQS) of Nepal and the World Health Organization (WHO).</p> <p>However, it was disclosed that the total suspended solids in the water samples existed in higher concentrations, leading to coagulation and the formation of thin, flat, whitish lumps during long-term storage of the samples.</p> <p>Overall, while the study determined that the water samples concurred the safe limits for most parameters set by NDWQS and WHO, the higher concentration of total suspended solids during prolonged storage suggests a potential attention to be paid for the improvement of the quality.</p> Hari Bhandari Kamal Prasad Sapkota Copyright (c) 2023 Hari Bhandari, Kamal Prasad Sapkota https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 3 1 25 48 10.3126/amritj.v3i1.61540 The Role of Chemistry in Cancer Chemotherapy: A Mini Review https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/amritj/article/view/61541 <p>No abstract available.</p> Bhushan Shakya Copyright (c) 2023 Bhushan Shakya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 3 1 49 56 10.3126/amritj.v3i1.61541 Screening of Phytoconstituents in Medicinal Plants and Study of Their Effect in Seed Germination https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/amritj/article/view/61542 <p>Due to the existence of bioactive phytochemicals in plants, they have been traditionally utilized as medicine for a very long time. The present study was aimed to determine the phytoconstituents present in ten different plants collected from Katunje-Bhaktapur, Nepal. The methanol extract of the sample was used for analyzing the phytoconstituents present in the plant sample. The result revealed the existence of several phytoconstituents like alkaloid terpenoid, quinine, tannin, saponin and flavonoid in these plants. Similarly, the impact of phytoconstituents on germination of Pisum sativum seeds in water, aqueous extract, methanol, and methanol extract were analyzed. Shoot germination was retarded on all extracts.</p> Binjita Pandey Tinky Sharma Bishnu Kumar Shrestha Gayatri Maiya Koju Rojeena Thusa Dipak Kumar Gupta Nabin Karki Copyright (c) 2023 Binjita Pandey, Tinky Sharma, Bishnu Kumar Shrestha, Gayatri Maiya Koju, Rojeena Thusa, Dipak Kumar Gupta, Nabin Karki https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 3 1 57 65 10.3126/amritj.v3i1.61542 Critical Analysis of Surfactant-Dye Interaction: A Review https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/amritj/article/view/61543 <p>The interaction between surfactants and dyes is fundamental in achieving the desired coloration and properties in various applications, shaping the functionality and effectiveness of dye-related processes across multiple industries. Further research and advancements in this field will continue contributing to innovative solutions and improved sustainability. While mixed surfactants offer these advantages, the choice between using a single surfactant or a mixture depends on the specific application, the desired properties, cost considerations, and compatibility with other formulation components. It's important to carefully evaluate the application requirements and conduct appropriate testing to determine the most effective approach. In this work, the physical-chemical characteristics and solubilization of reactive dyes in single and mixed micellar media are elaborated. Compared to the single-micellar medium, the mixed-micellar medium showed improved reactive dye trapping, which was attributed to the presence of both cationic and nonionic surfactants, namely cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and triton X-100. In this interactional study, two reactive dyes were used: Reactive Black 5 (RB) and Reactive Yellow 145 (RY). It is noteworthy to examine the modeling and micellization of mixed surfactant systems in an aqueous medium including dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The anionic-rich and cationic-rich interactions between methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solutions were clearly shown in the diagram.</p> Chandradip Kumar Yadav Ajaya Bhattarai Tulasi Prasad Niraula Amar Prasad Yadav Manoj Kumar Adhikari Yog Prakash Yadav Duryodhana Yadav Sanjay Singh Copyright (c) 2023 Chandradip Kumar Yadav, Ajaya Bhattarai, Tulasi Prasad Niraula, Amar Prasad Yadav, Manoj Kumar Adhikari, Yog Prakash Yadav, Duryodhana Yadav, Sanjay Singh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 3 1 66 77 10.3126/amritj.v3i1.61543 Green Synthesis and Characterization of Copper-Zinc Alloy Nanoparticles Using Stem Extract of Tinospora cordifolia and Comparative Study of Anti-Microbial Properties https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/amritj/article/view/61544 <p>Bimetallic nanoparticles are prepared from the combination of two different metals in a certain ratio and are getting importance over monometallic nanoparticles due to their better properties. In this work, copper-zinc nanoparticles (Cu-Zn NPs) have been prepared by reducing the metal precursors using <em>Tinospora cordifolia </em>(Gurjo) stem extract as a reducing, capping, and stabilizing agent. The physicochemical properties of bimetallic nanoparticles have been studied in terms of UV-vis spectra, XRD and FTIR. Biological activities of as-synthesized nanoparticles were tested against <em>Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, </em>and <em>Candida albicans. </em>The Cu-Zn NPs exhibited remarkable antibacterial as well as antifungal activities compared to either nanoparticle alone. Based on the findings, it can be revealed that Cu-Zn NPs can serve as good antimicrobial agent.</p> Anup Subedee Sita Shrestha Sabita Ghimire Ishwor Pathak Hari Bhakta Oli Arun Kumar Sharma Bishma Raj Pandey Puspa Lal Homagai Ram Lal Shrestha Deval Prasad Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2023 Anup Subedee, Sita Shrestha, Sabita Ghimire, Ishwor Pathak, Hari Bhakta Oli, Arun Kumar Sharma, Bishma Raj Pandey, Puspa Lal Homagai, Ram Lal Shrestha, Deval Prasad Bhattarai https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 3 1 78 90 10.3126/amritj.v3i1.61544