Cognition https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition <p>Cognition is a peer-reviewed, transdisciplinary journal published by the National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus Unit, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. The aim of the Journal is to publish multi-disciplinary articles that cover the fields of Humanities and Social Sciences, Management, Education, Environment Science and General Sciences.</p> Nepal University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus en-US Cognition 2392-4624 Editorial Vol.6(1) https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64413 <p>Not Available</p> Sanjay Kumar Mishra Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64413 Socioeconomic Dynamics in Kathmandu Valley: A World-System Perspective https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64426 <p>The socioeconomic dynamics of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, are analyzed through the lens of World-System Theory, providing insights into its position within the global economic hierarchy. This theoretical framework, pioneered by Immanuel Wallenstein, categorizes nations into core, semi-peripheral, and peripheral regions based on their economic and structural positions in the global system. The Kathmandu Valley's spatial distribution of economic resources illustrates core-periphery dynamics, with urban centers like Kathmandu emerging as core areas boasting robust economic activities, while peripheral regions face marginalization and limited access to economic opportunities. Disparities in infrastructure development further highlight these dynamics, as core areas benefit from superior infrastructure, while peripheral regions contend with limited development, exacerbating urban-rural inequalities. Migration patterns within the Kathmandu Valley reflect responses to economic imbalances perpetuated by the global capitalist system, with rural residents migrating to urban centers in search of opportunities, straining urban infrastructure and widening disparities. Additionally, globalization's impact on cultural dynamics contributes to the homogenization of cultures, eroding traditional practices and identities in favor of Western consumer culture. Social stratification within Nepali society is reinforced by the hierarchical structure of the world-system, perpetuating cycles of privilege and disadvantage. Understanding these dynamics through World-System Theory highlights the interconnectedness of global and local processes, emphasizing the need for systemic change to address disparities and foster equitable development in the Kathmandu Valley.</p> Bal Krishna Khatri Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 1 8 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64426 Transmission Electron Microscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering-Fundamental Perspective https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64432 <p>Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) are fundamental tools in nanotechnology and materials science, providing information about the structural and dynamic properties of nanomaterials and colloidal systems. This review provides a thorough examination of TEM and DLS, beginning with a discussion of their fundamental principles. It discusses the interaction of electron beams in TEM and the dynamics of scattered light in DLS, followed by an examination of instrumentation and experimental setups, including recent advances for increased resolution and sensitivity. The article then discusses the numerous applications of TEM and DLS in nanomaterial characterization. It includes analyses of nanoparticle size, shape, morphology, and distribution, as well as research into colloidal system dynamics such as nanoparticle aggregation, diffusion, and stability. The review concludes with a forward-looking perspective on emerging trends and future directions in nanomaterial characterization. It emphasizes the potential of TEM and DLS to overcome current challenges and advance our understanding of nanoscale phenomena. Overall, this comprehensive review provides researchers and practitioners with a solid understanding of the TEM and DLS principles, methodologies, and applications, as well as valuable fundamental insights.</p> Chandradip Kumar Yadav Ajaya Bhattarai Yogesh Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 9 16 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64432 The Dialectics of Class struggle in Marqueze’s ‘One of These Days’ and The Biblical Parable ‘Ahab and Naboth’ https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64433 <p>This paper attempts to explore the class conflict and the struggle implicitly or explicitly inherent in “One of These Days” and “Ahab and Naboth” applying the conceptual frameworks of Conflict theory based on Marxism. Conflict theory views social and economic institutions as tools of the struggle between groups or classes, used to maintain inequality and the dominance of the ruling class. The dialectics of class struggle is inevitable in most of the societies. The ruling class or the oppressors exploit their subjects or even do not lag behind to take their life in order to serve or suit their interest and desires. The victimized cannot react immediately due to the fear engendered by the pomp of power and money of the higher class. Rather, they either face the terrible fate or become submissive unwillingly. When the interests and the desires of the higher or the ruling class center upon the exploitation and the oppression of the lower class for their happiness, there appears the conflict between them resulting into the class struggle. This paper explores how the ruling class having the feudal ideology oppresses and exploits the innocent people misusing their power. The paper seeks to answer the prominent question : why and how do the upper and the ruling class oppress and suppress the lower class or the common people? The pomp of power and money corrupts man as it instigates man to render atrocities towards common people. Being scared, the subordinate people cannot raise their voices and launch their protest for justice. Instead, they attempt to suppress their voices due to their apprehension.</p> Dipesh Neupane Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 17 22 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64433 Unfortunately, for now we aren’t the gods of time!.. https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64435 <p>This article is devoted to the overthrow of the idle conjectures of sci-fi writers (and after them some romantically minded astrophysicists), one way or another relating to the notorious time travel. Wherein primary attention here is paid to proof of the absolute conceptual prohibition on moving into the past. After all, according to author’s count, lots of fabrications of the human intelligence are by no means equivalent to the quantity of objects of the so-called Cauchy horizon. And moreover: the ordinal of our generalized spiritual world should be obviously higher than for a similar set of structural elements of the observed cosmos.&nbsp; In particular, if a number of material objects is <em>N</em>, a manifold of their cogitable combinations may vary from <em>2<sup>n</sup></em> to <em>N<sup>n</sup></em>. But still with that, it does not seem possible, however<em>,</em> to refute (as shown yet by Kurt Gödel) the significant majority of these frankly dubious speculations at a physical &amp; mathematical level. Thus precisely the probabilistic approach (or, if you like, algorithm) is a quite legitimate and the only correct for given case!</p> <p>And summarizing, the author leads his reader to a quite reasoned conclusion that unraveling the most complex outlook problems of existence, it is better obviously to trust philosophers rather than naturalists or techies!</p> Emir E. Ashursky Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 23 30 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64435 Assessment of Nepal’s Foreign Policy and Diplomacy towards China and India https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64436 <p>The present foreign policies of Nepal are based on the Charter of the United Nations, non-alignment, principles of Panchasheel (peaceful co-existence, mutual respect for territorial integrity, sovereignty, and independence; non–aggression; non–interference in each other’s internal affairs and Equality and mutual benefit), international law and the norms of world peace, taking into consideration of the overall interest of the nation while remaining active in safeguarding the sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence, and&nbsp; national interest. The foreign policy of Nepal has been changing over the years. After unofficial blockade of immediate neighbor India, the challenges and opportunities are seen in the sky of Nepalese foreign policy. The major emerging challenges of Nepalese foreign policy are to balance the foreign policy with India and China continuation of independent foreign policy, recognize and prioritize the national interest, modernization of foreign policy, political consensus, national unity, political consensus, and good leadership, successful conduction of economic diplomacy, etc. Diplomacy is one of the powerful means or instruments of achieving the goals of foreign policy.&nbsp; The goals of foreign policy are guided by the national interests of concerned states. Diplomats are the actors who plays role according to the foreign policy of the concern state. Diplomats have to perform different functions and discharge different duties with their different roles and capacities. In other words, it is the task for the diplomat to act in different capacities and to play different a role because diplomacy itself is a serious business which requires different capacities and role by the diplomats. The major responsibility of diplomat is the promotion and protection of the national interests of Nepal. Therefore, the proficient diplomat should require making diplomacy effective.</p> Hemanta Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 31 37 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64436 The Illusion of Truth in Michael Ondaatje’s Anil’s Ghost https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64437 <p>Michael Ondaatje's Anil’s Ghost, a literary masterpiece, focuses on the distortion of truth. Set against the backdrop of civil unrest in Sri Lanka, the novel follows forensic anthropologist Anil Tissera as she exposes the complexities of revealing truth in a world rife with political and personal turmoil. This research abstract delves into the multifaceted layers of reality distortion portrayed in Ondaatje's work .At its core; the novel questions the notion of objective reality. Ondaatje masterfully employs fragmented narratives, shifting perspectives, and unreliable memories to diminish the lines between truth and fiction. Through Anil's investigation into the skeletal remains of victims of political violence, Ondaatje exposes the subjective nature of memory and the inherent biases that shape our understanding of past events. Moreover, the novel explores the psychological toll of living in a reality distorted by trauma and political oppression. Characters like Anil and Sarath, haunted by their pasts, grapple with the existential question of whether it is possible to reconcile personal truth with the external realities imposed upon them. Ondaatje's lyrical prose evokes a sense of disorientation, mirroring the characters' internal struggles as they confront the elusive nature of reality. Furthermore, the novel examines how power dynamics influence the construction of reality. Ondaatje exposes the ways in which those in positions of authority manipulate narratives to serve their own agendas, perpetuating falsehoods and suppressing marginalized voices in the process. Through Anil's quest for justice, the novel underscores the importance of bearing witness to the silenced truths obscured by those in power. The novel serves as a profound exploration of the distortion of reality in the face of political upheaval and personal trauma.</p> Khagendra Neupane Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 38 44 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64437 Analyzing the Evolution of Nepal's Tourism in 2022: Insights and Future Perspectives https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64439 <p>This paper focuses into Nepal's internal aviation and tourism industries, underlining the essentiality of strategic planning. It investigates how Nepal's tourism sector has adapted to the global repercussions of COVID-19 and identifies successful strategies to increase tourism revenue following the pandemic. Through the application of both descriptive and inferential statistics, this research analyses data and visually conveys its conclusions. It emphasizes the importance of tailor-made marketing and promotional approaches designed for particular market segments and to exploit local strengths. The document evaluates recovery tactics post-COVID-19, the role of domestic tourism, and the need for upgrades in infrastructure and policies to foster the sustainable development of tourism in Nepal. The necessity for a cohesive approach among federal, provincial, and local governments to facilitate the proper allocation of resources and the execution of tourism initiatives is strongly advocated. The expansion of tourism-related infrastructure, including hotels with high star ratings and improved transport systems, is highlighted as a fundamental factor in supporting the surge of tourists to Nepal. The paper postulates that reinforcing economic development through policies favorable to the tourism industry will have a beneficial impact on international tourism. It urges a policy shift towards the improvement of tourism infrastructure and the adoption of technological innovations in its management.</p> Laxmi Kanta Sharma Vishal Paudel Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 45 59 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64439 The equivalency of the Banach-Alaoglu theorem and the axiom of choice https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64440 <p>The Axiom of Choice can be used to prove the Banach-Alaoglu theorem, while a weakened form of the Axiom of Choice is required to prove the full strength of the Hahn-Banach theorem, which is equivalent to the Banach-Alaoglu theorem. Although the Banach-Alaoglu theorem and the full- strength Axiom of Choice are not exactly equivalent, they are closely related.</p> <p>The Banach-Alaoglu theorem is a compactness theorem whose proof mainly depends on Tychonoff's theorem. In this article, Banach-Alaoglu theorem is equivalent to the axiom of choice, has been proved.</p> Nand Kishor Kumar Sher Singh Raikhola Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 60 64 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64440 Organizational Ethos: Empact on Work Performance of Employees https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64441 <p>The objective of this study is to explore how organizational ethos affects employees' work performance. This study is based on meta-analysis research design and the literature review. Organizational principles, practices, and distinctive features of culture all contribute to the dimension of corporate culture. The foundational element of an organization's ethos is its value system. The corporate ethos fosters professionalism among the employees. Workplace performance was found to be positively impacted by four organizational ethos sub-elements: managing change, attaining goals, coordinating teamwork, and cultural strength. Organizational ethos has a significant impact on the operations, personnel, and productivity of a wide range of services. This study demonstrates that if employees are dedicated and has the same values as their organizations; their performance in attaining organizational objectives will be achieved. To enhance the overall performance of the workforce and the services, managers and executives are encouraged to foster a strong organizational ethos. The study's findings show that organizational ethos has a major impact on employee motivation, develops personal growth, influences communication, and enhances organizational values, group decision-making, and conflict resolution.</p> Narayan Prasad Adhikari Jhupa Kumari Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 65 74 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64441 Influencing Factors for the Quality of Homework Assignments https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64442 <p>This research article endeavors to explore teachers' perspectives on effective homework practices and the standards for assigning high-quality homework tasks. Using a qualitative research approach within interpretive paradigms, the study conducted interviews with experienced school teachers through convenience sampling. The investigation delves into strategies for customizing homework to meet students' needs, the role of parental engagement, and the importance of balancing the quantity and quality of homework assignments. Although homework serves as a vital tool in reinforcing learning and enhancing academic skills beyond classroom hours, various challenges hinder its completion, including comprehension gaps and issues with time management and parental involvement. The study seeks to uncover educators' insights into the types of homework anticipated by students and the factors shaping effective homework practices. The findings emphasize the need to balance parental involvement to promote children's independence and responsibility, avoiding excessive assistance that may undermine the intrinsic value of homework. Moreover, the study advocates for prioritizing homework quality over quantity to mitigate negative impacts on student well-being, emphasizing meaningful learning experiences and considering diverse preferences when designing assignments.</p> Purna Bahadur Lamichhane Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 75 83 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64442 Interconnectedness between Vedanta & Poetry of T.S. Eliot and W.B. Yeats’ Poetry https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64443 <p>This paper studies the impact of Eastern philosophy on the writings of both T.S. Eliot and W.B. Yeats. The research demonstrates interconnectedness between the Vedic philosophy and the western writers particularly the thoughts pervasive in the writings of Eliot and Yeats. Eliot engaged deeply with Eastern philosophy in ways which significantly influenced his worldview and his poetry. Eliot’s PhD thesis was on the idealist metaphysics of F.H. Bradley, which he found appealing due to its affinities with Indian philosophical sensibilities. Eliot was influenced by both Hinduism and Buddhism, and especially by <em>the Bhagavad Gītā</em>, which he described as one of the greatest philosophical poems, and by the Mādhyamika or Middle Way Buddhist philosophy of Nāgārjuna. The references to Indian literature are particularly prominent in <em>The Waste Land</em>, several section titles of which they reference Indian imagery. For instance, ‘The Fire Sermon’ references the sermon of the same name delivered by the Buddha; ‘Death by Water’ engages with Indra’s slaying of Vṛtra to release the waters in <em>the Rig Veda</em>; ‘What the Thunder said’ references the eponymous episode from <em>the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanishad.</em></p> Rajesh Prasad Yadav Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 84 89 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64443 Role of Women Entrepreneurship in Economic Development of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64444 <p>The study tells that women entrepreneurs play a vital role not only in the development of industrial sector of a country but also in the development of farm and service sector. The role of women entrepreneurship in economic development varies from economy to economy depending upon its material resources, industrial climate and the responsiveness of the political system to the entrepreneurial function. The objective of the study is to find out the role of women entrepreneurship in economic development of our country. The study is based on secondary data and analytical approach. Women entrepreneurs, in the form of new goods &amp; services, result in new employment, which can produce a cascading effect or virtuous circle in the economy. It is necessary that we understand the benefits of women entrepreneurs, a balanced approach to nurturing entrepreneurship will definitely result in a positive impact on economy and society.</p> Rati Khatri Basnet Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 90 97 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64444 Navigating Number Systems for Computational Precision: An Analytical Exploration https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64445 <p>The main objective of this article is to study all numbers that have occurred so far in the theoretical discussions were real (or complex) numbers in the strict mathematical sense. That is, they were to be conceived as infinite decimal fractions, or as Dedekind cuts. For the purposes of computation such numbers have to be approximated by real numbers of a rather special type, such as terminating decimal fractions, or other rational numbers. The present article is devoted to a study of the number systems that can be used for the purpose of computation.</p> Ravindra Mishra Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 98 102 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64445 Depiction of Caste System and Dalit Consciousness in Ratna BK’s Banda Ākāsh Khulepachhi https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64447 <p>The article deals with the caste system and consciousness in relation to class consciousness and Dalit consciousness based on literary text. As Dalit literature portrays the socio-cultural, economic and political issues of Dalits, their inequal relation with the people, caste discrimination, exploitation and suppression and protest and movements; and, it also presents the potential avenues of resolution. The article explores the brutality of caste system and Dalit consciousness for rights, equality, justice, dignity and liberation of Dalits. For this purpose, some short stories from Ratna BK’s Banda Ākāsh Khulepachhi have been chosen for the interpretation. The stories reveal the ground reality of multiple layers discrimination and issues of Dalits, their protest and resolution. Furthermore, the research explores the socio-cultural and political awareness and protests of Dalits, and state’s pragmatic position to address the issues and agenda. The researcher employs the qualitative approach with exploratory and analytical methods. The Marxist concept of class consciousness connecting to Dalit consciousness is parallel applied as theoretical perspectives in this article.</p> Rudra Bahadur Charmakar Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 103 109 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64447 A Cross-Sectional Study of Gender Politics in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64450 <p>This research paper examines the different dynamics of intersectionality in the political and cultural set-up of Nepal, where people of different religions, ideologies and ethnicities have lived for centuries. The paper tried to argue that variables such as class, gender, ethnicity, religion, region, disability and even caste influence the political and social status of Nepal. To study the real problems of women, all those parts that directly or indirectly affect their position must be underlined in the research paper. The article uses Crenshaw's theory of intersectionality to examine the dominant variables of patriarchy. The article focuses on the problems of Madheshi, Muslim and Dalit women who have always been marginalized in the political and social framework of the country. The primary finding of the study is that women belonging to marginalized class, caste, ethnicity, disability, religion and region are more oppressed in the country than women belonging to other categories. Because intersectionality is a burning approach to analyzing the position of women in patriarchy, theorists and researchers whose perspectives and ideas matter are brought into the discussion.</p> Saleem Dhobi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 110 114 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64450 Significance Analysis of Poverty, Gender and Human Development in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64451 <p>This article examines in the areas of poverty, gender and human development in Nepal focusing on caste/ethnicity together with regional, rural, and urban disparities. It employs explanatory and analytical methods using secondary data, including peer reviewed papers. Human Development Reports, initiated by Amartya Sen and Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, have been regularly published by the UNDP, featuring the gender and human development&nbsp; for various countries. Nepal has been publishing its Human Development Report (HDR) since 1998.The level of human development is measured by HDI &nbsp;which is found increasing from 0.380 in 1990 to 0.602 in 2022, i.e., 58.42% improvement. Significant progress has been established in the area of&nbsp; human development and gender but significant inequalities still continued among different castes, ethnicities, and regions in the areas of gender and &nbsp;human development. Both urban and rural service centers face challenges like inadequate access to safe drinking water, and child malnutrition, particularly in the far western part of Nepal, highlights the urgency for continued efforts in gender and human development.</p> Shanta Gautam Keshab Prasad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 115 120 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64451 Idealistic Modification of the Materialistic Veda https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64455 <p>This article explores the origin and the later developments of the Veda. The objective is to examine the materialist philosophical content of the early Vedas and contrast it with the idealistic&nbsp;readings of the text from later eras. This article discusses the research issues surrounding the historical roots of the Vedic literature and the idealistic changes made to it in later times. The study has used historical materialism as a methodological tool and examined several Vedic verses, relating them to the socioeconomic conditions of the period in which they were composed. The article has analyzed the roots of some terminologies frequently used in the text and their connections to the philosophy of the Veda. &nbsp;The terms bhagavan, rita, Dānam, Havana, Brahman, yajña and name of some gods are frequently used in the Veda and their meanings are analyzed in a particular historical contexts. The article reveals that the Vedic verses are the simple creations of Vedic Aryans and they are associated with the everyday desires of the Vedic people, such as those for food, cattle, rain, safety, prosperity, health, and progeny. The early creation of the Vedic verses are this-worldly and materialistic in content and they are in no way otherworldly and spiritualistic. The meaning of most of the terminologies found in the text has materialistic origin and in course of time, their meanings are converted into opposite. The philosophy of the Veda has its root in the collective mode of production and with the introduction of private property and classes, the text is made an ideological tool of the minority of governing classes. The Veda's original materialistic meaning is altered, and the book is transformed into a spiritual guidebook—an ideological weapon used by the ruling classes to deceive and repress the vast majority of laboring people.</p> Tilak Bahadur Khatri Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 121 132 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64455 Role of Accounting Information in Decision Making in Co-Operative in Kirtipur Municipality, Kathmandu https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64457 <p>The accounting information is used co-operative as well as business sectors. It makes easy to managerial and operational decision of an organization. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of accounting information on investment and marketing decision in co-operative in Kirtipur. Accounting information plays an important role in sustaining a competitive market. Rational investment and marketing decisions can save cooperatives from the present financial crisis. This research is quantitative in nature and deductive in approach. It followed field survey based on convenience sampling. SPSS was used to analyze the data collected from 60 usable questionnaires returned from respondents. The total population of the study is 96. The p-value is 0.000, which is less than 1% level of significance. So, the ANOVA table indicates that the model is fitted. There is a significant impact of accounting information on investment and marketing decisions. In the competitive age accounting information is important for investment and marketing related decision for survive and growth of co-operatives.</p> Tribhuvan Kumar Mahataman Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 133 146 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64457 A Study of Geodesic Equation From Variational Principle https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64458 <p>This paper employs variational principle in studying geodesic Eq<sup>n</sup>. In mathematical studies, a variational principle enables a problem to be solved employing calculus of variations that concerns seeking functions that increase the values of quantities that rely on those functions. For instance, the problem of ascertaining the shape of a hanging chain suspended at both ends can be solved using variational calculus. Hence, the variational principle is a function that lessens the gravitational potential energy of the chain. Geodesic Eq<sup>n</sup> is a procedure used in mathematics, specifically in Riemannian geometry that results in obtaining geodesics. Actually, these represent the paths of particles with no proper acceleration, their motion pleasing the geodesic equations. As the particles are subject to no appropriate acceleration, the geodesics generally signify the straightest path between two points in a bent spacetime. The article has investigated into the relation between the variation principle and geodesic equations that are particularly used in general relativity in physics as well.</p> Yogendra Prasad Shah Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 147 151 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64458 ऋग्वैदिक समाजमा नारीका सामाजिक स्थान र भूमिका {Social Position and Role of Women in Rig-Vedic Society} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64463 <p>ऋग्वेदमा नारीहरूको ईश्वरीय स्वरूप र प्राकृतिको मानवीकृत नारीस्वरूपको बन्दना र स्तुति गरिएको छ भने मानवीय स्वरूपमा आएका नारीहरूका विभिन्न पृथक भूमिकाको चित्रण छ । यहाँ ईश्वरीय, प्रकृतिको मानवीकृत स्वरूप र मानवीय स्वरूपमा आएका नारीहरू अस्तित्वपूर्ण, स्वतन्त्र, आत्मनिर्णयी, पराक्रमी, धीर र बुद्धिमतायुक्त देखिन्छन् र यिनीहरूले मन्त्रद्रष्टा, योद्धा, माता, प्रेमिका, पत्नीलगायतका भूमिकामा रहेर विभिन्न सामाजिक भूमिका निर्वाह गरेका छन् । यस अध्ययनमा ऋग्वैदिक नारीका सामाजिक स्थान र भूमिकाको मूल्याङ्कन गर्न मानवशास्त्री मोर्गनका मान्यतालाई अनुसरण गर्दै एङ्गेल्सले प्रस्तुत गरेको समाजविकासको चरण र यी चरणमा नारीको सामाजिक स्थान र भूमिकासम्बन्धी मान्यतालाई सैद्धान्तिक मान्यताका रूपमा अनुसरण गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनबाट यस ग्रन्थमा रहेको यम यमी संवादले हाडनाताभित्रको यौनसम्बन्धमा आधारित पारिवारिक संरचनालाई र उर्वशी पुरुरवा संवादले स्थायी परिवारिक संरचनाको विकास नभएको मातृवंशमा आधारित बर्बर युगको उन्नत चरणको समाजलाई देखाएका छन् । यु अ यी समाजमा नारीहरू हरेक रूपले स्वतन्त्र रहेको अवस्थालाई देखाएका छन् भने सूर्याविवाहसूक्त, शचीपौलोमीसूक्त, इन्द्राणीसूक्तलगायतले परिवारको उत्पत्ति र विकासका साथै पितृवंशमा आधारित समाजविकासको गतिभित्र नारीको सामाजिक स्थान र भूमिका क्रमशः खुम्चिँदै जान थालेको अवस्थालाई देखाएका छन् भन्ने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> अमृतादेवी Amritadevi शर्मा Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 152 165 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64463 उर्गेनको घोडा उपन्यासमा वर्चस्वविरुद्ध जनजातीय प्रतिरोधको चेतना {Consciousness of tribal resistance against hegemony in the novel Urgen's Horse} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64464 <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा युग पाठकद्वारा लिखित ‘उर्गेनको घोडा’ उपन्यासमा वर्चस्वविरुद्ध जनजातीय प्रतिरोधको चेतनाको अध्ययन गरिएको छ । यसका लागि पाश्चात्य समालोचना सिद्धान्तका रूपमा प्रचलित ग्राम्सीको वर्चस्वको मान्यता र फुकोको प्रतिरोधको सिद्धान्तलाई विश्लेषणको आधार बनाइएको छ । यो अध्ययन ‘उर्गेनको घोडा’ उपन्यासमा अभिव्यक्त जनजातीय प्रतिरोधको चेतनामा आधारित छ । यो अध्ययन ‘उर्गेनको घोडा’ उपन्यासमा जनजातीय प्रतिरोधको चेतना के कस्तो छ भन्ने समस्यामा केन्द्रित छ । यस समस्याको समाधानका लागि सामग्री सङ्कलन पुस्तकालयीय कार्यबाट गरिएको छ । यो अध्यययन गुणात्मक पद्धतिमा आधारित भएकाले समस्या समाधानका निम्ति पाठात्मकविश्लेषण विधिको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनका लागि जनजातीय प्रतिरोधको चेतनालाई विश्लेषणको आधार बनाइएको छ । यस अध्ययनको निष्कर्षमा युग पाठकको ‘उर्गेनको घोडा’ उपन्यासमा जनजातीय इतिहास र पहिचानको चेतनाबाट जनजातीय प्रतिरोधको चेतना सशक्त रूपमा अभिव्यक्त भएको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । इतिहासदेखि नै शासकहरूबाट हेपिएका, चेपिएका र किनारामा पारिएका तामाङहरूले प्रतिरोध गरेको विषयलाई उठान गरेर प्रतिरोधको चेतना सम्प्रेषण गर्न सक्नु नै यस उपन्यासको प्राप्ति हो र साथै यस अध्ययनको पनि प्राप्ति हो ।</p> असमान Asman लामा Lama Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 166 175 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64464 राजनीतिमा वैज्ञानिक समाजवादी चिन्तनको उद्भव {Emergence of scientific socialist thought in politics} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64465 <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा माक्सवाद र माक्सवादी दर्शनको तीन सङ्गठक सिद्धान्त द्वन्द्वात्मक ऐतिहासिक भौतिकवाद, अतिरिक्त मूल्यको सिद्धान्त र सर्वहारावर्गको अधिनायकत्वको सिद्धान्तको बारेमा अध्ययन गरिएको छ । वैज्ञानिक समाजवादी चिन्तनको उद्भवको अध्ययन गर्दा माक्सवाद, द्वन्द्वात्मक ऐतिहासिक भौतिकवाद, अतिरिक्त मूल्यको सिद्धान्त र सर्वहारावर्गको अधिनायकत्वको सिद्धान्तलाई प्रमुख आधार मानिएको छ । माक्स र एंगेल्सले सन् १८४८ मा कम्युनिस्ट लिगका लागि कम्युनिस्ट घोषणापत्र लेखेपछि विश्व राजनीतिमा विधिवत रूपमा वैज्ञानिक समाजवादी चिन्तनको उद्भव भएको थियो । वैज्ञानिक समाजवादी चिन्तन नै माक्सवादी दर्शन हो र माक्सवादी दर्शन नै वैज्ञानिक समाजवादी चिन्तन हो । अध्ययन विधि आगनात्मक विधि हो । विश्व राजनीतिमा वैज्ञानिक समाजवादी चिन्तनको उद्भव कसरी भयो भनी अध्ययन गर्नु नै यस लेखको प्रमुख उद्देश्य हो । विश्व राजनीतिमा वैज्ञानिक समाजवादी चिन्तनको उद्भव कसरी भयो भन्ने कुरालाई यहाँ स्पष्ट गरिएको छ ।</p> गोविन्द प्रसाद Govinda Prasad मैनाली Mainali Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 176 192 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64465 स्नातक तहको अनिवार्य नेपालीमा साहित्य शिक्षण {Literary teaching in Compulsory Nepali for Bachelor level} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64468 <p>साहित्य भाषाको विशिष्ट प्रयोग हो । मानवीय संवेदना र मर्मको बोध गर्न र पठनक्षमताको विकासका निम्ति साहित्य उपयोगी मानिन्छ । साहित्यले व्यक्तिको रचनात्मक क्षमताको वृद्धि र व्यक्तित्व विकासमा पनि सहयोग पुर्याउँछ । व्यक्तिलाई आनन्दको अनुभूति गराउन तथा शब्दभण्डार वृद्धि गरी अभिव्यक्ति कुशलताको सामथ्र्य बढाउन साहित्यको पठन र आस्वादनमा जोड दिइन्छ । यिनै कारणले भाषाशिक्षणमा साहित्यिक कृतिको प्रयोग हुँदै आएको हो । प्रस्तुत अध्ययन पनि त्रिभुवन विश्वविद्यालयको वर्तमान पाठ्यक्रमअन्तर्गत स्नातक तहको अनिवार्य नेपालीमा निर्धारित कविता, कथा, उपन्यास, निबन्ध र नाटक जस्ता साहित्यिक विधाहरूको शिक्षणको प्रयोजन, प्रभावकारिता तथा उपादेयताको विमर्शमा नै केन्द्रित छ । विद्यार्थीको पठनसिप तथा अभिव्यक्ति क्षमताको विकास गर्ने समेत उद्देश्य राखेर निर्माण गरिएको चारबर्से स्नातक तहको नेपालीअन्तर्गत निर्धारित एकाइ एघारको ‘साहित्यिक कृतिको आस्वादन र अध्ययन’ भन्ने पाठ्यांश एकालाप प्रकृतिको व्याख्यान विधिभन्दा अन्तरक्रियात्मक र सहभागितामूलक सिकाइमा जोड दिने प्रकृतिको पाठ्यविषय हो । साहित्यिक विधाहरूको गम्भीर वा गहन विश्लेषण होइन सामान्य दृष्टिले गरिने अध्ययनका आधारमा कृतिको विधागत चिनारी तथा कृतिमा प्रयुक्त घटना, पात्र, परिवेश, भाव, विचार वा सन्देश बुझ्न र बुझाउन सक्षम बनाई पाठक प्रतिक्रिया समेत लेख्न सक्ने बनाउने विश्लेष्य पाठ्यविषयको प्रयोजन देखिन्छ । प्रस्तुत अध्ययनमा चार बर्से स्नातक तहको अनिवार्य नेपालीमा निर्धारित कविता, कथा, निबन्ध र एकाङ्की वा नाटकबाट तथ्य सङ्कलन गरी साहित्यिक विधा सिद्धान्तको सामान्य सैद्धान्तिक अवधारणा समेतका आधारमा प्राज्ञिक जिज्ञासाको वस्तुनिष्ठ विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । साहित्यिक कृतिको सामान्य पठन र आस्वादन, अभिव्यक्ति कौशलको वृद्धि तथा व्यक्तित्व विकासमा साहित्यिक कृतिको शिक्षणले प्रभावकारी भूमिका खेल्छ भन्ने प्रस्तुत अध्ययनको निष्कर्ष रहेको छ ।</p> ढुण्डिराज Dhundiraj पहाडी Pahadi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 193 202 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64468 ‘आगोनेर उभिएको मानिस’मा प्रतिरोधी चेतना {Resistance Consciousness in 'The Man Standing on Fire'} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64470 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख विमल निभा (२००९)का आगोनेर उभिएको मानिस कविता सङ्ग्रह (२०७१ तेस्रो संस्करण)लाई सामग्रीको रूपमा लिएर यसभित्रका कविताहरूभित्र प्रतिरोधी चेततनाको खोजी गरिएको छ । यसका लागि माक्र्सवादी चिन्तनले स्थापना गरेका आलोचनात्मक चेतसम्बन्धी सैद्धान्तिक र व्यावहारिक पक्षको उपयोग गरी ‘आगोनेर उभिएको मानिस’ कविता सङ्ग्रहमा प्राप्त प्रतिरोधी चेतनाको व्याख्या गरिएको छ । नेपाली राजनीतिक क्षेत्रमा देखिएको शक्ति र सत्ताको दुरूपयोग, यसबाट श्रमिक जीवनमा परेको प्रत्यक्ष र परोक्ष असर तथा विचार निर्माणको प्रश्नलाई तार्किक ढङ्गले स्थापित गर्ने कार्य भएको छ । पञ्चायती व्यवस्थाको चरम दमनको स्थितिमा विचारका वाहकहरू कस्तो भूमिकामा कसरी प्रतिरोधी चेतना निर्माण गर्दै थिए भन्ने सन्दर्भहरूलाई जनताको परिवर्तनप्रतिको चाहना अभिव्यक्त गर्ने माध्यम कविता र कविताभित्र पनि वर्गीय चेतनाले निर्माण गरेको प्रतिरोधी चेतना हो भन्ने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> तेजविलास Tejbilash अधिकारी Adhikari Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 203 211 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64470 ‘शिवपञ्चाशिका’ कवितामा ब्रह्मचिन्तन {Brahmaconsciousness in the poem 'Shivapanchashika'} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64472 <p>प्रस्तुत आलेखमा लेखनाथ पौड्यालद्वारा रचित ‘शिवपञ्चाशिका’ कविताको दर्शनपरक अध्ययन गरिएको छ । पूर्वीय दर्शनअन्तर्गत आदिशङ्कराचार्यद्वारा प्रतिपादित अद्वैतवेदान्त दर्शनको ब्रह्मसम्बन्धी मान्यतालाई विश्लेषणको आधार बनाइएको छ । यो अध्ययन ‘शिवपञ्चाशिका’ कवितामा अभिव्यञ्जित ब्रह्मचिन्तनमा आधारित छ । यस अध्ययनका लागि ‘शिवपञ्चाशिका’ कवितामा ब्रह्मका निर्गुण र सगुण स्वरूपको प्रयोग केकस्तो छ र कसरी प्रयोग गरिएको छ भन्ने समस्यामा केन्द्रित छ । यस समस्या समाधानका निम्ति सामग्री सङ्कलन पुस्तकालयीय कार्यबाट गरिएको छ । यो अध्ययन गुणात्मक पद्धतिमा आधारित भएकाले समस्या समाधानका निम्ति पाठात्मकविश्लेषण विधिको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनका लागि ब्रह्मको सगुणस्वरूप र निर्गुणस्वरूपलाई विश्लेषणको आधार बनाइएको छ । यस अध्ययनको अन्त्यमा लेखनाथ पौड्यालको ‘शिवपञ्चाशिका’ कविता अद्वैतवेदान्त दर्शनको ब्रह्मचिन्तनका दृष्टिले उच्चकोटिको रहेको र लेखनाथ पौड्याल ब्रह्मवादी कवि भएको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । दर्शनजस्तो दुरूह विषयलाई कविताको विषय बनाउनु र त्यसलाई अझ शास्त्रीय लयका माध्यमबाट कलात्मक र मार्मिक ढङ्गले प्रस्तुत गर्न सक्नु लेखकको वैशिष्ठ्य हो र यो नै अध्ययनको प्राप्ति पनि हो ।</p> दामोदर Damodar सापकोटा Sapkota Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 212 223 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64472 समरगाथा उपन्यासमा वर्गचेतना र वर्गद्वन्द्वबिचको सम्बन्ध {The relationship between class consciousness and class conflict in Samargatha novel} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64473 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख ऋषिराज बरालद्वारा लिखित समरगाथा उपन्यासमा अन्तरनिहीत वर्गचेतना र यसको वर्गद्वन्द्वसँगको सम्बन्धमाथिको विश्लेषणमा केन्द्रित छ । समाजमा निरन्तर चल्ने वर्गसङ्घर्षमा उत्पीडक वर्गको विरुद्ध उत्पीडित वर्गलाई आफ्नो वर्गीय हितका बारेमा सजग गराउँदै वर्गीय चेतना जागृत गराउन यस लेखले भुमिका निर्वाह गर्ने छ । माओवादी सशस्त्र युद्धलाई मुख्य विषयवस्तु बनाएर लेखिएको यस उपन्यासमा उपन्यासले वास्तविक घटनाक्रमलाई चित्रित गरेको छ कि छैन र उपन्यासमा चित्रित उत्पीडित वर्गको प्रतिनिधित्व गर्ने पात्रहरूको वर्गीय चेतनासँग वर्गद्वन्द्वको के कस्तो सम्बन्ध रहेको छ भन्ने प्राज्ञिक समस्यालाई लेखमा सम्बोधन गर्ने प्रयत्न गरिएको छ । माक्र्स – एङ्गेल्सद्वारा प्रतिपादित र विकसित वर्गीयता सम्बन्धीको माक्सवादी सैद्धान्तिक अवधारणाका आधारमा लेखमा उठान गरिएको प्रस्तुत समस्यालाई हल गरिएको छ । उपन्यासले २०५२ सालबाट सुरु भएको माओवादी सशस्त्र युद्धलाई यथार्थपरक ढङ्गबाट चित्रण गरेको छ । उत्पीडित नेपाली जनताले सशस्त्रयुद्धको मैदानमा देखाएको वीरता, साहस, र्सौय र उदातताको यथार्थपरक प्रस्तुति उपन्यासमा गरिएको छ । उपन्यासमा चित्रित उत्पीडित वर्गका पात्रहरू वर्गीय चेतनाले भरिपूर्ण भएका छन् । समाजमा रहेका उत्पीडक वर्गले आफूहरू माथि गरेको अन्याय, अत्याचार, शोषण र दमनका बारेमा उनीहरूलाई प्रयाप्त ज्ञान छ र यही ज्ञानका आधारमा सशस्त्र सङ्घर्षको जस्तो सुकै चुनौतीको सामना गर्न उनीहरू लागि परेका छन् । राज्यसत्ताका हरेक संयन्त्र उत्पीडक वर्गको पक्षमा हुन्छ भन्ने कुरा उपन्यासमा चित्रित ती क्रान्तिकारी पात्रहरूलाई थाहा छ । राज्यसत्ताका पुलिस, सेना, जासुसी सयन्त्र उत्पीडित वर्गका जनता र ती क्रान्तिकारी योद्धाहरूमाथि दमन गर्न केन्द्रित भएको हुन्छ तर उनीहरू राज्यसत्ताको वर्गीय पक्षधरताका बारेका सचेत भए कै कारण राज्यसत्ताद्वारा गरिने जस्तो सुकै दमनका विरुद्ध संगठित भएर लागि परेका छन् । उनीहरू आफ्नो वर्गीय मुक्तिको लागि भन्दै हाँसी –हाँसी मृत्यु वरण गर्न तयार भएका हुन्छन् । यो उनीहरूमा भएको वर्गीय चेतना कै कारण सम्भव भएको हो । यसर्थ उपन्यासमा वर्गीय चेतना र वर्गीयद्वन्द्वबिच अन्योन्याश्रित सम्बन्ध रहेको देखिन्छ ।</p> निलुफर Niluphar बञ्जरा Banjara Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 224 234 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64473 म ! नाटकमा नारी पहिचान र प्रतिरोध {Feminine Identity and Resistance in Drama Me!} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64475 <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा बालकृष्ण समको म ! नाटकलाई अध्ययन सामग्री बनाएर त्यसमा प्रयुक्त नारी पहिचान र प्रतिरोधी चेतनाको विश्लेषण र मूल्याङ्कन गरिएको छ । सामग्री विश्लेषणका निम्ति सांस्कृतिक अध्ययनले अघि सारेका पहिचान र प्रतिरोध चेतनासम्बन्धी सैद्धान्तिक मान्यताको उपयोग गरी सोद्देश्य नमुना छनोट पद्धतिबाट पाठगत तथ्य सङ्कलन गरी विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । सांस्कृतिक अध्ययनका विविध क्षेत्रमध्ये यसमा लैङ््िगक अध्ययनअन्तर्गत नारी पहिचानको अध्ययन गरिएको छ । म ! नाटकमा पितृसत्तात्मक सामाजिक संरचनाको शक्तिका आडमा पति व्यभिचारी बनेको र नवविवाहिता पत्नीलाई तिरस्कार गरेको अवस्था चित्रण गरिएको छ । पत्नीले पनि प्रारम्भमा आफ्नो अवस्थालाई स्वीकार गरेको र पछि स्वअस्तित्वबोध गरी पतिका व्यभिचार र आफूप्रतिको तिरस्कारविरुद्ध प्रतिरोध गरेको अवस्था देखाइएको छ । मूलतः यस लेखमा सहरिया, शिक्षित र सम्पन्न परिवारका नारी पनि पितृसत्तात्मक शक्ति र विचारधाराको उत्पीडनमा परेका छन्, नारी स्वयंले आफूमाथि भएको उत्पीडनका विरुद्ध प्रतिकार गर्ने हिम्मत गर्नु पर्दछ र बौद्धिक वर्गले आफ्नो बुद्धि एवं अर्थको समेत प्रयोग गरी नारीको पहिचान निर्माण गर्न सहयोग गर्नुपर्दछ भन्ने विचार व्यक्त भएको छ भन्ने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> राधिकादेवी Radhikadevi गुरागाईँ Guragain Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 235 243 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64475 नेपालमा जैविक विविधताः वर्तमान स्थिति, खतरा र संरक्षण {Biodiversity in Nepal: Current Status, Threats and Conservation} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64477 <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा नेपालमा जैविक विविधताको स्थिति,जैविक विविधताका खतराहरु र जैविक विविधता संरक्षणको बाटो बारेमा व्याख्या र विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनमा द्वितिय स्रोतहरूबाट प्राप्त तथ्याङ्कहरू र सूचनालाइ तालिकिकरण र बर्गीकरण गरि वर्णनात्मक विधिबाट विश्लेषण र व्याख्या गर्ने प्रयास गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनको निष्कर्षले के देखाउँछ भने नेपाल विश्वकै सानो मुलुक भएता पनि जैविक विविधतामा नेपाल समृद्ध मुलुक हो । विशिष्ट भौगोलिक अवस्था, उचाइगत विविधता,जलवायु विविधता र यिनको समिश्रणबाट विशिष्ट पारिस्थितिक प्रणालिको विकास भएको छ । यसर्थ पारिस्थितिक प्रणालि र बासस्थान, प्रजाति र जीन गरि तीन तहको नेपालको जैविक विविधता नेपालको उचाइगत विविधता र विविध जलवायु अवस्था र अद्वितीय भौगोलिक स्थितिको प्रतिबिम्ब हो । नेपालमा ११८किसिमका परिस्थितिक प्रणालीहरु पहिचान भएका छन भने २४२ वटा सिमसार क्षेत्र रहेको पहिचान भएको छ । प्रजातिय विविधताको हिसावले हेर्ने हो भने विश्वमा पाइने कुल वनस्पति प्रजातिको ३.२ प्रतिशत तथा कुल प्राणी प्रजातिको १.१ प्रतिशत नेपालमा पाइन्छ । यी जीवजन्तु तथा वनस्पतिका प्रजातिहरुमध्ये ७३ प्रजातिका स्तनधारी, ११३ प्रजातिका चरा, २९ प्रजातिका घस्रने प्राणी, २ प्रजातिका उभयचर, ३ प्रजातिका पुतली र ४१७ प्रजातिका वनस्पति साईटिस अनुसूचीमा सूचीकृत भएका छन । यसैगरि जैविक विविधता संरक्षणका क्षेत्रमा विभिन्न नीतिगत तथा कानुनी व्यवस्थाहरु गर्दै यस क्षेत्रमा नेपालले हासिल गरेका उपलब्धी प्रशंसनीय रहँदै आएको भए पनि जैविक विविधता संरक्षणमा खतराहरु पनि छन । वन्यजन्तु वासस्थानको विनाश तथा ह्रास जलवायु परिवर्तन, अनियन्त्रित, आक्रामक बाह्य प्रजातिहरूको प्रवेश,वातावरण प्रदुषण, प्राकृतिक स्रोतहरूको अत्यधिक दोहन, वन्यजन्तुको चोरि शिकार तथा अवैध व्यापार, मानव –वन्यजन्तु द्वन्द्व आदि मुख्य खतराको रूपमा रहँदै आएका छन । त्यसैले नीतिगत, कानुनी र संस्थागत सुधारका साथै स्रोत पहिचान, नीति,योजना र कार्यक्रम तर्जुमा र प्रभावकारी कार्यान्वयन, जैविक विविधता क्षेत्रबाट हुने लाभांसको न्यायोचित वितरण गर्न सरकारी निकाय, स्थानीय समुदाय, गैरसरकारी संस्था र अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय साझेदारहरू लगायत विभिन्न सरोकारवालाहरूको समन्वय र सहकार्य गरेर जैविक विविधता संरक्षण सुनिश्चित गर्न सकिन्छ ।</p> लाल बहादुर Lal Bahadur ओली Oli Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 244 258 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64477 माधवप्रसाद घिमिरेको ‘वैराग्य’ कवितामा ईश्वरचिन्तन {Godconsciousness in Madhav Prasad Ghimire's poem 'Vair-agya'} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64479 <p>प्रस्तुत आलेखमा माधवप्रसाद घिमिरेद्वारा लिखित ‘वैराग्य’ कविताको दर्शनपरक अध्ययन गरिएको छ । पूर्वीय वेदान्त दर्शन प्रतिपाद्य सगुण, साकार ईश्वरसम्बन्धी मान्यतालाई विश्लेषणको आधार बनाइएको छ । यो अध्ययन ‘वैराग्य’ कवितामा अभिव्यञ्जित सगुण, साकार ईश्वरचिन्तनमा आधारित छ । यो अध्ययन ‘वैराग्य’ कवितामा ईश्वरको सगुण, साकार स्वरूपको प्रयोग केकस्तो छ र कसरी प्रयोग गरिएको छ भन्ने समस्यामा केन्द्रित छ । यस समस्या समाधानका लागि सामग्री सङ्कलन पुस्तकालयीय कार्यबाट गरिएको छ । यो अध्ययनमा गुणात्मक विधिको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । घिमिरेको यो ‘वैराग्य’ कविता सगुण, साकार ईश्वर चिन्तनको सम्यक अभिव्यक्ति भएको कविता हो । यस कवितामा वेदान्त दर्शनले स्थापित गरेको सगुण, साकार ईश्वरसम्बन्धी दार्शनिक मान्यतालाई प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । ‘वैराग्य’ शब्दले सांसारिक विषयवस्तु र वासनामय जीवनबाट मनुष्य विरक्त बनेर ईश्वर प्राप्तिमा लाग्ने अवस्थालाई सङ्केत गरेको छ । वैराग्य प्राप्त भएपछि नै मनुष्यादि जीव ईश्वरप्रति समर्पित हुने विचार कवितामा प्रस्तुत भएको छ । कवितामा सांसारिक मायामोह र विषयवासनाजस्ता कुराहरूलाई त्याग गरेर एकान्त स्थलमा गई सगुण, साकार ईश्वरको उपासना गर्नुपर्ने कुरा बताइएको छ । कविले समस्त विश्वब्रह्माण्डका अन्य कुरा क्षणिक हुन् तर ईश्वर सत्य छन् भन्ने विचार कवितामा व्यक्त गरेका छन् । यस कवितामा समस्त मनुष्यादि जीवको अन्तिम आश्रयस्थल सगुण, साकार ईश्वर राम नै रहेको विचार व्यञ्जित गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनको अन्त्यमा माधवप्रसाद घिमिरेको ‘वैराग्य’ कविता वेदान्त दर्शनको सगुण, साकार ईश्वरचिन्तनका दृष्टिले उत्तम रहेको र माधवप्रसाद घिमिरे ईश्वरवादी कवि भएको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । दर्शनजस्तो विषयलाई कविताको विषय बनाएर त्यसलाई शास्त्रीय लयका माध्यमबाट कलात्मक र मार्मिक ढङ्गले प्रस्तुत गर्नु लेखकको वैशिष्ठ्य हो र यो नै अध्ययनको प्राप्ति पनि हो ।</p> लेखनाथ Lekhanath खनाल Khanal Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 259 268 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64479 ऋषिराज बरालका उपन्यासमा वर्गीय चेतना {Class Consciousness in Rishiraj Baral's Novels} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64480 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख ऋषिराज बरालका उपन्यासमा वर्गीय चेतनाको अध्ययनमा आधारित छ । नेपाली समाजको वर्गीय विषमताको विरुद्धमा सङ्घर्षरत जनताले देखाएको साहस र वलिदान तथा सामाजिक, राजनीतिक विकृति र विसङ्गतिको अभिव्यक्ति उनका उपन्यासमा पाइन्छ । माक्र्सवादी दर्शनबाट प्रभावित बराल प्रगतिवादी साहित्यिक मान्यताअनुसार तत्कालीन आर्थिक तथा सामाजिक असमानताले सिर्जना गरेको वर्ग सङ्घर्षको उद्घाटन गर्नमा केन्द्रित भएको देखिन्छ । बरालका उपन्यासमा निम्न वर्गप्रति सामन्त वर्गको अन्याय, अत्याचार र शोषणको स्थिति कुन रूपमा छ, त्यसका विरुद्धको चेतना शोषित वर्गमा कसरी प्रकट भएको छ र लेखकीय पक्षधरता कुन वर्गप्रति देखिन्छ भन्ने जिज्ञासाको समाधान गर्ने यस अध्ययनको उद्देश्य रहेको छ । यस उद्देश्य पुर्तिका निम्ति उपन्यासमा अभिव्यक्त वर्गीय चेतना तथा वर्गीय पक्षधरताको व्याख्या विश्लेषण गर्न सोद्देश्यमूलक ढङ्गले सामग्रीको सङ्कलन गरी माक्र्सवादी मान्यता अनुरूप सङ्कलित सामग्रीको विश्लेषण गरिएकाले यसमा निगमनात्मक विधिको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । समाजमा भएका असमानताले नै वर्गद्वन्द्व तथा वर्गीय चेतना जन्मने र वर्गीय चेतनाको सही विश्लेषणले मात्र निम्नवर्गको मुक्तिको यात्रा तय हुनसक्ने निष्कर्ष बरालका उपन्यसको अध्ययनबाट प्राप्त भएको छ ।</p> शारदा देवी Sharada Devi लामिछाने Lamichhane Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 269 280 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64480 ‘निर्णय’ कथाको समाजशात्रीय विश्लेषण {A sociological analysis of the story 'Nirnaya'} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64481 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख मातृका पोखरेलद्वारा लिखित सन्त्रस्त आँखाहरू कथासङ्ग्रह (२०६१) मा समाविष्ट कथामा आधारित छ । यस कथाको विश्लेषण समाजशास्त्रीय चिन्तक इपिलि अडोल्फ तेनको जाति, युग र पर्यावरणमध्ये भौगोलिक, समाजिक, राजनीतिक, सांस्कृतिक र आर्थिक पर्यावरणका पक्षबाट गरिएको छ । साहित्यमा पर्यावरणको प्रभाव प्रबल रूपमा रहेको हुन्छ । पर्यावरण समाजको भौगोलिक संरचना तथा हावापानीसँग सम्बन्धित हुन्छ । भौगोलिक संरचना तथा प्राकृतिक स्थितिले साहित्यलाई प्रभाव पारेको हुन्छ । निर्णय कथामा नेपालको ग्रामीण भौगोलिक पर्यावरणका साथै सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक, राजनीतिक र आर्थिक पर्यारवण रहेको छ । कथामा ग्रामीण जनजीवनको परिवेशलाई आधार मानी वि. सं. २०५२ सालपछिको पर्यावरणमा त्यस समयमा हुने वर्गीय भेद, सत्ताको मोहमा फसेको राजनीति, जनताप्रतिको चासो, आर्थिक अवस्था, भौगोलिक अवस्थाले पार्ने प्रभाव, चुनावी माहोल, नेपाली परिवेशमा गरेको सङ्घर्ष सशक्त रूपमा रहेको छ । मूलतः यस विश्लेषणमा समाजशास्त्रीय मान्यतामा रही जाति, क्षण र पर्यावरणमध्ये भौगोलिक, सामाजिक, राजनीतिक, आर्थिक र सांस्कृतिक पर्यावरणको प्रभाव परेको छ ।</p> शेखर Shekhar अर्याल Aryal Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 281 289 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64481 सुवेदीको ‘लाशहरू उठेपछि’ नाटकमा शरीर राजनीति {Body politics in Subedi's play 'Lasharu Uthepachi'} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64483 <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानमूलक लेख सुवेदीको ‘लाशहरू उठेपछि’ नाटकमा शरीर राजनीति शीर्षकमा केन्द्रित रहेर अध्ययन गरिएको छ । मिसेल फुको र नारीवादीहरूका शरीर राजनीतिसम्बन्धी अवधारणालाई सैद्धान्तिक आधार मानेर अध्ययन गरिएको यस लेखमा वर्णनात्मक र विश्लेषणात्मक विधि अपनाइएको छ । महिला र पुरुषबिच लैङ्गिक विभेद ल्याउने प्रमुख तत्त्व पितृसत्तात्मक सोच हो । नाटककार रोशन सुवेदीले यस नाटकमा नेपाली समाजमा पितृसत्ताद्वारा नारी शरीरमाथि हुने गरेका शोषण र उत्पीडनको यथार्थ चित्रण गरी अन्याय र अत्याचारको विरुद्धमा प्रतिरोधी चेतना जगाउने कार्य गरेका छन् । नाटकमा हर्केले तिन सन्तानकी आमा भैसकेकी आफ्नै श्रीमती सुनमायालाई वस्तुकरण गरी भारतको कोठीमा लगेर बेचेपछि एड्स लागेर मृत्यु भएको छ । दाइजो ल्याइन भनेर लोग्ने र परिवार मिलेर नव दुलहीलाई मट्तिेल खन्याई जिउँदै जलाएर मारिएको छ । लोग्नेले छोरी छोरी पाई भनेर सौता हाली कुटपिट गरेर निकालिएपछि दुई छोरी च्यापेर माइत गएकी धनमायाले माइतमा पनि बास नपाएपछि लाशमा परिणत भएकी र छोरीहरू पनि बिचल्ली भई लाश भैसकेका छन् । बोक्सीको आरोप लगाई सारा गाउँलेहरू मिलेर सामुहिक रूपमा कुटपिट गरी मानव मल खुवाएर रागिनीदेबीलाई गाउँबाट निकालेपछि लाशमा परिणत भएकी छ । जड्याहा लोग्नेबाट रातदिन रक्सी धोकेर गधालाईभैmँ निर्घात कुटेर मारिनीदेबी लाश भएकी छ । जबसम्म पुरुषप्रधान पितृसत्तात्मक सामाजिक संरचनाको अन्त्य हुँदैन तबसम्म नारी शरीरमाथि गरिने शोषणको पनि अन्त्य हुनसक्दैन । पुरुषका अधीनस्थता र शोषणबाट महिला शरीरलाई मुक्त राख्नका लागि उत्पीडित नारीहरूले अन्यायका विरुद्ध सङ्गठित भएर आवाज उठाउनुपर्दछ भन्ने उद्घोषपछि मृत अवस्थामा पुगेर मञ्चमा लडिरहेका आत्माहरू समेत अकस्मात चलमलाएर अब हामी पनि जीवन बाँच्नुपर्छ भन्दै अपराधीहरूको खोजीमा लागेको देखाएर नाटकमा नारी जीवनको उज्वल भविष्यको सङ्केत गरिएको निष्कर्ष रहेको छ ।</p> शोभाकुमारी Shovakumari ढुङ्गाना Dhungana Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 290 299 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64483 ‘मन, आत्मा र शरीर’ निबन्धमा आत्मचिन्तन {Self-reflection in the Essay 'Mind, Soul and Body'} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/cognition/article/view/64484 <p>प्रस्तुत आलेख विनयकुमार शर्मा नेपालद्वारा रचित पुनरावृत्ति निबन्धसङ्ग्रहभित्रको “मन, आत्मा र शरीर” निबन्धमा आत्मचिन्तन’ विश्लेषणमा केन्द्रित रहेको छ । यो लेखमा विवेच्य निबन्ध प्रयुक्त कथ्य र निबन्धकारका चिन्तनको विश्लेषण गर्नु सान्दर्भिक रहेको देखिन्छ । यो मूलतः गुणात्मक प्रकृतिको अनुसन्धानमा आधारित रहेको छ । प्रस्तुत लेख मुख्यतया पुस्तकालयीय अध्ययनबाट सामग्रीसङ्कलन गरिएको छ । यहाँ पूर्वीय दर्शनले प्रतिपादन गरेका सिद्धान्तअन्तर्गतको दार्शनिक मान्यताका रूपमा आत्मचिन्तनजस्ता योगदर्शन र वेदान्तदर्शनका मुख्य प्रतिपाद्य विषय अभिव्यञ्जित रहेका छन् । यहाँ आत्मचिन्तनका आधारमा रहेर निबन्धभित्र रहेको आत्मसम्बन्धी चिन्तनको सूक्ष्म विवेचना गर्न निबन्धकारले जीवनजगत्सम्बन्धी वैयक्तिक चिन्तनका परिकल्पनामा पूर्वीय वैदिक षड्दर्शनका सैद्धान्तिक मान्यतालाई स्वीकार गरिएको छ । यहाँ आत्मसम्बन्धी दृष्टिकोण केकस्तो रहेको छ भन्ने उद्घाटन गर्ने काम भएको छ । विषयविश्लेषणका लागि आवश्यकताअनुसार निगमनात्मक र आगमनात्मक विधिको अवलम्बन गरेर पूर्वीय दर्शनका विविध मान्यतामध्ये आत्मसम्बन्धी मान्यतालाई आधार बनाएर आत्मसम्बन्धी चिन्तनको विश्लेषणजस्ता कुरा हेरिएको छ । यहाँ आत्मसम्बन्धी चिन्तनका दृष्टिले यस निबन्धमा शरीर नाशवान् छ तर आत्मा नित्य, अजर र अमर छ भन्ने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । आत्मसम्बन्धी चिन्तनको अभिव्यक्तिका दृष्टिले यस निबन्धमा आत्मा भनेको आफू हो । यो शरीर, इन्द्रिय, प्राण, मन, बुद्धि, चित्त र अहङ्कारभन्दा परको कुरा हो भन्ने निष्कर्ष यहाँ निकालिएको छ । आत्मा नै ब्रह्म हो र आनन्दस्वरूप आत्मा आफैंभित्र छ, ज्ञानद्वारा आत्मसाक्षात्कार गर्न सकिन्छ, स्वयम्प्रकाशानन्दस्वरूप आत्मा नै जगत्को केन्द्र हो भन्ने पूर्वीय दर्शनका परिकल्पनासँग यस निबन्धको विचारमा समानता देखिएको छ ।</p> सुधा Sudha शर्मा Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 6 1 300 309 10.3126/cognition.v6i1.64484