BMC Journal of Scientific Research https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr <p>The BMC Journal of Scientific Research is published by the Research Management Cell of Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal.</p> en-US sitaram.thapa@bimc.tu.edu.np (Prof. Dr. Sita Ram Bahadur Thapa) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 22 Dec 2023 15:29:42 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Quality of Life Among Elderly People in Chitwan District, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60949 <p>As the world's elderly population grows, the Quality of Life (QoL) of the elderly becomes an emerging issue and plays a vital role in social development. The aim of this study was to assess the QoL of elderly people in the Chitwan district, Nepal. An analytical cross-sectional study design was employed to evaluate the Quality of Life (QoL) among the elderly residing in the 17 wards encompassing all municipalities and the metropolitan area. The sampling method employed was Probability Proportionate to Size (PPS), which facilitated the selection of 26 respondents from each of the chosen wards. In total, 442 elderly individuals were recruited from the community and surveyed using the WHOQoL-brief questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data in SPSS 20. Most of the elderly mentioned neutral status in both overall QoL (71%) and satisfied with their health status (48.4%). Elderly aged 60-69 years had higher QoL scores in the physical (p&lt;0.007) and psychological (p&lt;0.014) domains compared to other age groups. There was statistically significant association of physical domain with age group, marital status, religion, and presence of chronic illness. The psychological domain was associated with age group, education, religion, and presence of chronic illness. The social domain was associated with marital status, type of family, education, ethnicity, and presence of chronic illness. The environmental health domain was associated with sources of family income, marital status, education, different living arrangements, religion, ethnicity, and presence of chronic illness. All QoL domains showed a positive correlation (p&lt;0.01) with each other as well as with the overall health and quality of life of elderly people. The overall health status and QoL of elderly people was neutral. As increasing the age of the elderly, almost domains of quality of life were declining. Living arrangement with family was associated with the environmental health domain. The absence of chronic illness was associated with all domains of the quality of life of the elderly.</p> Jiwan Kumar Poudyal, Dhanendra Veer Shakya, Sumitra Parajuli, Govinda Prasad Dhungana Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60949 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Theoretical Investigation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Lead-free Ternary Alloys Sn-Sb-Bi and their Subsystems https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60950 <p>The concentration-dependent properties, like the constituents’ activities for the binary liquid alloys like Sb-Sn at 905 K, Bi-Sn at 600 K, and Bi-Sb at 1200 K, and the integral Gibbs free energy of mixing, ΔG<sup>XS</sup>, of the correspondent alloys were computed using the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM). Further, the model has been used to compute the activities of the component Sn in the ternary Sn-Sb-Bi system at 900K at the three cross-sections, i.e., Sb:Bi = 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1. The theoretical data have been analyzed with the corresponding experimental data accessible in the literature. An acceptable concurrence has been obtained, with some inconsistencies. The activities of the ternary alloys along the three cross-sections, i.e., Sb:Bi = 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1, show that the deviations change from positive to negative with increasing Sb content. The results confirm that MIVM is a good model for estimating the thermodynamic properties of binary and ternary systems.</p> Sanjay Kumar Sah, Indu Shekhar Jha, Ishwar Koirala Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60950 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Surface Tension of Liquids (Water, Chloroform and Acetone) by Capillary Rise Method https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60948 <p>Surface tension is a crucial property of liquids that depends on the liquid's composition. This study aims to compare the surface tension of water, chloroform, and acetone using the capillary rise method. It involves using a capillary tube with a known radius, dipping it vertically into a liquid, and measuring the height to which the liquid rises in the tube. The surface tension of the liquid can then be measured experimentally. This relates to height of the liquid in the tube, the radius of the tube, and the surface tension of the liquid. The height of the liquid in the tube is dependent on the radius of the tube, with a smaller radius resulting in a greater height. The surface tension of the liquid is inversely related to the radius of the capillary tube.</p> Dipak Raj Adhikari, Tek Bahadur Budha, Anup Basnet, Shesh Kant Adhikari, Shiva Pd. Baral Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60948 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Fiber Yielding Plants of Devchuli Municipality Ward no.13, Nawalparasi https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60951 <p>Ethnobotany deals with the study of the use of plants by humans and the relation between humans and vegetations. The indigenous people around the world have established their own local knowledge on plant utility, management and conservation since time immemorial. It has attracted much attention in recent years. In Devchuli-13 (Daldale) area, local people depend on fiber yielding plants in their daily life because most of them do farming and rearing animals. These plants are mostly used while collecting fodder and dried tree branches from the near forest or pasture lands. The total of 52 fiber yielding plants species belonging to 45 genera and 24 families has been documented among them. Poaceae family with 17 species is largest. Large number of plant species found are herbs (about 39%) are herbs followed by trees, shrubs and climbers. Among these plant 21 species are mostly used by the local people. Most of these plants are used for making ropes baskets, mats followed by making brooms. The most common parts used are whole plant of herbs, stem/bark of trees (xylem, phloem, cortical fibers) while roots are very rarely used. Large number of highly valuable plants are reported which can improve the economic condition of people or creating the scope for small businesses. Documentation of ethnobotanical knowledge of traditional practices is gradually going to disappear from the elder to younger generations. So, proper documentation of fiber yielding plants with their economic value is very important. Addressing these set of skill is very important to eradicate the immerging problem of unemployment.</p> Pooja Pokharel, Manoj Kumar Lal Das Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60951 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Quality and Damping Factor at First and Second Resonance of Closed Organ Pipe https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60953 <p>The quality factor is a dimensionless physical quantity related to the damping factor present in the medium. The sound is recorded from the resonance tube experiment at the first and second resonating lengths. It is analyzed by PRAAT software to calculate the quality and damping factor. The quality factor varies from 12.50 to 146.70 and 6.32 to 130.95 at first and second resonant length respectively. In case of damping factor, it varies from 3.50x10<sup>−3</sup> to 40.00x10<sup>−3</sup> and 3.82 x10<sup>−3</sup> to 79.11x10<sup>−3</sup> at respective first and second resonating length. The ratio of the quality factor of the second resonance to that first resonance varies from 0.49 to 0.97 and for the damping factor that ratio varies from 1.02 to 2.02. The quality factor is higher at the first resonating length than at the second resonating length. The damping factor is lower in the first resonating length than in the second resonating length. From the experiment on the closed organ pipe, it was found that the system is under-damped due to the damping factor of less than one. At the first and second resonating lengths the relation between quality and damping factor is inversely nature.</p> Shesh Kant Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60953 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Ethnobotanical and Phytochemical Study of Houttuynia cordata Thunb: A Review https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60954 <p>Houttuynia cordata Thunb. is a medicinal herb belonging to a family Saururaceae distributed in East Asian Country. It has long been used as edible vegetable and traditional medicine in China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam. Many studies describe Houttuynia cordata as predominant in bioactive compounds such as volatile oils, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, polyphenols, steroid and polysaccharides. H. cordata has varieties of pharmacological properties including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral antioxidative, anticancer and antimutagenic effects. This review aimed to collect the comprehensive information on efficacy of Houttuynia cordata with its ethnobotanical value and also provide knowledge into disease prevention and treatment. This study summarizes detailed information about ethnomedicinal value of H. cordata from searching the keywords “Uses of Houttuynia” in Google Scholor, Pubmed, Science direct and screened out articles related to ethnobotanical value. The review concluded that H. cordata has significant potential for use in pharmaceuticals and functional foods, given its numerous health benefits and low toxicity. This study suggests that, it is necessary to identify actual bioactive metabolites and understand pattern of traditional use of the plant in different location of Nepal.</p> Hari Devi Sharma, Janardan Lamichhane, Smriti Gurung, Balkumari Oliya Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60954 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Mandatory Corporate Social Responsibility on Beneficiary Institutions Satisfaction in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60955 <p>Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) became mandatory legislation since 2016/17, in Nepal. The aim of this study is to determine the beneficiary institutions satisfaction from the companies CSR activities in Nepal. Descriptive and causal comparative research design was applied. For that, structured questionnaires were used among 400 registered beneficiary institutions. Mean, standard deviation, correlation and regression analysis were performed by using IBM SPSS 25 version software. The results of this study showed a significant positive correlation between corporate CSR initiatives and the satisfaction of beneficiary institutions in Nepal. Out of eight parameters, three variables make a statistically positively significant contribution (p-value&lt;0.05) in beneficiary institutions satisfaction. The concern variables are company routinely visits the community through different CSR projects (BEN-CV). In case of any tear, wear, or depreciation in the community, assure the local company of their involvement (BEN-CI) and, companies conduct CSR programs for the uplifting community, from problems to prosperity (BEN-PP), whose beta value are 0.178, 0.171, and 0.373 respectively. Moreover, these days companies CSR program is more effective to the beneficiaries that play a meaningful role in society for nation’s sustainable development.</p> Sudip Wagle Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60955 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes about Plagiarism: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60956 <p>Plagiarism is the act of using someone else's ideas, words, or work without giving them proper credit and presenting it as your own. It is considered a serious ethical and academic offense in most educational institutions and professional settings. The main objective of this research was to find the level of knowledge and attitudes about plagiarism among university level students and various associated factors affecting for level of knowledge and attitudes.</p> <p>An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 288 universities level students using non probability sampling. Collected information was checked for completeness and coded with serial number and then analyzed using SPSS-22. Descriptive and inferential statistical tools were used for data analysis. In the descriptive statistics frequency and percentage were calculated for the categorical variable while mean and SD were calculated for continuous variables. In the inferential statistics to find the association between level of knowledge and attitude Chi-Square test were used. p-value &lt;0.05 was considered as statistically significant.</p> <p>The mean±SD of age was 24.4±3.15 years. This study revealed that 68.4% students know the meaning of plagiarism. Also, 46.2 % students had good (with 95% CI 40.44%-51.95%). Likewise, 51% students had positive attitude level of attitude (with 95% CI 45.22 %-56.77%). Academic year, level of education, type of university was found to be statistically significant with outcome variable (knowledge and attitude) (p-value&lt;0.05).</p> <p>More than half of university students were still unaware of the concept condition as well as of type, its significance, consequences and remedies for plagiarism. So, the academic community of concerned authorities needs to pay close attention, not just as a breach of ethics and regulations, in order to create a harmonious academic environment.</p> Hari Prasad Upadhyay, Bijay Lal Pradhan, Prativa Sedain Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60956 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Social Biases and Equity Investment Decisions of Individual Investors: Behavior Finance Perspective https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60957 <p>Individual investors may not always pose a rational decision on stock market and heavily guided by their behavioral and social biases. This study is delineated to examine the role of social factors in the decision-making process of individual investors. This study is based on quantitative research approach and utilized a 5-points Likert type closed-end structured questionnaire survey to collect the data from 269 individuals, invested in the firms listed at Nepal Stock Exchange (NEPSE). This study utilized reliability analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient and ordinary least square (OLS) method. Evidence indicates that herding, social interaction and media effect shows the positive influences on equity investment decision process of the investors. Finally, this study justified that social biases play the significant role for equity investment decisions of the individual investors through excessive follow the humor of the market place, over or under reaction of the information about securities, follow the suggestions and recommendations of peers, friends, family members and neighbors along with highly depend upon news, social medias and information of so-called experts of capital market that leads to investment mistakes. Hence, investors should strongly follow the proper information about stock and market, utilize their own knowledge about information processing and analysis, and try to reduce the biases while making decisions through information analysis and processing that may downsize the irrational decisions.</p> Mohan Prasad Sapkota, Shiva Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60957 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Customers' Trust in E-payment: The Influence of Security and Privacy https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60958 <p>Security and Privacy are the key factors in the digital payment platform. With the advancement of the technology the use of the digital payment platform has largely increased. How people perceive the security and privacy factors are important determining factors for using and not using the digital payment platform. Perceived ease of use and Perceived Usefulness also have a defining impact on individual's intention to use the digital payment platform. This paper tends to study the impact of security and privacy perceptions on customers trust among digital payment users and also the impact of perceived usefulness and perceived use of use on customers intention to use digital payment. For the purpose of the study 327 samples on the basis of past research conducted were collected and after the reliability and validity test, path analysis was employed to test hypothesis. The result suggests that security and privacy perceptions have significant impact on customers trust and also the trust do have significant positive impact on customer's intention to use. On the other hand perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness also have significant impact on customers intention to digital payment technology.</p> Omkar Poudel, Pradeep Acharya, Daya Simkhada Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60958 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ARIMA and Exponential Smoothing Model to Forecast Average Annual Precipitation in Bharatpur, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60959 <p>Precipitation includes different kinds of moisture that fall from the sky to the Earth's surface, like rain, snow, sleet, hail, or drizzle. In places with flat terrain like Bharatpur, rainfall is the predominant form of precipitation. Therefore, in the plains of Nepal, most of the precipitation comes in the form of rainfall. Rainfall is a natural occurrence known for its unpredictable nature, making it difficult to predict accurately. However, there are statistical methods that can help forecast future rainfall using past data. This research focuses on developing a reliable forecasting model: Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average and Exponential Smoothing for the prediction of average annual precipitation in Bharatpur, Nepal. The primary objectives are to develop, compare, and identify the superior model between these two approaches. Utilizing average annual adjusted precipitation data (PRECTOTCORR) obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration website for the period 1990 to 2021, both the models were trained and validated using distinct training and test sets. The comparison of these models is based on the minimum Mean Squared Error criterion. The findings reveal that the ARIMA (1, 2, 1) model effectively predicts average annual precipitation in Bharatpur for future periods, outperforming the Exponential Smoothing Model. The results indicate that the time series model for the studied area differs from those of previously examined regions, highlighting the need for a model tailored to the specific characteristics of this region. The research provides valuable insights for stakeholders involved in water management and agricultural planning within the region. Accurate rainfall predictions, as demonstrated by the superior performance of the ARIMA model, can empower decision-making processes related to water resource management and agricultural planning. This, in turn, has the potential to enhance productivity and sustainability outcomes.</p> Sarad Chandra Kafle, Ekta Hooda Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60959 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Intellectual Capital on Firms’ Performance: With Perspective of Commercial Banks in Chitwan https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60960 <p>Intellectual Capital (IC) is a term that refers to a firm's strategic assets that assist to enhance the performance. The main purpose of this research is to examine the impact of Intellectual Capital on firms' performance in with perspective of banking sectors. To assess the many aspects that can potentially have an impact on the performance of the firm, previous research and necessary documentation relating intellectual capital and its associated factors were reviewed. Similarly, descriptive and casual comparative research design were used. The population of this study is employees of commercial banks in Chitwan who hold the position of branch manager and/or above. To meet the objectives of this study, google form questionnaire was administered and sent to 75 branch managers. Out of which 48 responses were completed which were taken as sample that included tick mark questions, multiple-choice questions, and 5-point Likert scale questionnaires. The approach of non-probability purposive sampling was used. The dependent variable is firm performance, while the independent variable is Intellectual Capital (human, structural and customer capital). Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (percentage, mean, and SD) and inferential statistics (correlation coefficient, multiple regression). The finding showed that customer capital was one of the most important determinants of a firm's performance, but structural capital and human capital were not statistically significant predictors at the 5% level of significance. This study may be a valuable piece of research works for academicians, practitioners, and the management body of any concerned organizations.</p> Udaya Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60960 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of GDP and Inflation on Stock Market in India: A Case Study of BSE Index https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60961 <p>Stock market is affected by various factors. Among them, gross domestic product and inflation are the major variables. This research paper focuses how GDP and inflation affect the Indian stock market. Objective of this study is to examine the association between real GDP, inflation, and the performance of the Indian stock market. This research studies the impact of GDP and Inflation on volatility between the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and macroeconomic variables. The analysis uses a multiple regression equation model to examine how these factors interact. The data collected consists of annual records of Real GDP and the inflation rate spanning from 1980 to 2021. The result shows that there is the strong positive correlation between GDP and BSE index. Similarly, there is the moderate negative correlation between Inflation and BSE index. The regression model provides the very strong impact of independent variables on the BSE index where independent variables are explaining 88.5% variation in BSE Index. Also, BSE increases 17.08% with a one percentage point GDP growth, where as one percentage increase in Inflation makes 2.17% decrease in BSE. The study found the microeconomic variable GDP and Inflation used in regression analysis are good explanatory variables. The regression model developed in this study is important in explaining the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. Stock market performance is typically shaped by various macroeconomic factors, including interest rates, remittances, foreign direct investment, per capita income, and dividends. However, the current research only employs two explanatory variables to analyze stock prices. Therefore, there is an opportunity for further investigation to elucidate how these additional explanatory variables impact stock prices. Findings of the research help the concerned stakeholders for making policy and aware them in the investment plans.</p> Satyendra Kushwaha, Sarad Chandra Kafle, Baburam Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60961 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness of People on Functions of Local Government in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60962 <p>The article aims to investigate local people's awareness level of the functions of local government in Nepal and identifies the primary factor contributing to raising awareness. The author analyzed 2020 social inclusion survey data using SPSS software, performing a Chi-square test and logistic regression. Results show a high association between gender and awareness level, and development plans are the most significant contributor to increasing awareness levels. Researcher has found that the overall awareness level of people in Nepal is moderate. The author only investigates awareness level and contributing factors of awareness in this article.</p> Lila Prasad Limbu Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60962 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Based Knowledge on the Reservation System in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60964 <p>The reservation system encourages equity under the law, which upholds the rights and duties of impoverished populations, making it a democratic decision. However, public awareness is essential for effectively implementing and exercising the reservation system. So, this study analyses the relationship between gender and knowledge of a reservation system using data from the Social Inclusion Survey conducted by Nepal Government in 2020. The author used SPSS software and conducted parametric and non-parametric tests, including Chi-square and binary logistic regression. Through this analysis, it is found that there is a close relationship between gender and knowledge of the reservation system because the p-value of the Chi-Square test is 0.00. Nevertheless, the logistic regression result proved that people have moderate knowledge of the reservation system and suggested that education and training initiatives are needed to improve people's awareness of the reservation system.</p> Purnima Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60964 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ‘परमानन्द’ महाकाव्यमा छन्दविधान https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60965 <p>कवि हिरालाल कँडेल ‘परमानन्द’ महाकाव्यका रचयिता हुन् । यो काव्यकृति पूर्वीय छन्दशास्त्रीय मान्यताअनुरूप लेखिएको छ । पूर्वीय, पाश्चात्य र नेपाली समालोचकहरूले छन्दलाई काव्यको उपकरण मानेको देखिन्छ । लौकिक र वैदिक गरी दुई वर्गमा विभाजित यसको लौकिकवर्गअन्तर्गत वृत्त र जातिजस्ता दुई भेद देखाइएका छन् । अक्षरको गणना हुने भएकाले वार्णिक र वर्णमात्रिक छन्दहरू वृत्तवर्गअन्तर्गत र ह्रस्वलाई एक अनि दीर्घलाई दुई मात्रामा गणना गरिने भएकाले मात्रिक छन्दहरू सबैलाई जातिवृत्तभित्र राखिएको छ । नेपालका समाजसुधारक र वीतरागी सज्जनपुरुष परमानन्द गुरुको चरित्राङ्कनका साथै उनका समाजरूपान्तरणसम्बन्धी अनेक सत्कर्मलाई यस महाकाव्यको कथावस्तुमा ठाउँ दिइएको छ । सत्ताइस सर्गको विस्तृत संरचनात्मक आयाम पाएको यस महाकाव्यमा चौधवटा बहुप्रचलित शास्त्रीय वार्णिक छन्दहरू प्रयोग भएका छन् । आचार्य पिङ्गलद्वारा रचित ‘छन्दसूत्र’नामक लक्षणग्रन्थ र त्यसका आधारमा विकसित गणसूत्र, गति, यति, लय, अक्षरसङ्ख्या र सम, अर्धसम तथा विषमवृत्तका शास्त्रीय मान्यतामा आधारित भई ‘परमानन्द’ महाकाव्यमा प्रयुक्त सबै छन्दहरूको यस शोधलेखमा विश्लेषण–परीक्षण गरिएको छ । विश्लेषणका क्रममा मुख्यतया यस काव्यका पद्यपङ्क्तिहरूमा गति, यतिको अवस्था र अक्षरभङ्गता खोजी गर्ने चेष्टा भएको छ । छन्दमिलानका लागि प्रचलित वर्णविन्यास व्यवस्थामाथिको अपचलन र यसप्रकारका दोषसमष्टिबाट छन्दोभङ्ग हुँदा भावास्वादनमा उत्पन्न जटिलता सङ्केत गर्न महाकाव्यीय पद्यपङ्क्तिलाई साक्ष्यका रूपमा अगाडि सारिएको छ । छन्दप्रयोगमा युक्तियुक्तता ठम्याउने उद्देश्यबाट गरिएको यस अध्ययनलाई समस्याकेन्द्री बनाइएको छ ।</p> दामोदर रिजाल [Damodar Rijal] Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60965 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 योद्धा उपन्यासमा वर्गपक्षधरता https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60966 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख यदुनाथ भट्टराईद्वारा लिखित योद्धा उपन्यासमा अभिव्यक्त वर्गपक्षधरता अध्ययनमा केन्द्रित छ । यस लेखमा उपन्यासलाई माक्र्सवादी ऐतिहासिक द्वन्द्वात्मक भौतिकवादी कसीमा राखी वर्गीय पक्षधरता अध्ययन गरिएको छ । नेपाल कम्युनिस्ट पार्टी माओवादीले २०५२ सालदेखि सुरुवात गरेको जनयुद्धकालीन परिवेश र घटनाहरूलाई विषयवस्तु बनाइएको यस उपन्यासमा निम्नवर्गीय समस्या, उत्पीडन तथा तिनै वर्गको सक्रियतामा सुरुवात गरिएको वर्गीय सङ्घर्षका उद्देश्यहरूलाई महइभ्व दिई सोही वर्गको हक, हितका पक्षमा वकालत गरिएको छ । त्यसैले यस लेखमा योद्धा उपन्यासमा वर्गपक्षधरता कसरी अभिव्यक्त गरिएको छ भन्ने प्राज्ञिक जिज्ञासा समाधान गर्ने उद्देश्यमा अध्ययनलाई केन्द्रित गरिएको छ । उपन्यासमा जनयुद्धमा कमान्डर बनेका प्रमुख पात्रहरूका बाल्यकालीन जीवनशैली, पहाडी भूभागका समस्या तथा सेना, पुलिसको जागिर छोडेर जनयुद्धमा समर्पित भई बलिदानीका साथ लडेका साहसिक क्रियाकलापलाई मुख्य विषयवस्तु बनाइएको छ । गाउँका सामन्त, शोषकहरूले राज्यसंयन्त्रसँगै शक्ति, सत्ताको पक्षमा लागेर निहत्था जनतालाई दुःख दिएका तथा चरम यातना दिएर मारेका घटनाहरू उपन्यासमा चित्रण गरिएको छ । उपन्यासमा जनयुद्धमा सहभागी सबै पात्रहरूमा वर्गीय पक्षधरता देखिन्छ । तत्कालीन निरङ्कुश राजतन्त्रात्मक संसदीय प्रणाली विरोधी आन्दोलनका रूपमा सुरुवात गरिएको जनविद्रोह नै वर्गयुद्ध रहेको देखिन्छ । यसलाई दमन गर्न अन्य राजनीतिक दलसमेत लागेको देखिन्छ । उपन्यासमा तत्कालीन माओवादी पार्टीले सुरुवात गरेको जनयुद्धलाई पृष्ठभूमि बनाएर पात्रहरूले गरेका विद्रोहपूर्ण सङ्घर्षमा वर्गपक्षधरतालाई सचेत रूपमा चित्रण गरिएको छ । जनयुद्ध समाजमा रहेका जातीय, वर्गीय, लैङ्गिक विभेद तथा सबै प्रकारका उत्पीडनबाट मुक्तिका चाहनामा लक्षित रहेको सन्देश उपन्यासले दिएको छ । समाजमा व्याप्त राजनीतिक, आर्थिक, सामाजिक शोषण, दमन र अन्यायका विरुद्धमा चलाएका अभियानहरूमा उपन्यासलाई केन्द्रित गरिएको छ । यसर्थ यस लेखमा ‘योद्धा’ उपन्यासमा उत्पीडित वर्गीय, श्रमजीवी तथा सर्वहारा वर्गीय पक्षधरता रहेको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> प्रभा मरहठ्ठा कोइराला [Prabha Marahatta Koirala] Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60966 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 विश्वेश्वरप्रसाद कोइरालाको ‘सान्नानी’ कथामा प्रजाति https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60967 <p>प्रस्तुत आलेखमा साहित्यकार विश्वेश्वरप्रसाद कोइरालाको ‘सान्नानी’ कथामा प्रजातिको अध्ययन गरिएको छ । यो समाजशास्त्रीय सिद्धान्तको मान्यतामा आधारित अध्ययन हो । समाजशास्त्रले साहित्यको समाजसँग रहेको सम्बन्धको खोजी गर्दै त्यसको व्याख्या, विश्लेषण गर्दछ । कलासाहित्यलाई व्यक्तिगत प्रतिभा र चिन्तनको उपज मानिन्छ । त्यस उपजले सामाजिक मूल्यमान्यता, परम्परा, विश्वास र आस्था प्राप्त गर्दछ । त्यसैले साहित्य व्यक्तिद्वारा सृजना गरिए पनि त्यो सामाजिक अभिव्यक्तिका रूपमा देखापर्दछ । साहित्यको समाजशास्त्रीय सिद्धान्तका विभिन्न आधारमध्ये प्रजाति, क्षण र परिवेश रहेको छ । तसर्थ यस लेखमा विश्वेश्वरप्रसाद कोइरालाको ‘सान्नानी’ कथामा प्रजातिको अध्ययन गरिएको छ । प्रजातिको अध्ययनका विविध आधारमध्ये सहज आनुवंशिक गुण, समान सांस्कृतिक विशेषता, जलवायु र भूगोल, खानपान र शारीरिक संरचनालाई मुख्य आधार बनाई व्याख्या विश्लेषण गरिएको छ ।</p> राजेन्द्र गिरी [Rajendra Giri] Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/bmcjsr/article/view/60967 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000