CHINTAN-DHARA <p>The CHINTAN-DHARA is an annual publication of Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Campus Unit Committee, Dhankuta Multiple Campus, Dhankuta, Nepal. The Journal welcomes research-based articles and research papers with focus on themes of the scholars’ own disciplinary significance.</p> Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Dhankuta en-US CHINTAN-DHARA 2091-2714 Pedagogical Use of 21st Century Skills in Nepal <p>This paper presents a survey study on university faculties in Nepal about the understanding and pedagogical use of 21<sup>st</sup> century skills. The purpose of the study on use of 21st century skills in pedagogy by teachers is to understand how these skills can be effectively integrated into teaching and learning practices. This research helps to identify the existing practices for incorporating 21st century skills into instruction and can inform for the betterment in the development of teacher training and professional development programs to ensure that teachers are equipped with the knowledge and skills they need to effectively prepare students for success in the 21st century world.&nbsp; Both quantitative and qualitative information are used to investigate how Nepalese university teachers apply 21st century skills into their teaching to support students learning. The data were collected through online survey questionnaire among 309 participants followed by semi-structured interview with 14 participants. Based on the data analysis, it was found that higher education institution teachers in Nepal are using moderately using 21st century skills in pedagogical activities. Supporting with necessary digital tools and applications; institutional policy and guidelines; and continuous professional development programme can further enhance teachers 21st century skills use in pedagogical activities.</p> Bed Prasad Dhakal Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Campus Unit Committee, Dhankuta Multiple Campus, Dhankuta, Nepal. 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 1 13 10.3126/cd.v17i01.53252 Knowledge and Practice of Family Planning in the Danuwar Community at Panchkhal, Kavre <p>Family planning (FP) is one of the effective means to control rapid growth of population and to make desirable family size. It helps to maintain good health of mother, child as well as family. But in Nepalese community, the practice of family planning is not easily accepted by all the peoples due to various reasons such as social, cultural, religious, superstition, lack of proper Knowledge of FP, fear of losing health etc. The objective of this study was to identify the knowledge and practices of family planning methods in the Danuwar community at Panchkhal, ward no. 8, Pipaltar, Kavre. A descriptive study design was used for the study. Fifty percent households (99 households) were taken from total one hundred and ninety eight households through simple random Sampling method. The respondents were married Danuwar women aged from 15-49 years. Only one respondent was taken from each sample household. Interview schedules were used to collect the data.</p> <p>The finding of the study revealed that almost (97.98%) women heard about family planning. However 68.31 percent (male or female) had used FP devices or methods among 99 respondents. They had just used family planning devices or methods suggested by neighbors, friends or imitation of peer group. Most of all the respondent women had side effects of irregular menstruation who had used contraceptive temporary devices. Couples of the Danuwar preferred two numbers of children but the number of children they have borne about more than four because of Socio- belief. Almost all the preferred child was male because they thought that the male children will take-care their parents during their old age. There was not found child birth spacing in the study area. They have borne child almost every year.</p> Bishnumani Kafle Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Campus Unit Committee, Dhankuta Multiple Campus, Dhankuta, Nepal. 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 14 21 10.3126/cd.v17i01.53259 A Dialogue between Curriculum Development and Postmodern Perspectives: A Context of Local Knowledge <p>This article provides insights into curriculum development from a postmodern perspective on the sustainability and usability of local or indigenous knowledge systems. This paper examines the western thoughts that potentially affect local and indigenous knowledge by analyzing interviews with scholars involved in higher education and explores how western thoughts affect the existing Nepalese school curriculum. Although western thought permeates and pervades our educational practices, the benefits go to them implicitly by subordinating us. There is an argument in the article that postmodern ideas have originated in the womb of western understanding; the ideas in this article are argued to be adaptable to our curriculum development. The rationale behind it is that our current curriculum thinking, from Tayler to Hlynka and Yeaman’s outline of key postmodern thinking, ignores the indigenous nature of knowledge systems, largely othering them as subordinate knowledge. &nbsp;It explores that the developed curriculum should represent unheard voices, ignored realities, and the histories and experiences of underrepresented groups. The authors conclude by suggesting that policies, plans, and programs should be adapted to reflect the underrepresented and unheard voices of the society.</p> Devi Prasad Bhattarai Hom Bahadur Basnet Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Campus Unit Committee, Dhankuta Multiple Campus, Dhankuta, Nepal. 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 22 34 10.3126/cd.v17i01.53260 Socio-Demographic Status among Rural Municipalities in Humla District, Nepal: A Comparative Study <p>This study compares the status of rural municipalities in the Humla district of Nepal regarding various household and demographic variables. This paper aims to compare rural municipalities of the Humla district in terms of population, area, sex ratio, literacy ratio, dependency ratio, fuel used, drinking water, internet user, etc. It is based on secondary data from the central bureau of statistics (CBS). The descriptive and comparative design is used to explore the result. It analyzes the data from the perspective of rural development. Rural development is the process of creating wellbeing and ensuring the quality of life among rural people.&nbsp; This study revealed that there are unequal situations in rural municipalities. In some rural municipalities, there is a situation of demographic loss. There is a lack of well-being among people. Deficiencies and deprivation of socio-economic requirements are common for them. Rural areas in the northern belt have acute problems compared to the south-eastern belt of the district. Three tiers of government along with market and cooperative sectors must focus to launch their policy and program to uplift the miserable situation of rural municipalities in Humla district.</p> Gopal Khadka Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Campus Unit Committee, Dhankuta Multiple Campus, Dhankuta, Nepal. 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 35 43 10.3126/cd.v17i01.53261 Knowledge and Use of Family Planning Services in Pakhribash Municipality <p>The main objective of the study was to assess the awareness of family planning services among currently married women of age group 15-49 years and to identify the socio-economic and demographic determinants of use of family planning in Pakhribash Municipality. The study was based on descriptive design in nature using both primary and secondary sources of data; for the convenient of the study, the simple random sampling method was used to collect data likewise; the sample size of this study was 135 numbers of women of reproductive age group who married. The interview schedule was the main tool for collecting the data. In this study all, most all women 96.3% heard about family planning similarly, 90% of women had heard about Depo- Provera. In the same way, 73.1% married women who had ever used a family planning method in the life time but 62.3% women were currently using a family planning method at the time of survey.</p> Niraj Pradhan Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Campus Unit Committee, Dhankuta Multiple Campus, Dhankuta, Nepal. 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 44 53 10.3126/cd.v17i01.53262 Ethical Dilemma of Abortion in Francine Rivers’ Novel 'The Atonement Child' <p>Francine Rivers’s a 1997 realistic novel “The Atonement Child” presents ethical dilemma of abortion in a Western Christian society. When a young girl gets pregnant due to rape, aborting the baby seems to be the right thing to do for the good of the girl and her family, but they cannot easily do so as Christian ethics suggests against abortion in all situations. Conflict and confusion arise from this ethical dilemma of abortion, which the novelist has tried to resolve finally by adhering to Christian ethics and having the baby born beautiful and healthy and the whole family again coming to terms. When analyzed this ethical dilemma of abortion by subjecting it to the opposing principles of Consequentialism and Christianity as explained by Michael Banner in his book Christian Ethics and Contemporary Moral Problems, it is found that the resolution provided by the novelist is not a resolution in a truly practical sense; the ambiguity surrounding the wellbeing of the mother, child, and the entire family continues to exist.</p> Pradip Rai Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Campus Unit Committee, Dhankuta Multiple Campus, Dhankuta, Nepal. 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 54 63 10.3126/cd.v17i01.53264 Practice and Development of Agricultural Seed Management Technology in the Hilly Areas of Eastern Nepal <p>The use of new technologies in agricultural sector is the contemporary global concern issue. This study attempts to explore about the practice and development of seed management technology in the eastern hilly areas of Nepal including the analysis of major reasons and accociated problems. Moreover, it also seeks the perception of farmers towards this technology. In addition, the study applied household questionnaire survey, key informant survey and focus group discussion with local farmers in to collect relevant information. The household survey conducted in 20 percent (190hss) in total (601hhs) of the study area ranging from 250 to 1500 masl along the Koshi-highway.The relevant published and unpublished documents: previous research journals, books, dissertations and official records were also reviewed as secondary sources of information for this paper.</p> <p>This paper has showed that the technology is well known for the protection and promotion of both crops and vegetables farming in the study area. More than 78 percent (150hhs) farmers are using this as a useful and profitable technique. Despite various problems, the practice of this technology is gradually increasing in this area and the maximum practice is concentrated with vegetable farming. Although it was introduced through the inspiration of local research centers at first time, the role of neighbours, friends and television programs seems to be significant respectively in its development and expansion in the study area. This technology is the choice of the farmers and the majority of the farmers are in fovor of the development and expansion of the technology.</p> Shyam Prasad Wagle Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Campus Unit Committee, Dhankuta Multiple Campus, Dhankuta, Nepal. 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 64 75 10.3126/cd.v17i01.53265 ‘कुम्भकर्ण’ निबन्धमा जागरण र सुषुप्ति {Awakening and Slumbering (Susupti) in the essay 'Kumbhakarna'} <p>लक्ष्मीप्रसाद देवकोटाको कुम्भकर्ण निबन्धमा पौरस्त्य दर्शनसँग सम्बन्धित जागरण र सुषुप्तिसम्बन्धी प्रभावको निरूपण गर्नु नै यस अध्ययन पत्रको मुख्य विषयवस्तु हो । सर्वेक्षण, सूक्ष्म पठन तथा पाठविश्लेषणको विधि प्रयोग गरी समग्रमा विश्लेषणात्मक विधिमार्फत सामान्यीकृत निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत गरिएको यस निबन्धमा मानिसले आर्जन गरेका ज्ञानबाट जुन सत्य प्राप्त हुन्छ त्यो दर्शन हो भन्ने विचार प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । पौरस्त्य दर्शन वैदिक वाङ्मयबाट विकसित दर्शन हो । कर्म सिद्धान्तमा विश्वास गर्ने यस दर्शनले आत्मसंयम र साधनामा जोड दिएको छ । पौरस्त्य दर्शनका मूलभूत प्रस्थापनाहरूमध्ये ईश्वर, बन्धन, मोक्ष, सांसारिक निरर्थकता, जागरण, सुषुप्ति जस्ता विषयहरूको सचेत असचेत प्रभाव परेको उक्त निबन्धमा लङ्काधिपति रावण र उसको भाइ कुम्भकर्णको चारित्रिक र स्वभावगत विशेषताहरूको तुलना गर्दे कुम्भकर्णका पक्षमा निबन्धकारका विचार पोखिएका छन् । रावण जागरण र भौतिकताको प्रतीक हो भने कुम्भकर्ण सुषुप्ति र आध्यात्मिकताको प्रतीक हो । वैभवशाली राजा भएर पनि रावणले आनन्द लिन नसकेको तर निद्रामा कुम्भकर्णले अनन्तको आनन्द लिएको सन्दर्भ प्रस्तुत छ । आनन्द प्राप्तिका लागि सुषुप्तिको मार्ग अवलम्बन गर्नुपर्ने, सुषुप्ति सुख स्वरूप भएको र सुषुप्ति नै मोक्ष प्राप्तिको प्रमुख कारक हो भन्दै सुषुप्तिको पक्ष लिँदै जागरण दुःख स्वरूप भएकाले जागरणतर्फ प्रवृत्त हुन नहुने निष्कर्षात्मक भाव यस निबन्धमा व्यक्त गरिएको छ ।</p> <p>(The main theme of this study paper is to describe the effects of awakening and slumbering related to Paurastya philosophy in Kumbhakarna essay by Lakshmi Prasad Devkota. Using the survey methods, micro-reading and text analysis, generalized conclusions are presented through the overall analytical method. In this essay, the idea has been presented that the truth obtained from the knowledge acquired by humans is philosophy. Paurastya philosophy is a philosophy developed from Vedic literature. This philosophy, which believes in the principle of karma, emphasizes self-restraint and self-restraint. Among the basic principles of Paurastya philosophy, the conscious and unconscious influence of subjects like God, bondage, salvation, worldly futility, awakening, and sleeplessness have been influenced in the essay. In this essay, the writer's thoughts have been expressed in favor of Kumbhakarna by comparing the characteristics and temperament of the lord of Lanka, Ravana and his brother Kumbhakarna. Ravana is a symbol of awakening and physicality, while Kumbhakarna is a symbol of sleep and spirituality. There is a reference to the fact that despite being a glorious king, Ravana was not able to enjoy, but Kumbhakarna enjoyed eternity in his sleep. This essay has expressed the conclusion that one should follow the path of sushupti for happiness, that sushupti is a form of happiness and that sushupti is the main factor for attaining salvation.)</p> गुरुप्रसाद {Guru Prasad} पोखरेल {Pokharel} Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Campus Unit Committee, Dhankuta Multiple Campus, Dhankuta, Nepal. 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 76 84 10.3126/cd.v17i01.53266 प्रेमा शाहका संलग्न स्वकथनात्मक समाख्यानमा वाच्यत्व {Textuality Involved in Prema Shah's Memoiristic Narratology} <p>प्रस्तुत लेख प्रेमा शाहका संलग्न स्वकथनात्मक समाख्यानमा वाच्यत्व विश्लेषणमा आधारित&nbsp;&nbsp; छ । आख्यानको संरचना विश्लेषण गर्ने सैद्धान्तिक अवधारणालाई समाख्यानशास्त्र भन्छि । समाख्यानमा वाच्यत्वले समाख्याताको आवाजलाई बुझाउँदछ । समाख्याता स्वयम् पात्रका रूपमा कथासंसारभित्र उपस्थित भएर आफ्नो कथा आफै वाचन गरेको समाख्यानतालाई संलग्न स्वकथनात्मक समाख्यान भनिन्छ । समाख्यानमा समाख्याताले व्यक्त गरेका विचारहरूबाट वाच्यत्व पहिचान गर्न सकिन्छ । यसमा शाहका पहेँलो गुलाफ कथासङग्रहमा सङगृहीत ‘पहेँलो गुलाफ’ र ‘सिउँडीको झ्याङमा’ संलग्न स्वकथनात्मक कथालाई सोद्देश्य छनोट विधिका आधारमा लिई वाच्यत्व निरूपण गरिएको छ । यसमा पुस्तकालय अध्ययन विधिबाट प्राथमिक र द्वितीयक स्रोतका सामग्रीहरू सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । यसमा छनोट गरिएका कथालाई प्राथमिक स्रोत र ती कथासँग सम्बन्धित लेखरचना, अनुसन्धान, समालोचना र सैद्धान्तिक सामग्रीलाई द्वितीयक स्रोत सामग्रीका रूपमा लिई जेराट जेनेट, मिकि बल, रिमोन केनोन, जेनलगायतका समाख्यानाशास्त्रीहरूका वाच्यत्वसम्बन्धी सिद्धान्तलाई पाठ विश्लेषणको आधार बनाइएको छ । यसमा कथाको वाच्यत्वको निरूपणको लागि समाख्याताको आत्मगत अभिव्यक्ति, समाख्याताको दृष्टिकाोण, समाख्याताको पक्षधरता र विषयक्षेत्रको निर्धारण तथा पात्र चयनलाई आधार बनाई कथाहरूको गहन अध्ययन तथा विशलेषण गरी निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । यसमा सन्दर्भसामग्रीको प्रयोगमा ए. पि. ए. पद्धतिको प्रयोग गरिएको छ ।</p> <p>(The presented article is based on the textual analysis of Prema Shah's memoiristic narratology. The theoretical concept of analyzing the structure of a narrative is called narratology. Vocabulary in &nbsp;narratology (samakhyana) refers to the voice of samakhyana. Self-narrative narration is a narration in which the narrator himself is present in the world of the story as a character and recites his own story. Authorship can be identified from the ideas expressed by the editor in the Samakhyan. The autobiographical stories related to 'Yellow Rose' and 'Siundiko Jhangma' collected in Shah's Pehelo Gulaf Katha Sangrah have been determined based on the purposeful selection method. In this study, materials from primary and secondary sources have been collected through library study method. The selected stories are taken as primary sources and the writings, research, criticism and theoretical materials related to those stories as secondary source materials, the theory of textuality of historians such as Gerrat Janet, Mickey Ball, Rimon Keenon, Zen, etc. have been made the basis of text analysis. In order to determine the textuality of the story, an in-depth study and analysis of the stories have been presented, based on the self-expression of the author, the perspective of the author, the support of the author and the determination of the subject area and the selection of characters. In the use of reference materials. A. P. A. method has been used.)</p> लता {Lata} पौडेल {Poudel} Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Campus Unit Committee, Dhankuta Multiple Campus, Dhankuta, Nepal. 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 85 95 10.3126/cd.v17i01.53267 सामाजिक सञ्जालमा प्रस्तुत स्टाटसको समाजभाषिक दृष्टिले विश्लेषण {A Sociolinguistic Analysis of the Status Presented on Social Networks} <p>बढ्दो विज्ञानको प्रभाव र समाजमा सञ्चारको पहँुचका कारण आजभोलि सबैको हात हातमा सामान्य बनेको छ । मोवाइल फोनको कारणले साक्षर निरक्षर, धनी गरिब, उच्च निम्न, ठूला साना, सबैका लागि सामाजिक सञ्जाल समय कटाउने, सूचना लिने दिने र आफ्ना मनको बह पोख्ने थलो बनेको छ । राजनैतिक व्यक्तिदेखि उच्च पदस्त सबैले कुनै न कुनै सामाजिक सञ्जालको प्रयोग गरिरहेका हुन्छन् । सामाजिक सञ्जाल मध्ये पनि फेसबुक अधिकांशको रोजाइमा रहेको छ । फेसबुकमा प्रयोगकर्ताले स्टाटस लेख्ने गर्दछन् । स्टाटसले सुख दुःख मात्र नभई समाजको तत्कालको परिवेशलाई पनि उतार्ने काम गर्दछ । सामाजिक ढाँचा अनुसार पनि भाषामा प्रयोग हुने शब्दभण्डार तथा अभिव्यक्तिका अन्य फाँकीहरु समेत फरक फरक हुन्छन् । कुन भौगोलिक, साँस्कृतिक तथा कालीक परिवेशमा भाषाको प्रयोग भएको छ सोही अनुसारको विविध प्रकारका समय र सन्दर्भ अनुसार सामाजिक सञ्जालमा स्टाटसको प्रयोग हुने गर्दछ । प्रस्तुत लेखमा पनि समाजिक सञ्जाल अन्तर्गत फेसबुकमा विभिन्न समयमा विभिन्न नामबाट प्रस्तुत भएका स्टाटसहरूको समाजभाषिक दृष्टिले विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यसमा स्टाटसको लेखक वा प्रस्तुतकर्तालाई गौण राखी स्टाटसको भाव, आशयलाई समाजभाषिक आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । समाजमा बासोबास गर्ने मानिसको आ–आफ्नो स्तर अनुसार फेसबुकमा स्टाटस आउने र सो स्टाटसले व्यक्तिको मनोदशा, विद्यमान अवस्था र अवस्थितिलाई उजागर गर्ने भएकाले यो लेख नितान्त प्राथमिक स्रोतका तथ्याङ्कका आधारमा मौलिक र अनुसन्धानमूलक बनेको छ । स्टाटसको नेपाली रुपान्तरण गर्दा अवस्था, आसय, वर्तमान वा विद्यमान स्थिति भन्ने हुन्छ तर जुन शक्ति स्टाटस शब्दले ग्रहण गरेको छ त्यो मर्मलाई कायम गरी स्टाटस भन्नु नै उपयुक्त देखिएकोले यसको शीर्षकमा कोड मिश्रण भएको हो । साथै समाजभाषाविज्ञानले भाषा, भाषिका, भाषिक समुदायका सँगसँगै कोड मिश्रणलाई पनि आफ्नो अध्ययनको क्षेत्र बनाउने भएकाले पनि यो शीर्षकमा भएको कोड मिश्रणलाई सहज रूपमा लिइएको छ । यसलेखमा प्रस्तुत भएका सामग्रीहरू विभिन्न प्रयोगकर्ताले आफ्नो फेसबुकमा सबैले देख्न र पढ्न मिल्ने गरी राखिएका केही स्टाटसहरू हुन् । ती स्टाटसलाई नेपाली भाषाको समृद्धशाली तथा नवीन विधा समाजभाषाविज्ञानका आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । </p> <p>(Due to the increasing influence of science and the reach of communication in the society, mobile phones have become common in everyone's hand these days. Due to mobile phones, social media has become a place for everyone, literate, illiterate, rich, poor, high and low, big and small, to save time, get information and pour out their thoughts. From politicians to high-ranking people, everyone is using some form of social media. Among the social networks, Facebook is the choice of most people. Users write statuses on Facebook. Status not only affects the happiness and sadness but also the immediate environment of the society. According to the social structure, the vocabulary used in the language and other forms of expression are also different. According to the geographical, cultural and contextual environment in which the language is used, statuses are used in social networks according to different types of time and context. In the presented article, statuses presented under different names on Facebook at different times under the social network have been analyzed from a sociolinguistic point of view. In this, the meaning and intention of the status has been analyzed on a sociolinguistic basis, keeping the author or presenter of the status secondary. As people who live in the society get status on Facebook according to their level and that status reveals the mood, existing situation and location of the person, this article is completely original and research based on data from primary sources. In the Nepali translation of status, it means situation, desire, current or existing situation, but the meaning of the word status has been assumed and it is appropriate to say status, so its title has a code mix. Also, because sociolinguistics makes code mixing its field of study along with language, linguistic community, and linguistic community, the code mixing in this title has been taken lightly. The contents presented in this article are some of the statuses kept by different users on their Facebook so that everyone can see and read them. Those statuses have been analyzed on the basis of sociolinguistics, a rich and innovative genre of Nepali language.)</p> मीनप्रसाद {Min Prasad} अधिकारी {Adhikari} Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Campus Unit Committee, Dhankuta Multiple Campus, Dhankuta, Nepal. 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 96 104 10.3126/cd.v17i01.53268 विश्वेश्वरप्रसाद कोइरालाका उपन्यासमा जनजाति महिला पात्र/चरित्र {Tribal women characters/roles in the novel of Vishweshwar Prasad Koirala} <p>विश्वेश्वरप्रसाद कोइराला लिखित अघिल्ला तीन उपन्यास हुन् ः तीनघुम्ती, सुम्निमा र नरेन्द्र दाइ । यी तीन उपन्यासमा प्रमुख÷शीर्ष एवम् मुख्य महिला पात्रका रूपमा जनजातीय इन्द्रमाया, सुम्निमा र मुनरिया प्रस्तुत छन् । उपन्यासकारले आप्mना विशिष्ट औपन्यासिक कृतिहरूमा यस प्रकारका पात्रहरूको छनोट गरिनु वास्तविक रुपमा नै आवश्यक हो या अन्य कुनै प्रयोजन प्रेरित भएर छनोट गरेका हुन् ? भन्ने समास्यामा आधारित भई त्यसको मूल अभिप्राय पत्ता लगाउने उद्देश्यमा प्रस्तुत लेख&nbsp; केन्द्रित छ । द्वितीयक वा पुस्तकालयीय सामग्रीमा आधारित यो लेख पूर्णतया गुणात्मक एवम् विश्लेणात्मक पद्धतिमा आधारित छ । उपन्यासमा आएका सबै जनजाति महिलाका प्रियतमका रूपमा ब्राह्मण परिवारका पुरुष आएका छन् र तीनै प्रियाले स्वच्छ हृदयले आत्मिक प्रेम गरेको पनि छर्लङ्गिन्छ । इन्द्रमायाले प्रियातत्व र पत्नीत्व प्राप्त गरे पनि मातृत्वमा खुम्चिएर आप्mनो अस्तित्वको संरक्षण गरेकी, मुनरियाले अल्पकालीन प्रियत्वको प्राप्तिमा भाग्यमानी ठान्दै भवितालाई स्वीकारेर आफूलाई जौहारीलाललाई सुम्पेकी र सुम्निमाले भौतिक रूपमा अप्राप्य सोमदत्तबाट शारीरिक रूपमा आफूलाई सुरक्षित गरे पनि मानसिक दृष्टिले शोसित बन्नु परेको कुरा तथ्यले दर्शाउँछ ।&nbsp; औपन्यासिक उद्देश्यका दृष्टिले सुम्निमालाई जनजातीय महिलाको रुपमा प्रस्तुत गर्नु उपयुक्त देखिए तापनि इन्द्रमाया र मुनरियाका स्थानमा ब्राह्मण, क्षेत्री परिवारका महिला पात्रलाई स्थान दिइएको भए सायद यस प्रकारको प्रश्न नउठ्ने वा यी दुई पात्रमध्ये एक जनजातीय र एक अन्य रहेको भए पनि स्वाभाविक मान्न सकिने तथ्य अध्ययनले प्रस्तुत गर्दछ । त्यसैले जनजातीय पात्र चयनमा नै लेखकीय दुराशयता प्रष्टिन्छ र तीनै उपन्यासका जनजातीय महिला पात्रहरू आर्य प्रियतम वरण गरेर थिलथिलिएका र त्यसले जनजातीय जिउँदोपनलाई घोचिरहेको निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत गरेको छ ।</p> <p>(The previous three novels written by Vishweshwar Prasad Koirala are Tingghumti, Sumnima and Narendra Dai. These three novels feature Indramaya, Sumnima and Munaria as the main female characters. Is it really necessary for the novelist to choose these types of characters in his specific fictional works or did he choose them inspired by some other purpose? Based on this problem, the present article is focused on the purpose of finding out its original intention. This article based on secondary or library material is completely based on qualitative and analytical method. In the novel, men from Brahmin families have come as the lovers of all tribal women and it is also shown that all the three Priyas have spiritual love with pure hearts. The facts show that although Indramaya gained love and wifehood, she protected her existence by shrinking into motherhood, Munaria considered herself lucky to get a short-term love and accepted Bhavita and handed herself over to Joharilal, and Sumnima protected her physically from the physically unattainable Somdatta, but she had to become mentally ill. Although it seems appropriate to present Sumnima as a tribal woman from the point of view of the novel, the study presents the fact that if a female character from a Brahmin, Chhetri family was placed instead of Indramaya and Munaria, perhaps this kind of question would not arise or even if one of these two characters is tribal and the other is natural, the study presents the fact. Therefore, the selection of tribal characters shows the writer's indolence and it is concluded that the tribal female characters of all the three novels were chosen as Arya Priyatam and that this is destroying the tribal vitality.)</p> राम कुमार {Ram Kumar} राई {Rai} Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Campus Unit Committee, Dhankuta Multiple Campus, Dhankuta, Nepal. 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 105 114 10.3126/cd.v17i01.53269 विद्यालय शिक्षामा आर्थिक व्यवस्थापन {Financial Management in School Education} <p>प्रस्तुत लेख ‘विद्यालय शिक्षामा आर्थिक व्यवस्थापन’ भन्ने शीर्षकमा तयार पारिएको छ । यसको मुख्य उद्देश्य विद्यालय शिक्षाको आर्थिक अवस्था पहिचान गरी देखिएका समस्या विश्लेषण गर्दै समाधानका उपायहरुको खोजी गर्नु रहेको छ । यो लेख गुणात्मक ढाँचामा आधारित भई तयार पारिएको छ । तथ्याङ्कहरु धेरै जसो प्राथमिक स्रोतबाट नै लिई विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । जसमा सरोकारवालासँग छलफल, अन्र्तवार्ता, प्रश्नोत्तर, प्रश्नावलीको माध्यमबाट सूचना लिइएको छ । नमूना छनौट गोला प्रथा तथा स्वभाविक प्रक्रियाबाट गरिएको छ । सामाजिक संस्था सञ्चालनमा मुख्य समस्यामूलक पर्छ, आर्थिक पक्ष हो । राज्य वा सरोकारवाला निकायबाट सबै खर्चको व्यवस्थापन नहुनु समुदाय सचेत नहुनु स्रोत जुटाउन सहयोग गर्नुको सट्टा हिसाब मात्र खोज्नु, पर्याप्त आर्थिक स्रोत भएको अवस्थामा प्र.अ.ले. वि.व्य.स., अभिभावकलाई सोध्दै नसोधी खर्च गर्नुले विद्यालयको आर्थिक सञ्चालन परिचालनमा संकट देखा पर्नु पनि अर्को समस्याकै विषय भएको प्रष्ट हुन्छ । आर्थिक संकट चरम बन्दै जाँदा विद्यालय सञ्चालनमा कठिनाई उत्पन्न हुनु स्तरीय शिक्षा प्रदान गर्न नसक्नु स्वभाविक प्रक्रिया हो । त्यसैले विद्यालयमा उपलब्ध स्रोत साधनलाई सही हिसाबले अत्याधिक परिचालन गर्नुपर्छ र शैक्षिक, गुणस्तर अभिवृद्धि गर्न प्रयास गर्नुपर्ट । संकट पर्दा सरोकारवाला पक्ष वि.व्य.स., शि.अ.सं., अभिभावक सँगसँगै बसी संकट मोचनका उपायको खोजी गर्नुपर्छ । पर्याप्त आर्थिक स्रोत उपलब्ध भएको अवस्थामा भएको हिसाबलाई, बचत रकमलाई पारदर्शी हिसाबले लेखा परीक्षण समेत गराई सबै सरोकारवालालाई प्रष्ट रुपमा समय–समयमा जानकारी गराउँदै खर्च गर्नुपर्ने क्षेत्रमा खर्च गरी विद्यालयको शैक्षिक गुणस्तरको अभिवृद्धि गर्नुपर्छ भन्ने यसको मुख्य आसय हो । नेपालको सन्दर्भमा विभिन्न प्रकारका विविधता (भौगोलिक, सामाजिक) का कारणले सबै विद्यालयमा त्यस्तो हुन नसकेको अवस्था पनि विद्यमान छ ।</p> <p>(The present article has been prepared under the title "Financial Management in School Education". Its main purpose is to identify the financial situation of school education and analyze the problems and find solutions. This article has been prepared based on a qualitative approach. Most of the data have been analyzed from primary sources. In this study, information has been taken through discussions, interviews, question-and-answer, and questionnaires with the stakeholders. Sample selection has been done through the random sampling and natural process. The main problem in running a social organization is the financial aspect. Lack of management of all expenses by the state or concerned agencies, lack of awareness of the community, instead of helping to gather resources, only looking for accounts, and in the case of sufficient financial resources, the Headmasters are making the financial operation of the school&nbsp; without asking the parents and school management committee is another problem. As the economic crisis becomes extreme, it is a natural process that difficulties arise in the operation of schools, and not being able to provide quality education. Therefore, the resources available in the school should be properly utilized and efforts should be made to improve the quality of education. When there is a crisis, the concerned parties S. M. C. (school management committee), T. P. A. (Tacher parents association), and parents should sit together and look for ways to solve the crisis. Its main aim is to increase the educational quality of the school by spending it in the areas where it is necessary to spend it in a transparent manner and to inform all the stakeholders clearly from time to time. In the context of Nepal, there is also a situation where this is not happening in all schools due to various types of diversity (geographical, social).)</p> रमेश प्रसाद {Ramesh Prasad} लुइटेल {Luitel} Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Campus Unit Committee, Dhankuta Multiple Campus, Dhankuta, Nepal. 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 115 122 10.3126/cd.v17i01.53270