https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/issue/feed Bouddhik Abhiyan (बौद्धिक अभियान) 2023-08-30T09:27:14+00:00 Prof. Dr. Arjun Kumar Baral bouddhikabhiyan123@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p>Bouddhik Abhiyan (बौद्धिक अभियान) is published by Nepal Progressive Professor Association, Dhankuta, Province- 1, Nepal. It is a multi-disciplinary peer reviewed journal that contains empirical research articles, and conference/seminar papers of the scholars from different disciplines and fields such as Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, Management, Health, Law, and Science and technology. </p> https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/article/view/57781 युद्ध कथामा पहिचान, प्रतिनिधित्व र प्रतिरोध चेतना (Identity, Representation and Resistance Consciousness in the story 'War') 2023-08-20T02:17:09+00:00 ईश्वरा Ishwara पौडेल Poudel ishwaraojha@gmail.com <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा कथाकार माया ठकुरीद्वारा रचित ‘युद्ध’ कथालाई पहिचान, प्रतिनिधित्व तथा प्रतिरोधको आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस लेखमा तथ्य विश्लेषण गर्न सांस्कृतिक अध्ययनका विविध पक्षमध्येमा पहिचान, प्रतिनिधित्व र प्रतिरोध चेतनासम्बन्धी मान्यतालाई सैद्धान्तिक आधारका रूपमा ग्रहण गरिएको छ । लैङ्गिक दृष्टिले भिन्न पहिचान भएका महिला पात्रको प्रतिनिधित्व र लैङ्गिक आधारमा गरिने प्रतिरोध चेतना कसरी प्रस्तुत भएको छ भन्ने प्रश्नका आधारमा कथाको विश्लेषण गर्नु यस लेखनको उद्देश्य रहेको छ । पुस्तकालीय विधिबाट सङ्कलित शाब्दिक सामग्रीलाई आधार मानेर लेखिएको गुणात्मक प्रकृतिको यस लेखमा ‘युद्ध’ कथामा रहेको नारी पात्रको सामाजिक अवस्था, शोषणसम्बन्धी चेतना र त्यसको प्रतिकारको आवाजको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । ‘युद्ध’ कथामा रहेको कथ्यले समाजमा पितृसत्ता र यसको वर्चश्व जोगाउनका लागि पुरुषले गरेको हदैसम्मको निकृष्ट सोच र व्यवहारलाई समेटेको छ । यस कथामा रहेका महिला पात्रमाथि सामाजिक तथा पारिवारिक रूपले विभेद र शोषणको अवस्था र त्यसैमा रहेको महिला पात्रको पहिचानको चित्रण गरेको छ । कथकी नारी पात्रले समाजमा नारीलाई भोग्या र खेलौना ठान्ने प्रवृत्तिको विरोध मात्र गरेकी छैन, यस्तो प्रवृत्तिको खुलेर प्रतिरोध गरेकी छे र पुरुष समाजका घृणित व्यवहारको भन्डाफोर गर्न युद्ध नै छेडेकी छे । समाजको पितृसत्ताले बनाएका नियमहरू र समाजमा सन्तानको चाहना र यसका लागि गरिएको घृणित प्रपन्चका विरोधमा प्रतिकारमा उत्रिएकी नारी पात्रको लैङ्गिक पहिचान भिन्न प्रकारको र उसको सचेत बौद्धिक चेतना र सोहीअनुसारका सुझबुझपूर्ण गतिविधिले उसले शाहसी महिलाको प्रतिनिधित्व गरेको स्पष्ट हुन्छ । अतः ‘युद्ध’ कथामा समाजका यस्ता लैंगिक दृष्टिले हुने विसङ्गत र निन्दनीय सोच र कार्यको विरोधमा सचेत र सशक्त प्रतिरोध देखापर्छ ।</p> <p>(In this article, the story 'Yuddh' written by storywriter Maya Thakuri has been analyzed on the basis of identity, representation and resistance. To analyze the facts, among the various aspects of cultural studies; the recognition of identity, representation and resistance consciousness has been adopted as a theoretical basis in the article. The purpose of this article is to analyze the story on the basis of the representation of female characters with different gender identities and the question of how the consciousness of resistance based on gender is presented. The article has been written based on the textual material collected from the library method. The social condition of the female character in the story 'Yuddha', the awareness of exploitation and the voice of resistance to it are analyzed in qualititative design. The narrative in the story 'Yuddha' covers the inferior thinking and behavior done by men to preserve the patriarchy and its dominance in the society. The social and familial forms of discrimination and exploitation of the female characters in this story and the identity of the female characters in it are depicted. The female character of the story not only opposed the trend of treating women as slaves and toys in the society, she openly resisted this trend and waged a war to destroy the disgusting behavior of the male society. It is clear that she represents a royal woman with a different type of gender identity with her conscious intellectual awareness and sensible activities. Therefore, in the story 'Yuddha', there is a conscious and strong resistance against such inconsistent and reprehensible thoughts and actions of the society based on gender.)</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Progressive Professors' Association, Koshi Province, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/article/view/57782 मर्नैजति परेपछि कथासङ्ग्रहका कथामा लैङ्गिक शक्तिसम्बन्ध (Gender power relations in the stories of the anthology 'Marnejati Parepachhi') 2023-08-20T02:42:28+00:00 गुरुप्रसाद Guruprasad पोखरेल Pokharel gurupokharel@gmail.com <p>माधवलाल कर्माचार्यको मर्नैजति परेपछि (२००९) कथासङ्ग्रह सामाजिक यथार्थवादी कथाको सङ्कलन हो । यस कथासङ्ग्रहका सोद्देश्य नमुना छनोट गरिएका ‘तिनको शृङ्गार’ र ‘तिनी फर्कंदा’ कथामा तत्कालीन पुरुषवादी सामन्ती पितृसत्तात्मक चिन्तन, चरित्र र तिनका व्यवहारको प्रतिनिधित्व गराई निरीह नारीजीवनका यथार्थलाई प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । सर्वेक्षण, सूक्ष्म पठन तथा पाठविश्लेषणको विधि प्रयोग गरी समग्रमा विश्लेषणात्मक विधिमार्फत सामान्यीकृत निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत गरिएको प्रस्तुत सङ्ग्रहका कथामा सांस्कृतिक अध्ययनअन्तर्गत लैङ्गिक शक्तिसम्बन्धको खोजी र विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । तत्कालीन पितृसत्तात्मक सामन्ती चिन्तन र व्यवहार भएको पुरुषमुखी लैङ्गिक सम्बन्ध र पितृसत्ताकै केन्द्रमा लैङ्गिक विचारधारा प्रतिनिधित्व गराइएको उल्लिखित कथाहरूमा वैरभावपूर्ण लैङ्गिक सम्बन्ध, नकारात्मक लैङ्गिक भूमिका, परम्परागत पितृसत्ता, हिंसा र आपराधीकरणको चित्रण गरिएको छ । निम्न वर्गीय पुरुष र नारी चरित्रका लैङ्गिक समस्याको मूल कारकका रूपमा पितृसत्तागत अहम् र दम्भ रहेको छ । यी कथामा मानिसको प्राकृतिक लिङ्गका विपरीत सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक आधारमा निर्मित विभेदकारी लैङ्गिक सम्बन्ध स्थापित भएको छ । त्यसले पारिवारिक र सामाजिक सत्ता पुरुषका हातमा सुम्पिएर असमान लैङ्गिक सम्बन्ध निर्माण गरेको छ । यी कथामा तत्कालीन सामन्तवादी विमर्शात्मक संरचनामा उत्पादनका साधन, वितरण प्रणाली र श्रमको मूल्य निर्धारणमा नारीको सहभागिता शून्य भएकाले नारीहरूको अवस्था अधीनस्थ बनेको देखाइएको छ । कथामा प्रस्तुत सबै तथ्यहरूलाई आधार मानी तत्कालीन समाजको लैङ्गिक सम्बन्ध असमानतापूर्ण थियो भन्ने निष्कर्ष विश्लेष्य कथामा प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ ।<br>(The anthology 'Marnejati Parepachhi'(2009) by Madhavalal Karmacharya, is a collection of social realistic stories. In the stories 'Tinko Shringar' and 'Tini Farkanda', which were selected purposefully from this collection of stories, the reality of innocent women's life is presented by representing the male feudal patriarchal thinking, character and their behavior at that time. Gender power relations have been searched and analyzed in cultural studies in this collection of &nbsp;stories, which has presented generalized conclusions through analytical approach using the methods such as survey, micro-reading and text analysis. Male-dominated gender relations with patriarchal feudal thinking and behavior of that time and gender ideology represented at the center of patriarchy have been depicted in the mentioned stories of antagonistic gender relations, negative gender roles, traditional patriarchy, violence and criminalization. Patriarchal pride and arrogance are the root cause of gender problems of lower-class male and female characters. In these stories, discriminated gender relations created on social and cultural basis have been established in contrast to the natural gender of human beings. It has given family and social power in the hands of men and created unequal gender relations. In these stories, it is shown that the condition of women has become subservient due to the zero participation of women in determining the prices of production, distribution system and labor in the then feudal discursive structure. Based on all the facts presented in the story, the conclusion has been drawn that gender relations in the society at that time was unequal.)</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Progressive Professors' Association, Koshi Province, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/article/view/57783 वासु शशीको नाट्यकारिता (Dramatization in the Works by Vasu Sashi) 2023-08-20T03:28:29+00:00 गोपीकृष्ण Gopikrishna खतिवडा Khatiwada khatiwadagopi1975@gmail.com <p>प्रस्तुत लेख आधुनिक नेपाली नाटक परम्पराका विशिष्ट प्रतिभा वासु शशी (१९९३ — २०४९) सँग सम्बन्धित छ । विधागत लेखनका दृष्टिले शशी मूलतः कविता र नाट्य विधामा बढी सक्रिय देखा पर्दछन् । वासु शशी २००७÷२००८ सालदेखि नेवारी नाट्यक्षेत्रमा प्रवेश गरे पनि २०२३ सालपछि नेपाली नाट्यविधातर्फ आकर्षित भएको प्रमाण तीन नाटक (नाटक सङ्ग्रह २०२४) बाट पाइन्छ । बाँसुरीमा नअटाएका धुनहरू (२०४२), उपहार (२०५१), वासु शशीका नाटक (२०५९) र बुद्ध (२०६६) शशीका प्रकाशित मौलिक नेपाली नाटक हुन् । वासु शशीका नाटक (२०५९) नामक नाटक सङ्ग्रहमा माया, ॐ नमः शिवाय, सुखको खोजीमा, बिर्सन नसकिने मान्छे, सच्याउन नसकिने गल्ती, आमा कहिल्यै मर्दिन, उपहार र तरबार नाटक सङ्कलित छन् । शशीका पूर्वाद्र्ध चरणका नाटकहरूले मूलतः व्यक्तिविशेषका जीवनीसँग सम्बन्धित व्यक्तिगत एवम् पारिवारिक घटनालाई प्रस्तुत गरेका छन् भने उत्तराद्र्धका नाटकहरूमा सामाजिक समस्याले प्रधानता पाएका छन् । प्रस्तुत अध्ययन वासु शशीको नाट्यकारिता शीर्षकमा तयार गरिएको छ । यस लेखमा वासु शशीको नाट्यकारिता केकस्तो छ भन्ने समस्यालाई लिइएको छ । यसअनुसार ती समस्याको समाधान गर्नुलाई यस लेखको उद्देश्य बनाइएको छ । यसका लागि प्राथमिक स्रोतअन्तर्गत शशीका नाटकहरूलाई गुणात्मक सोद्देश्य नमुना छनोट विधिमा लिई विश्लेषणका लागि सूक्ष्म पठन र समालोचनात्मक विधिको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । अन्तमा शशीलाई रिमाल र मल्लद्वयका समस्यामूलकता, मनोविज्ञान, यथार्थवाद िप्रवृत्ति र संवादकलाबाट प्रभावित भएर पनि चलचित्रोन्मुख नाट्यकारिता उनको मौलिकता भएको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> <p>(This article is related to Vasu Shashi (1993-2049), a unique talent of modern Nepali drama tradition. From the point of view of genre writing, Shashi appears to be more active in poetry and drama. Although Vasu Shashi entered the Newari theater scene from 2007-2008, the proof that he was attracted to Nepali theater after 2023 is found in 'Three Dramas' (a collection of Drama- 2024). The original Nepali plays published by Shashi are ' Bansurima Naataeka Dhunharu' (2042), Uphaar (2051), 'Vasu Shashika Natak' (2059) and 'Buddha' (2066). 'Vasu Shashika Natak' (2059) is a collection of dramas such as Maya, Om Namah Shivaay, Sukhako Khojima, Birsana Nasakine Manchhe, Sachyauna Nasakine Galti, Aama Kahilyai Mardina, Upahar, and Tarabar. The earlier dramas by Shashi basically presented personal and family events related to the biography of a particular person, while in the later dramas, social problems were given priority. The present study has been prepared under the title Dramatization in the Works by Vasu Sashi. In this article, the issue of Vasu Sashi's dramatization has been taken up. Accordingly, the purpose of this article is to solve those issues. For this, under the primary source, Sashi's dramas have been taken using qualitative purposeful sample selection method; and critical reading and analytical methods have been used for analysis. In the end, even though Shashi was influenced by Rimal's and Malla's problematism, psychology, realism tendency and dialogue skills; it has been concluded that his originality is film-oriented dramatization.)</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Progressive Professors' Association, Koshi Province, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/article/view/57792 छ मायाँ छपक्कै’ चलचित्रमा राजनीतिक सन्दर्भ (Political Context in the Movie 'Chha Mayan Chhapakkai') 2023-08-20T05:57:51+00:00 बाबुराम Baburam ओझा Ojha brobjp@gmail.com <p>छ माया छपक्कै’ चलचित्रमा राजनैतिक सन्दर्भ’ शीर्षकमा रहेका यस लेखमा सो चलचित्रमा भएको राजनैतिक सन्दर्भका विषयलाई केन्द्रित गरिएको छ । सन्दर्भ विश्लेषण सङ्कथन विश्लेषणको एक महत्वपूर्ण पक्ष मानिन्छ, जसका सहायताले कुनै पनि सङ्कथनात्मक पाठमा अन्तर्निहित विभिन्न अर्थहरू पत्ता लगाउन सहज हुन्छ । यस लेखमा ‘छ माया छपक्कै’ चलचित्रमा रहेकोे राजनैतिक सन्दर्भको अध्ययन गरी विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । लेख तयार पार्नका लागि विषयको सैद्धान्तिक विषयका द्वित्तीयक सामग्री पुस्तकालयबाट सङ्कलन गरिएको छ र विषयको विश्लेष्य प्राथमिक सामग्री ‘छ माया छपक्कै चलचित्र’ इन्टरनेटबाट सङ्कलित गरिएको छ । सामग्रीको विश्लेषणका लागि निगमन विधि र तथ्याङ्कको प्रस्तुतीकरणमा वर्णनात्मक विधि प्रयुक्त भएको छ । ‘छ माया छपक्कै’ चलचित्रको अन्तर्वस्तुमा प्रयुक्त समकालीन राजनैतिक सन्दर्भले विशेष राजनैतिक अर्थ बोकेका छन् । यस्ता सन्दर्भले खराब राजनैतिक संस्कार, सुशासनको अभाव, आर्थिक शोषण, नातावाद र कृपावाद तथा&nbsp; अपारदर्शी र भ्रष्ट कर्मचारीतन्त्र रहेको समकालीन राजनैतिक अवस्थालाई इङ्गित गर्छन् । यहाँका राजनैतिक सन्दर्भको मुख्य आशय समकालीन राजनैतिक सङ्क्रमणकालीन अवस्था र भ्रष्टाचरण, केन्द्रीकरणयुक्त शासन प्रणाली र यसका कारण भएको क्षेत्रीय विभेदको उद्घाटन गर्नु रहेको छ । यस्ता सन्दर्भले समकालीन राजनैतिक तरलता र खराब प्रजातान्त्रिक आचरणलाई प्रकाश पारेको छ ।</p> <p>(In this article entitled 'Political context in the movie 'Chha Mayan Chhapakkai', the political context existed has been focused. Contextual analysis is considered as an important aspect of compositional analysis, with the help of which it is easy to discover the various meanings inherent in any compositional text. In this article, the political context in the movie 'Chha Mayan Chhapakkai' has been studied and analyzed. To prepare the article, the secondary data related to the theoretical aspects of the subject has been collected from the library, and the primary data for the analysis of the subject has been collected from the Internet. The deductive method has been used for the analysis of content and descriptive method for data presentation. The contemporary political context used in the content of the movie 'Chha Mayan Chhapakkai' has a special political meaning. Such political contexts point to the contemporary political situation of bad political culture, lack of good governance, economic exploitation, nepotism and forgivism and opaque and corrupt bureaucracy. The main purpose of the political context here is to explore the contemporary political transitional situation and the corruption, centralized governance system and the resulting regional discrimination caused by such factors. Such political contexts have highlighted contemporary political fluidity and poor democratic practices.)</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Progressive Professors' Association, Koshi Province, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/article/view/57789 प्रेमा शाहको पहेँलो गुलाव कथामा प्रयुक्त सम्बद्धक सङ्कथनहरू (Discourses existed in the story Pahenlo Gulaf (The Yellow Rose) by Prema Shah) 2023-08-20T05:04:45+00:00 मीनप्रसाद Minprasad अधिकारी Adhikari adhikarimin010@gmail.com <p>भाषाको सबैभन्दा माथिल्लो अथवा सिङ्गो अभिव्यक्तिगत एकाइलाई सङ्कथन भनिन्छ, जसको अर्थ अभिव्यक्तिगत समग्रता हो । गफ, कुराकानी, संवाद, छलफल, अन्तर्वार्ता, विज्ञापन, कथा, कविता, सूचना, लेख, नाटक आदिजस्ता कुराहरू सङ्कथनअन्तर्गत पर्दछन् । यसमा भाषाप्रयोगका क्षेत्रमा देखिने अनियमितता र नियमितताहरूको पहिचान र वर्णन गरिन्छ । त्यसैले यो व्याकरण भन्दा माथिको कुरा हो । सङ्कथन विश्लेषणको आधारमा भाषिक पाठ वा अभिव्यक्तिको साङ्गठनिक प्रक्रिया पहिल्याउने वर्णनात्मक ढाँचा प्राप्त गर्न सकिन्छ । सङ्कथन विश्लेषणको पृष्ठभूमि र विकास प्रतीक विज्ञान र आख्यानको अध्ययन गर्ने फ्रान्सेली पद्धति डेल हाइम्स (१९६४) को भाषामा सामाजिक सन्दर्भ, अस्टिन&nbsp; (१९६०) सर्ले (१९६९) र ग्राइस (१९७५) को भाषालाई सामाजिक कार्यको रूपमा व्याख्या गर्ने सिद्धान्तको साथै प्रकरणार्थ विज्ञानसम्बन्धी अध्ययनसँग सम्बन्धित देखिन्छ । सङ्कथन विश्लेषण गर्ने आधार भनेको सङ्कथन कुन मान्यतामा निर्माण भएको हो भन्ने नै हो । सङ्कथन बन्नका लागि आवश्यक पर्ने तत्वहरू सङ्कथनमा छन् कि छैनन् भनी सङ्कथन विश्लेषण गरिन्छ । यसरी विश्लेषण गर्ने आधारहरू भिन्न भिन्न हुन्छन् । सङ्कथन विश्लेषण दुई आधारमा गर्न सकिन्छ ः कथ्य र लेख्य । यी दुई सङ्कथनलाई विश्लेषण गर्ने आधार पनि भिन्न भिन्न हुन्छन् । कथ्य सङ्कथनको तुलनामा लेख्य सङ्कथनको विश्लेषण गर्न केही सहज हुन्छ । कथ्य सङ्कथनमा लिखित सामग्रीको अभाव रहने हुँदा विश्लेषण गर्न जटिल हुन्छ । यसरी हेर्दा प्रायोगिक भाषाविज्ञानको एउटा महŒवपूर्ण शाखा सङ्कथन विश्लेषण&nbsp; हो । सङ्कथन बन्नका लागि आवश्यक पर्ने युक्तिहरू सङ्कथनमा छन् कि छैनन् भनी अध्ययन विश्लेषण गर्नु नै सङ्कथन विश्लेषण हो । प्रस्तुत लेखमा ‘पहेंलो गुलाफ’ कथामा प्रयुक्त सम्बद्धकहरूको विश्लेषण गर्दै सैद्धान्तिक आधारको निरूपण गरिएको छ । लेख सङ्कथन विश्लेषणलाई सैद्धान्तिक आधार तयार गर्न तथा सोही सिद्धान्तका आधारमा कृति विश्लेषण गर्न सघाउ पुग्ने हिसाबमा तयार गरिएको छ ।</p> <p>(The highest or complete expressive unit of the language is called discourse (Sankathan), which means expressive totality. The expressive devices such as gossips, conversations, dialogues, discussions, interviews, stories, poems, information, articles, dramas etc. are included within discourse. The regularities and Irregularities in the field of language use are identified and described in discourse analysis. Therefore, it is much more above than grammar. On the basis of discourse analysis, a descriptive framework can be obtained to find the organizational process of a linguistic text or expression. The background and development of discourse analysis seems to be related to Del Hymes' social context in language (1964), the French method of studying symbolism and narratives; Austin's (1960), Searle's (1969) and Grice's (1975) theory of explaining language as a social function, as well as semantics. The basis for analyzing discourse is the belief on which the discourse is formed. A discourse is analyzed to see if it contains the necessary elements to form it . In this way, the bases for analyzing discourse are different. Discourse analysis can be done on two bases: oral and written. The basis for analyzing these two bases are also different. It is somewhat easier to analyze written discourse than oral discourse. Analyzing is difficult because there is a lack of written material in oral discourse. In this way, discourse &nbsp;analysis is an important branch of applied linguistics. Analyzing a discourse &nbsp;is to determine whether the techniques and elements required to be a discourse are present. &nbsp;&nbsp;In this article, the theoretical basis has been defined by analyzing the associations used in the story 'Yellow Rose'. This article has been prepared to help prepare the theoretical basis for discourse analysis and to analyze the works based on the same theory.)</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Progressive Professors' Association, Koshi Province, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/article/view/57794 कालो पहाड उपन्यासमा पहिचान र वर्चस्व (Identity and Dominance in the Novel Kalo Pahad (Black Hill)) 2023-08-20T06:28:03+00:00 यज्ञेश्वर Yagyeshwar निरौला Niroula niraulayagyeswar@gmail.com <p>प्रजापति तिमिल्सिनाका ‘अनेरुवा’, ‘विधवा वासना’ र ‘कालो पहाड’ उपन्यास र ‘चिठी’ प्रबन्ध सङ्ग्रह प्रकाशित छन् । उनका उपन्यास सामाजिक यथार्थवाद तथा मनोविज्ञानमा आधारित छन् । यस लेखमा सीमान्तीयताका आधारमा प्रजापति तिमिल्सिना लिखित ‘कालो पहाड’ उपन्यासमा रहेको प्रमुख चरित्र माइलालाई केन्द्र बनाएर यसै पात्रको पहिचान तथा सीमान्त अवस्थालाई अध्ययन गरिएको छ । सीमान्तीयताको आधारमा साहित्यको सांस्कृतिक अध्ययन र ऐतिहासिक पुनव्र्याख्या गर्ने प्रचलन दोस्रो विश्वयुद्धपछि सुरु भएको र सन् असीको दशकदेखि सवाल्टर्न अध्ययनका रूपमा चलेको हो । दोस्रो विश्वयुद्धपछिको विश्वमा हरेक मानव समाजसम्बद्ध विषय क्षेत्रलाई हेर्ने नवीन चिन्तन तथा दृष्टिकोणको विकासविस्तार भएसँगै साहित्य समालोचनामा उत्तरसंरचनावादी उत्तरआधुनिक चिन्तनका रूपमा सीमान्तीयताको आवाज पनि प्रबल बन्दै गएको छ । व्यक्ति, जाति, लिङ्ग, वर्ग, रङ्ग, समुदाय, क्षमता, पृथक्ता, क्षेत्र आदिसँग सम्बद्ध पक्षहरू सीमान्तीयताभित्र पर्दछन् । समाजव्यवस्थाका अवयवहरूद्वारा निर्मित विभेदकारी सामाजिक सांस्कृतिक संरचनाहरूको सीमान्तीय अवस्था निर्माणमा प्रमुख भूमिका रहेको हुन्छ भने उपनिवेशको विस्तारवादी साम्राज्यवादी प्रभुत्ववादी चरित्रबाट ती वर्गका इतिहास, संस्कृति, पहिचानका सङ्केतहरू नै कतिपय अवस्थामा विलुप्तप्रायः बनाइएको देखिन्छ । हरेक युगमा आवाजविहीन बनाइएका, पहिचानविहीन भएर दबाइएका, राज्य संयन्त्रमा प्रतिनिधित्वबाट वञ्चित, पहँुचविहीन, सामथ्र्यहीन भई सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक, आर्थिक, राजनीतिक रूपले मूलधारबाट बहिष्करणमा परेका बहुसङ्ख्यक मानिसहरू सीमान्त वर्ग भएकाले उनीहरूका इतिहासको पुनर्लेखन हुनुपर्छ भन्ने मान्यता सीमान्तीय अध्ययनको अवधारणा हो । मूलतः सीमान्तीयताका सैद्धान्तिक आधारहरूको पृष्ठभूमिमा रहेर ‘कालो पहाड’ उपन्यासको मुख्य चरित्रनायक माइलाको सीमान्तीय अवस्थाको विश्लेषण गर्नु मूल उद्देश्य राखी नेपाली समाजमा माइलाजस्ता पहिचान हराएका अधिकांश प्रतिनिधि पात्रहरूको पहिचानको खोजी नै यस शोधलेखको निष्कर्ष रहेको छ ।</p> <p>('Aneruva', 'Widhwa Vasana' and 'Kalo Pahad' novels and 'Chithi' are the published essay &nbsp;collections by &nbsp;Prajapati Timilsina. His novels are based on social realism and psychology. In this article, based on marginality, the main character Maila in the novel 'Kalo Pahad' written by Prajapati Timilsina has been focused and the identity and the status of marginality &nbsp;of this character has been studied. The practice of cultural study and historical reinterpretation of literature on the basis of marginality started after the Second World War and has continued since the 1980s in the form of Sawaltern studies. In the post-World War II world, with the development of new thinking and approaches to every human society-related subject area, the voice of marginality in the form of post-structuralist post-modern thinking is also becoming stronger in literary criticism. Aspects related to person, caste, gender, class, color, community, ability, separation, region etc. are included in marginality. Discriminating socio-cultural structures created by the components of the social system play a major role in creating marginal conditions, while the signs of history, culture, and identity of those classes seem to be extinct in some cases due to the expansionist imperialist hegemonic character of the colony. The concept of marginal studies is the recognition that the majority of people in each era who have been made voiceless, oppressed without identity, deprived of representation in the state system, deprived of access, powerless and excluded from the mainstream socially, culturally, economically, politically, are the marginal class; and their history should be rewritten. Based on the background of the theoretical foundations of marginality, the main objective of analyzing the marginality of Maila, the main character of the novel 'Kalo Pahad', is the search for the identity of most of the representative characters who have lost their identity like Maila in Nepali society.)</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Progressive Professors' Association, Koshi Province, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/article/view/57796 अविद्या/माया चिन्तनका दृष्टिमा ऋतुविचार खण्डकाव्य (Rituvichara Khandakavya in view of Avidya/Maya Thoughts) 2023-08-20T07:25:49+00:00 यादवप्रसाद Yadavprasad शर्मा Sharma sharmayadav134@gmail.com <p>ऋतुविचार खण्डकाव्यलाई पौरस्त्य दर्शनको अविद्या÷मायासम्बन्धी मान्यताका आधारमा विवेचना गरिएको यस अनुसन्धानात्मक लेखका निम्ति आवश्यक सामग्री पुस्तकालयीय स्रोतबाट सङ्कलन गरिएको छ र सैद्धान्तिक आधारको निर्माणमा निगमनात्मक विधिको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । यस क्रममा क्रमशः उपनिषद्, साङ्ख्य, योग, न्याय, वैशेषिक, मीमांसा, वेदान्त र बौद्ध दर्शनका अविद्यासम्बन्धी स्थापनाहरूको अनुशीलन र ऋतुविचार खण्डकाव्यको सूक्ष्मपठन गरी अविद्यासम्बन्धी चिन्तन अभिव्यञ्जित प्रमुख श्लोकहरू ठम्याएर तिनीहरूको व्याख्या÷विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । अन्त्यमा ऋतुविचार खण्डकाव्यको मूल अलङ्कार्य विषय परिवर्तनमूलक ऋतुचव्रmसम्बन्धी प्रकृतिचित्रण रहे पनि अध्यात्मसम्बन्धी विषयगत विम्बहरू प्रकृतिचित्रणका सन्दर्भमा नै आएका छन् । यसरी काव्यमा अध्यात्मसम्बन्धी विषयगत विम्बहरूले पनि प्राकृतिक परिवर्तनमूलक ऋतुचव्रmसम्बन्धी मूल विषयवस्तुभित्र नै स्थान पाएका छन् र पौरस्त्य दर्शनको अविद्या÷मायासम्बन्धी चिन्तन पनि अलङ्कार्यका रूपमा नभएर अलङ्कारका रूपमा व्यक्त भएको छ । यस खण्डकाव्यमा व्यक्त अविद्या÷मायाचिन्तनमा साङ्ख्य, योग, न्याय, वैशेषिक, मीमांसा र वेदान्तको प्रभाव लेखनाथको अध्ययन एवं श्रवण, मनन तथा निदिध्यासनगत भए तापनि बौद्ध दर्शनको प्रभाव भने उपर्युक्त दर्शनहरूसँग बौद्ध दर्शनको साम्यता र कविको पूर्वसंस्कारगत हो भन्ने निष्कर्ष दिइएको छ ।</p> <p>(Rituvichara Khandakavya has been analyzed on the basis of Paurastya Darshan's notions of ignorance(avidya) and love (maya) in this article. The necessary material for this research article has been collected from library sources and deductive method has been used in the construction of the theoretical base. In this sequence, the Upanishad, Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa, Vedanta and Buddhist philosophy related to Avidya were studied and Rituvichara Khandakavya was carefully read and the main verses expressing thoughts on Avidya were identified and analyzed. In the end, although the main decorative theme of Rituvichar Khandakavya is nature depiction related to changing seasons, the thematic symbols related to spirituality have come in the context of nature depiction. In this way, the thematic symbols related to spirituality in the poetry have also found a place within the main theme related to the natural changing seasons, and the thought about ignorance and love in Paurastya philosophy has also been expressed not as a cause to figure of speech but as a figure of speech. Although the influence of Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta in Avidya/Maya thinking expressed in this ode poem is consistent with Lekhnath's study and hearing, meditation and Nididhya; it has been concluded that the influence of Buddhist philosophy is the closeness of Buddhist philosophy with the above-mentioned philosophies, and earlier-cultural concept of the poet.)</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Progressive Professors' Association, Koshi Province, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/article/view/57798 स्नातकोत्तर तहको सेमेस्टर प्रणालीमा आन्तरिक मूल्याङ्कन प्रक्रिया (Internal Evaluation Process in Semester System of Postgraduate Level) 2023-08-20T08:03:47+00:00 रमेशप्रसाद Rameshprasad लुइटेल Luitel rluitel36@gmail.com <p>स्नातकोत्तर तहको सेमेस्टर प्रणालीमा आन्तरिक मूल्याङ्कन प्रक्रिया भन्ने शीर्षकमा आधारित भई यो लेख तयार पारिएको छ । यसको मुख्य उद्देश्य आन्तरिक मूल्याङ्कन प्रणालीको वर्तमान अवस्था पत्ता लगाई त्यसमा देखिएका समस्या समाधानको उपाय सुझाउनु रहेको छ । यो अध्ययन मुख्य गरी गुणात्मक ढाँचामा आधारित भई तयार पारिएको छ । तथ्याङ्क सङ्कलन गर्न अन्तर्वार्ता, प्रश्नावली,छलफल जस्ता साधनहरूको प्रयोग गरी निष्कर्षमा पुगिएको छ । सेमेस्टर प्रणाली सुरूवाती अवस्थाको चरणमा नै हुनु वार्षिक प्रणालीमा भन्दा यसमा धेरै कुरा फरक पर्नु, पठन पाठन समयमा समाप्तगर्न कठिन हुनु, विद्यार्थीहरू नियमित रूपमा अध्ययनका लागि कलेजमा आउनुपर्ने, शिक्षण सिकाइमा सक्रिय सहभागी हुनुपर्ने, ४०% अङ्कभारको मूल्याङ्कनमा उपस्थितिलाई ५अङ्क, कक्षा सहभागितालाई ५अङ्क त्यसपछि क्रमशः प्रथम आन्तरिक परीक्षा १०, दोस्रो १० र तेस्रो १० अङ्कको कार्यभारको मूल्याङ्कन सम्बन्धित विषय शिक्षकले लिई मूल्याङ्कन गर्नुपर्नेमा विद्यार्थी नियमित रूपले कक्षामा नआउनु, कक्षामा विद्यार्थी नै नआउँदा शिक्षकले केका आधारमा मूल्याङ्कन गर्ने प्रष्ट नहुनु मूल्याङ्कन प्रक्रियामा पूर्वाग्रहको सम्भावना हुनुले आन्तरिक मूल्याङ्कनको विश्वासनीयतामा नै प्रश्न चिह्न उठेको छ । यसको निराकरण गर्न&nbsp; विद्यार्थीलाई कक्षामा अनिवार्य उपस्थिति गराउने वातावरण सृजना गर्नुपर्ने, आन्तरिक मूल्याङ्कनका लागि शिक्षकलाई प्रश्नपत्र निर्माण सम्बन्धमा तालिम दिनुपर्ने, मूल्याङ्कन प्रक्रियामा विश्वासनीयता बढाउन एक आपसमा अन्तर विषय मूल्याङ्कनगर्नुपर्ने तथा सबै विद्यार्थीलाई पढ्ने अवसर दिलाउन र नियमित उपस्थितिको वातावरण सृजना गर्न विश्वविद्यालयले विशेष नीति ल्याए सेमेस्टर प्रणालीको प्रभावकारी कार्यन्वयन हुन जान्छ र आन्तरिक मूल्याङ्कन प्रक्रिया पनि प्रभावकारी हुन्छ ।</p> <p>(This article has been prepared based on the title of internal evaluation process in the semester system of postgraduate level. Its main purpose is to find out the current state of the internal evaluation system and suggest ways to solve the problems found in it. This study is mainly based on a qualitative framework and conclusion has been reached by using instruments such as interviews, questionnaires, and discussions in collecting data. The semester system is in its early stage, it has many differences from the annual system, it is difficult to finish the study during the study period, the students should come to the college regularly for study, they should be active participants in the teaching and learning, though within 40% internal assessment,&nbsp; 5 points &nbsp;for attendance, 5 points for &nbsp;class participation, and ,&nbsp; first internal exam 10 points, the second 10 points and the third 10 points has been allocated; there is a possibility of bias in the evaluation process due to the lack of clarity on the basis of evaluation and due to the number of absentees in the classroom. In order to resolve this, the university should create an environment that makes attendance compulsory for students, teachers should be trained in the preparation of question papers for internal evaluation, inter-subject evaluation should be done to increase credibility in the evaluation process, and the university should bring a special policy to give all students the opportunity to study and create an atmosphere of regular attendance.)</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Progressive Professors' Association, Koshi Province, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/article/view/57801 नेपालमा जनजातीयता, भाषा, धर्म र संस्कृतिप्रति राज्यको दृष्टिकोण : हिजो र आज (The state's Vision towards Ethnicity, Language, Religion and Culture in Nepal: Past and Present} 2023-08-20T08:31:23+00:00 राम कुमार Ram Kumar राई Rai rkrai132@gmail.com <p>गोरखा राज्यको विस्तारदेखि हालसम्मको समयावधि भनेको करिब २८० हुन आउँछ र यस कालावधिमा नेपालमा जनजातीयता, भाषा, धर्म र संस्कृतिप्रति नेपाली राज्यको दृष्टिकोण के कस्तो रह्यो भन्ने कुरालाई गहन अध्ययन, विश्लेषणको विषय ठानी त्यसैलाई अध्ययनको मूल समस्याको केन्द्रमा राखेर त्यसैको याथार्थिक पक्ष पहिल्याउने उद्देश्यमा प्रस्तुत लेख केन्द्रित छ । द्वितीयक वा पुस्तकालयीय सामग्रीमा आधारित यो लेख पूर्णतया गुणात्मक एवम् विश्लेणात्मक पद्धतिमा आधारित छ । गोरखा राज्यको विस्तार वा पृथ्वी नारायण शाहले कोरेको राजनैतिक सीमानायुक्त नेपालको राज्यसत्ता धेरै कालसम्म एकात्मक र केन्द्रीकृत प्रवृत्तिको रह्यो ।विस्तारित राज्यको निर्माणसँगै शोषक र शासित वर्ग छुट्टियो र जित्नेले शासक बनेर शासन गरे भने हार्नेले दोस्रो दर्जाको नागरिक भई बाँच्न बाध्य पारिए । त्यसपछिको एक जातीय धर्म, भाषाको खेतीले भिन्न संस्कृति, भाषा, धर्म र जातिका पराजित समुदायहरूलाई भावनात्मक रूपमा एकीकरण गर्नुको साटो नियन्त्रणमा राख्ने काम ग¥यो । शासक वर्गीय राज्यको नेतृत्वले हिन्दु आर्य मोर्चाबाट सबै काम फत्ते गर्ने सोचले पराजित जनजातिहरूलाई राज्य संरचनाबाट अलग गराए भने मान्छेलाई दलित बनाई घर, परिवार, मन्दिर र सार्वजनिक जीवनमा प्रवेश निषेध ग¥यो । चार जात, छत्तीस वर्णको खेतीमा एक भाषा, धर्म, संस्कृति र एक राज्यको वकालत गरियो । २०४६ मा पुनस्र्थापित प्रजातान्त्रिक व्यवस्थापछि बनेको २०४७ को संविधानले राज्यले नागरिकका बिच धर्म, वर्ण, जात–जाति, लिङ्ग, उत्पत्ति, भाषा वा वैचारिक आस्था आदिकोे आधारमा भेद्भाव नगर्ने, प्रत्येक समुदायले आफ्नो भाषा, धर्म, संस्कृति, सांस्कृतिक सभ्यता र सम्पदाको संरक्षण र सम्बर्धन गर्न पाउँने व्यवस्था ग¥यो । जन आन्दोलन २ (२०६२/६३) को जनादेशपछि बनेको अन्तरिम संविधान २०६३ ले नेपाललाई बहुजातीय, बहुधार्मिक, बहुसांस्कृतिक विशेषतायुक्त बहुभाषिक राष्ट्र र नेपालमा बोलिने सबै मातृभाषाहरूलाई राष्ट्र भाषा मान्यो । सबै नागरिकका बिच धर्म, वर्ण, जाति, लिङ्ग, उत्पत्ति, भाषा वा वैचारिक आस्थाको आधारमा भेदभाव नगर्ने व्यवस्थाका साथै समानता एवम् सहअस्तित्व कायम हुनु पर्ने र सबैको भाषा, साहित्य, कला र संस्कृतिको समान विकास मार्फत् देशको सांस्कृतिक विविधता कायम राख्ने भावना व्यक्त ग¥यो भने २०७२ को संविधानले त्यसको मर्मलाई आत्मसात् गरी नेपालको बहुजातीयता, बहुधार्मिक, बहुभाषिक, बहुसांस्कृतिकतालाई आम नेपालीले अनुभूत गर्न सक्ने बनाएको निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत छ ।</p> <p>(The period from the expansion of the Gorkha state to the present time is about 280 years and the present article is focused on the objective of finding out the realistic aspects of the state's vision towards ethnicity, language, religion and culture in Nepal during this period. This article based on secondary or library material is completely based on qualitative and analytical method. The state power of Nepal remained unitary and centralized for a long time in the expanded Gorkha state or the political boundary drawn by Prithvi Narayan Shah. With the construction of the expanded state, the exploiters and the ruled class were separated and the winners ruled as rulers, while the losers were forced to live as second class citizens. After that the mono-lingual, mono-cultural and mono-racial system cultivated, worked to control the defeated communities of different cultures, languages, religions and castes instead of uniting them emotionally. The leadership of the ruling class&nbsp; separated the defeated tribes from the state structure with the thought of deriving all the work from the Hindu Arya Morcha, making people Dalits and prohibiting them from entering their homes, families, temples and public life. They advocated single language, religion, culture and one state in the association of four races and thirty-six castes. The Constitution of 2047, which was made after the restoration of the democratic system in 2046, stipulates that the state shall not discriminate among citizens on the basis of religion, race, caste, gender, origin, language or ideological beliefs, and that each community shall be able to protect and promote its language, religion, culture, cultural civilization and heritage. The Interim Constitution 2063 made after the mandate of Jan Andolan 2 (2062-63) considered Nepal as a multi-ethnic, multi-religious, and multilingual nation with multi-cultural characteristics and all the mother tongues spoken in Nepal as the national language. The conclusion is presented that the constitution of 2072 has absorbed the essence of Nepal's multi-ethnic, multi-religious, multi-lingual and multi-cultural people, expressing the feeling that there should be equality and co-existence between all citizens on the basis of religion, race, caste, gender, origin, language or ideological belief, as well as maintaining equality and coexistence and maintaining the cultural diversity of the country through the equal development of language, literature, art and culture.)</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Progressive Professors' Association, Koshi Province, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/article/view/57804 Ideal Practices and Dowry System in the Muslim Communities of Nepal 2023-08-20T11:17:57+00:00 Chandra Upadhyay chandra.upadhyay@mmamc.tu.edu.np <p>This paper analyzes the ideal practices and the dowry system in Muslim communities in Nepal. Here, the term “ideal practices” refers to a system or set of practices that include the effectiveness of human experience and behavior, including traditions, customs, and social practices prevalent in a community. Muslim communities in Nepal follow their own way of life based on Islamic ideals. Amidst the ideal practices, the dowry system is prevalent among them. However, the system, as practiced in contemporary Muslim society, has been reported as a social and economic barrier. This paper, based on a descriptive research design and a qualitative approach, answers the question of what dowry is for Muslims, how they practice it, and why they socially discard the practice. It uses both secondary and primary data. The secondary data were collected through reviews of published books on Muslims in Nepal, and the literature available in archives and e-resources. Similarly, the primary data were collected through interviews, focus group discussions, and field observations in Morang and Sunsari districts of Nepal’s Terai. This article also uses local stories to understand the prevalence of the dowry system in the Muslim community. The analysis of various stories indicates that the dowry system is prevalent in the Muslim community due to the fanaticism of the community, superstition, greed, personal intention, social imitation, and level of perception. This research concludes that efforts such as adherence to Islamic ideals against dowry, socialization, awareness, and education can have a positive effect on controlling dowry. The paper contributes to social awareness against the dowry system among Muslims and other communities in Nepal.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Progressive Professors' Association, Koshi Province, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/article/view/57805 Practices of Gender-Responsive Budgeting in Nepal 2023-08-20T11:36:25+00:00 Padma Koirala padma.koirala@tucded.edu.np <p>This paper attempts to analyze gender-responsive budgeting (GRB) practices in Nepal. Gender-responsive budgeting (GRB) is an approach to budgeting that uses an interrelated gender lens to respond to the diverse experiences of gender-diverse groups. This budgeting is also known as gender budgeting. This paper is based on descriptive research design and mixed research methods as well as secondary. Secondary data were collected from the reviews of Gender Responsive Budgeting reports and articles. Both archives and digital sources were used to search review materials. The findings of this paper show that GRB is a fiscal policy or administration that is used for promoting gender equality for girls and women. It provides a tangible framework for mobilizing budgets through a wide range of actors to address the gender-differentiated gaps to achieve desirable gender equality outcomes. Indeed, GRB can enter any stage of the budget cycle by identifying the prominent efforts. This paper concludes that gender issues became at the center of inclusive development since ancient times in Nepal. The fiscal policy tries to address GRB from2007/08 with progressive efforts, although the implementation of GRB faces a lot of challenges and barriers to achieving desirable outcomes. Despite this, the international community has recognized the effort of Nepal as a prominent GRB process.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Progressive Professors' Association, Koshi Province, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/article/view/57806 Earthquake Preparedness Knowledge and Practice of Secondary Level 2023-08-20T11:51:32+00:00 Punam Kumari Mandal poomandal@gmail.com Dipika Khadgi dipika.khadgi@brnc.tu.edu.np Shrijana Lage shrijana.lage@brnc.tu.edu.np Namita Yangden namita.yangden@brnc.tu.edu.np Sabitra Subedi sabitra.subedi@brnc.tu.edu.np <p>This paper attempts to analyze earthquake preparedness knowledge and practice of secondary-level students in Nepal. In this paper, earthquake preparedness knowledge and practice refer to the understanding and implementation of measures to minimize the potential damage and loss of life caused by earthquakes, including proper building design and construction, emergency planning, and regular drills and training for individuals and communities. Earthquake preparedness knowledge and practice are essential for secondary-level school students because the losses of mortalities, morbidities, and economics from earthquakes cannot be predicted in the world. In this paper, a descriptive research design and quantitative approach as well as primary sources of data were used. Primary data were collected from semi-structured questionnaires with the students of Grades 9 and 10 of the government school of Bhaktapur, Bagmati Province. Of the total 96 students were censused using the rule of thumb method. The findings show that about 91.7% reported they heard the earthquake preparedness, 16.9% prepared with a Go bag, and 2.1% practiced duck, cover, and hold methods during the shock of the earthquake. The result reveals that about 50 percent of the total students have adequate knowledge of earthquake preparedness while they have limited practice. It can conclude that adequate preparedness practices were needed for secondary-level students. In addition, they should be aware of and understand the causes, nature, and effects of natural hazards skills to enable proactive prevention and mitigation of disasters.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Progressive Professors' Association, Koshi Province, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/article/view/57807 Turtle-Based Ecotourism in the Betana Wetland of Nepal 2023-08-20T12:29:11+00:00 Ramchandra Adhikari ram.adhikari@pgc.tu.edu.np Rusu Basnet rusu.basnet@mmamc.tu.edu.np Birendra Bahadur Bista bbbista@gmail.com <p>This paper attempts to analyze turtle-based ecotourism in the Betana wetland of Koshi Province, eastern Nepal. Betana is considered a nature tourism area and tourists are enjoying undeveloped natural areas of wildlife while ecotourism is a form of tourism that involved responsible travel to natural areas, conserving the environment, and improving the well-being of the local people. Nowadays, both nature tourism and ecotourism is considered the inseparable pillar of the economic development of many developing countries, like Nepal. This paper is based on primary sources of data. Data were collected from field observation, questionnaire survey, interviews, and focus group discussions. The findings reveal that Betana Wetland is located accessible area of the East-West highway in Belbari Municipality of Morang district. The ideal condition of the wetland provides a natural habitat for turtle species. A large number of tourists visit day-by-day enjoying a good habitat of turtles. The figure indicates a total of 122100&nbsp; (75.23%) tourists visited the Betana wetland to watch turtles in&nbsp; 2017. Indeed it was 75.57 percent in 2016. The calculated F= 20.887, P value = 3.88, and F crit= 2.717 indicates that there is a close association between the patterns and the number of tourists visiting this area in different months in 2016 and 2017. The paper concludes that a visitor spent about 2.81 hours in the Betana wetland and an hour watching and playing with turtles (68.46%) for feeding, watching (9.17%), teasing (10.85%), and trying to capture (5.84%). This paper suggests that specific attention should be given to the conservation of the Betana wetland for establishing a spot of the turtle based-tourism.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Progressive Professors' Association, Koshi Province, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/article/view/57808 Knowledge on Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV among Pregnant Women of Damak 2023-08-20T12:51:17+00:00 Sabitra Subedi sabitra.subedi@brnc.tu.edu.np Punam Kumari Mandal poomandal@gmail.com Archana Choudhary achoudhary@gmail.com <p>The goal of the global intervention is to stop the spread of HIV from an HIV-positive mother to her unborn child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. A significant issue with world health is HIV. In comparison to other age groups, the prevalence of HIV is highest among those who are in reproductive age groups globally. The main method of HIV transmission among children is now mother-to-child transmission.. The main objective of the study is to assess the level of Knowledge on the Prevention of Mother-Child Transmission among Pregnant Women at Damak Hospital. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the ANC clinic of Damak Hospital from June 2 to June 15 in 2019. A complete enumerative sampling technique was used. The total sample size was 80. All the required information was collected through the interview schedule. The interview was taken by an investigator oneself in a face-to-face interview with the pregnant woman. Among 80 respondents, the mean age of the respondent was 25.84 years of which 42.5% were Primigravida and 57.5% of the respondents were Multigravida. Similarly, 37.5% of respondents had higher education and above. Most (76.3%) of respondents mentioned books as the major source of information. Among the studied respondent, 8.8% of the respondents have good knowledge, 58.8% have moderate knowledge and 32.4% have poor knowledge of PMTCT. The level of knowledge was statistically associated with occupation (p=0.04) whereas the level of knowledge was not associated with other socio-demographic variables: age groups, gravida. In this study, respondents have a moderate level of knowledge on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission and the level of knowledge was statistically associated with the occupation of respondents.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Progressive Professors' Association, Koshi Province, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/article/view/57809 Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption and Knowledge on its Consequences among Young Adult in Ward Number Five at Kachan Kawal Municipality, Nepal 2023-08-20T13:08:35+00:00 Saraswati Basnet basnetsaru64@gmail.com Sharmila Rajbonshi Sharaj@gmail.com <p>The harmful use of alcohol causes many disease, social and economic burden in societies. The harmful use of alcohol ranks among the top risk factors for disease, disability and death through world.&nbsp; youth, who start drinking before age 15 years are six time more likely to develop alcohol dependence or abuse later in life than those who begin drinking at or after age 20 years. Aim of the study is to find out the prevalence of alcohol consumption and knowledge on its consequences among young adult (19-39 years) young adult in ward number 5 at Kachan Kawal Municipality, Jhapa. Descriptive cross sectional research design was used in this study. Non probability purposive sampling technique was used to select 50 young adult and semi -structured interview schedule was used to collect data. Data analysis was done on SPSS version 20.0. Descriptive statistics i.e. frequency, mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics i.e. chi square test was used to find the association between dependent and independent variable The finding of the present study revealed that out of 50 respondent 70% had current drinker, with male 44% outnumbering female 24%. Among those consumed alcohol 83.33% have used it before the age of 20 years. More than half of the respondents had been good knowledge on consequences of alcohol consumption i .e 56.0% and 44.0% had poor knowledge. It was concluded that alcohol consumption was high among male than female. There is association between level on knowledge on consequences and alcohol consumption and socio demographical variables.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Progressive Professors' Association, Koshi Province, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bdkan/article/view/57810 Potentiality and Threats of Avocado Farming in Eastern Hills of Nepal 2023-08-20T14:14:20+00:00 Shyam Prasad Wagle wagleshyam641@gmail.com <p>Innovative and profitable agriculture has become indispensable for the supply of food and nutrients to people as well income generation. Thus, this study deals with the feasibility of commercial avocado farming including the analysis of problems related to this especially in the case of eastern hilly areas of Nepal. This study applied household questionnaire survey, key informant survey, focus group discussions and field observation to collect relevant primary information. Previous research journals, dissertations, books and official records were used as the major sources of secondary data collection. This study covers the entire area of Ward No. 3 of &nbsp;Dhankuta Municipality. Around, 44 percent (223hhs) farm households were selected as a sample out of the total 506 households of this area based on Yamane's sample determination formula (1967).This study proves that the agriculture system can be made profitable and useful through carefully using of new high valued crops. It reveals that avocado is a new commercial crop with maximum potential in the hilly areas of eastern including both challenges and opportunities. Moreover, this study also confirms that the avocado farming is not only a profitable business but also a risky and challenging. The farmers are facing various socio-economic challenges while doing this cultivation. Thus, the conclusion of the study is that the new agricultural activities are not free from challenges so that farmers must be faced patently to achieve success. This conclusion conveys the message that the success achieved only by facing barriers is sustainable.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Progressive Professors' Association, Koshi Province, Nepal