Contemporary Research: An Interdisciplinary Academic Journal <p>Contemporary Research: An Interdisciplinary Academic Journal is a peer reviewed online research journal of Ghodaghodi Multiple Campus, Kailali, Nepal.</p> Ghodaghodi Multiple Campus, Research Committee en-US Contemporary Research: An Interdisciplinary Academic Journal 2717-4611 <p>© Ghodaghodi Multiple Campus, Research Committee</p> Editorial <p>Not available.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dipak Raj Joshi Binod Kumar Khadka Copyright (c) 2020 Ghodaghodi Multiple Campus, Research Committee 2020-11-05 2020-11-05 4 1 1 2 10.3126/craiaj.v4i1.32711 Negotiating pathways for the continuation of chhaupadi system in remote parts of Nepal <p>Chhaupadi system, the practice of menstrual segregation of women in separate sheds called chhaugoths, is rooted deeply in Mid-western and Far-western parts of Nepal since long ago. In spite of its evil status identified in society menstrual segregation has been witnessed continuing in traditional society. This study has been carried out in order to investigate negotiating pathways for the continuation of the evil practice, focusing the study to one of the representative traditionalist society called Patala in Kalikot district of Nepal. The respondents were comprised of 150 sample sizes consisting of menstruating women from various age group, religious persons, faith healers, activists, and aged people. The data collected showed the low literacy rate in this study site and all the families observed have made menstrual huts (chhaupadi goths). The main reason for the continuation of this evil practice of chhaupadi is it becomes a tradition for this area and the second most reason is the widespread illiteracy as found in this area shown by the data collected. God will get angry if they try to get rid of this practice, some of the respondents answered. Untouchability, restrictions, taboos, segregation resulting in humiliation, health risks, crimes and injustice have often been observed as violation in physical and mental health of women. The people of this area are fed up with this evil tradition. They are trying to get rid of this system but they cannot.</p> Aina Bahadur Bam Copyright (c) 2020 Ghodaghodi Multiple Campus, Research Committee 2020-11-05 2020-11-05 4 1 3 14 10.3126/craiaj.v4i1.32712 Phonological study of the Sonaha language <p>The Sonaha is a language which is spoken in Bardiya, Kailali and Kanchanpur districts in Nepal. Sonaha language, henceforth Sonaha, was not identified by the government before the Census 2011. In spite of having its own linguistic features and originality, Sonaha is badly affected by the influence of other neighboring languages. Keeping this in mind, this study mainly aims to explore and present the inventory of the phoneme, syllable structures and vowel sequence or, in short, to highlight the phonological system of Sonaha language. Sonaha 3404 native words were collected from fifty native speakers of Rajapur Municipality and Geruwa Rural Municipality of Bardiya district, Ghodaghodi Municipality of Kailali and Bhimdutt Municipality of Kanchanpur district. The data were presented and analyzed based on minimal pairs to verify phonemes. This study explored six vowels, twenty nine consonants, six types of syllable structures and seven vowel sequences in Sonaha.</p> Anil Dutt Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2020 Ghodaghodi Multiple Campus, Research Committee 2020-11-06 2020-11-06 4 1 15 33 10.3126/craiaj.v4i1.32727 An analysis of unofficial sanction of India from neo-colonialism perspective <p>This paper mainly analyses the unofficial sanction of India against Nepal from neocolonial perspectives. The paper argues that the sanction of India against Nepal has-been the repercussion of colonial hangover of the former. India saw new constitution of Nepal through latter’s inferiority to write democratic constitution. India as a postcolonial nation inherited the colonial culture from British rule. It has been almost seven decades that India got independence from British rule but in reality it couldn’t escape from the colonial culture left by the British. The study has been conducted as library research reviewing the wide range of research, articles and reports. The study is qualitative in nature, which has incorporated the description, assessment, examine and comparative methods.</p> Bhuwaneswor Pant Copyright (c) 2020 Ghodaghodi Multiple Campus, Research Committee 2020-11-06 2020-11-06 4 1 34 45 10.3126/craiaj.v4i1.32728 Effectiveness of GeoGebra in teaching school mathematics <p>This article aims to explain the effectiveness of using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning school mathematics. The paper is based on the results of one month experiment of Geo Gebra software in teaching and learning the concepts and problems included in the chapter commensuration of secondary level mathematics. The effectiveness of using ICT tools were explored by measuring achievement level with the help of achievement test and overall perceptions of using ICT tools through questionnaire. The data were analyzed and interpreted by using table, frequency, percentage, mean, SD and t-test. The findings revealed that there was high mean score in achievement in mathematics of experimental group (teaching with ICT) than that of control group (without using ICT), and the difference was significant at 0.05 level. Likewise, the students of experimental group had positive perception to support the use of ICT tools in teaching and learning mathematics. Thus, the use of ICT, particularly Geo Gebra is an effective tool to increase achievement; to promote curiosity, creativity; to make clear sense of concepts; and to encourage overall learning of students in mathematics. Finally, the study suggests that school mathematics teachers need to use ICT for effective teaching and learning.</p> Bir Bahadur Chalaune Abatar Subedi Copyright (c) 2020 Ghodaghodi Multiple Campus, Research Committee 2020-11-06 2020-11-06 4 1 46 58 10.3126/craiaj.v4i1.32729 Politics of affect in Train to Pakistan and Tamas <p>This paper analyzes selected Indian partition novels to unravel affective politics underlined in them. The major affects underlying in these novels are those of love, hatred, happiness, unhappiness, and outrage. One positive affect in favor of one concomitantly invites antonymic affect for the other. This refrain of affect, as this paper has tried to analyze, follows the nationalist historiographies of the writers like Khushwant Singh (The Train to Pakistan) and Bhisham Sahni (Tamas). The paper concludes that the affects evoked by the above mentioned novels are ethically tilted to the notions of community and nationhood of the respective writers—an ideologically biased orientation that results into a prose of demonization and denunciation of whom they consider the Other.</p> Dipak Raj Joshi Copyright (c) 2020 Ghodaghodi Multiple Campus, Research Committee 2020-11-06 2020-11-06 4 1 59 75 10.3126/craiaj.v4i1.32730 Money supply and economic growth of Nepal: ARDL approach <p>There are a number of theories illustrating the relationship between money supply and gross domestic product. Money supply can be defined as the total stock of money circulating in the economy. The circulating money involves the currency, printed notes, money in the deposit accounts, and in the form of other liquid assets. Valuation of money supply helps analysts and policy makers to frame the policy or to alter the existing policy of increasing or reducing the supply of money. The valuation is important as it ultimately affects the business cycle and thereby affecting the economy. This study sought to provide answers to the question, what are the effects of money supply on the gross domestic product in Nepal? The study undertook a causal research design using time series data from the period 1974/75 to 2017/18 to critically investigate the relationship between money supply and economic growth by establishing an empirical relationship that exists between them. The study employed the Augmented Diky fuller test and ARDL- VECM model. The results indicate the existence of a significant long-run relationship between money supply and economic growth as measured by GDP. LNBM is significant to LNGDP and LNGDP is also significant to LNBM so there is bi-directional causality. There is unidirectional relationship existing between LNINF to LNGDP and LNINF to LNBM. ECTcoefficient vale are negative and the p-value of above three approaches are also less than 5 percent which is desirable for the ARDL model.</p> Keshar Bahadur Kunwar Copyright (c) 2020 Ghodaghodi Multiple Campus, Research Committee 2020-11-06 2020-11-06 4 1 76 94 10.3126/craiaj.v4i1.32732 Influences of parental socio-economic status on academic achievement: A case study of rural communities in Kailali, Nepal <p>The purpose of this study is to explore and analyze the relationship between the parental socio-economic status and academic achievement of students. The research question of the study was: How does the parental socio-economic status influence on academic achievement of students? This study focused on the interrelated dimensions of parental income, educational status, and its effect on children’s education. The study was conducted with a qualitative case study research design. Altogether 15 informants from parents, teachers, and students were selected by the purposive sampling method. In-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and observation techniques were followed during data collection. Data were analyzed using thematic narrative analysis. The study found that the majority of students of low socio-economic status have poor academic achievement. Parents of low economic background have been found less interested in the education of their children. Students from low socio-economic status more emphasized on employment rather than further study after secondary education. Such students were found to be pursuing unskilled jobs in labour market. This study recommended conducting free technical and vocational education. Schools and concerned authorities need to conduct parental awareness and education programs.</p> Khagendra Raj Pant Copyright (c) 2020 Ghodaghodi Multiple Campus, Research Committee 2020-11-08 2020-11-08 4 1 95 109 10.3126/craiaj.v4i1.32753 Significant accomplishment of the post-disaster housing reconstruction: A community perspective from 2015 earthquake affected communities in Nepal <p>In spite of the significant grants and supports after 2015 earthquake, housing reconstruction faced numerous challenges in addressing the needs of the disaster affected communities. The earthquake threatened almost all aspects of the societies in14 of the most affected districts. Government of Nepal and various development partners, including bilateral agencies, were involved in the implementation of housing reconstruction projects in different districts. All these initiatives in communities yielded diverse results. Because of the resulting disquiet from the public, the post-disaster housing reconstruction is becoming the concern and dilemma to researchers, development and humanitarian organizations worldwide. It is evident that private housing reconstruction is complicated and slow process, which is knotted with social, economic, and political dimensions. The paper highlights the significant contributing factors for accomplishing the housing reconstruction after the earthquake. A multi-dimensional holistic approach interprets the nexus of successful reconstruction, which are discussed in the paper. This paper serves as a valuable resource that highlights the significant factors for the government, development and humanitarian partners, and researchers.</p> Mukti Suvedi Copyright (c) 2020 Ghodaghodi Multiple Campus, Research Committee 2020-11-08 2020-11-08 4 1 110 128 10.3126/craiaj.v4i1.32754 An analysis of major environmental threats to human security in Nepal <p>The paper mainly analyses the environmental threats focusing on climate change to human security in Nepal. Major aspects of human security are interlinked and interconnected in our context. Among them, human security offers much to the vibrant field of environmental security in Nepal. Environmental threats are linked to the overall impact on human survival, well-being, and productivity. A great deal of human security is tied to peoples’ access to natural resources and vulnerabilities to environmental change. The major environmental threats in our context is the climate change which have widespread implications for Nepal, causing impacts to water availability, agricultural production, forestry, among many other detrimental effects. The critical threat of environmental security needs to be taken into serious consideration to save our succeeding generation. This article primarily interpreted the government action towards emerging environmental threat based on realist approach. For the study of theme of this article, descriptive and analytical research has been used to draw present major environmental threats in Nepal. With consideration to factors, this article attempted to identify the major environmentally vulnerable areas that are likely to hamper the overall status of human security in Nepal. This paper also tried to suggest the measures to enhance the environmental security considering prospects and policy focusing on Nepalese diverse aspects.</p> Naresh Bhakta Adhikari Copyright (c) 2020 Ghodaghodi Multiple Campus, Research Committee 2020-11-08 2020-11-08 4 1 129 139 10.3126/craiaj.v4i1.32755 Socio-cultural, organizational factor and career development of female employees: A study on school teachers <p>The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of socio-cultural and organizational factors affecting the career development of female employees. With judgmental/ purposive sampling technique, only 142 respondents have been selected out of 150 questionnaires distributed to female school teachers. This study has tested reliability of questionnaires by using Cronbach alpha. Using multiple regression analysis, it has been found that both socio-cultural and organizational factors have negative impact on women career development. Hence, a conclusion can be drawn-out of the study that there are negative impacts of socio-cultural and organizational factors on women career development. Considering the outcomes, it can be claimed that the study could be useful for school management, trainers, and human resource developers to assist the career development of female school teachers.</p> Sarita Maharjan Copyright (c) 2020 Ghodaghodi Multiple Campus, Research Committee 2020-11-08 2020-11-08 4 1 140 152 10.3126/craiaj.v4i1.32756 Economic dimension of India’s foreign policy towards Russia: Late 20th- early 21st century <p>In the international framework India is finding a larger position for itself. This hope is focused on the belief that India is a prosperous democracy with substantial human and material resources; it is an increasingly strong economic power; it has a proven record as a responsible and law-abiding regime, and as a member of the non-aligned party it has consistently shared the interests of the developing nations. Indian foreign policy makers argue that India wants to re-invent itself at this point of 'take-off' as a great force. India needs new alliance for the proposed new position, including the dominant superpower, the United States of America (US). The US has said it would turn India into a great force. This essay attempts to examine the old pattern of relations with Russia that India had enjoyed. There's an Indo-US triangular alliance taking its place. How is this current type of strategic partnership distinct from that of the Indo Soviet/ Russian alliance? However, both countries' natural desire to strive towards multi polarity in world politics has helped restore the relationship, particularly over the past decade. Remarkably, ties with the US no longer stand in the way of stronger relations between India and Russia. The turbulent security climate marked by what is frequently assumed to be the state-sponsored insurgency invulnerable Asian areas, the war in Afghanistan, and the political turmoil in both Afghanistan and Central Asian countries has paved the way for a strategic alliance between India and Russia.</p> Md. Sayedur Rahman Shakila Tul-Kubra Copyright (c) 2020 Ghodaghodi Multiple Campus, Research Committee 2020-11-08 2020-11-08 4 1 153 173 10.3126/craiaj.v4i1.32757 Impact of epidemic infectious disease and death on stock returns: Evidences from Asian stock markets with COVID-19 <p>The causal comparative study regarding impact of pandemic COVID-19 on stock return revealed that the changes on daily confirmed new cases have been severely inflected stock returns in overall as well as cross-over the industries. Whereas, the influence of death form COVID-19 found negative but mostly insignificant. The categorical variables size of economy, geographical area, regulations, and country specific impact have been found very low. The empirical evidences were examined using causality test with the backing of regression. The study period has covered 20<sup>th</sup>January to 30<sup>th</sup>May 2020, considering eight nations: China, India, Israel, Japan, Korea Republic, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates, as samples.</p> Shiba Prasad Sapkota Copyright (c) 2020 Ghodaghodi Multiple Campus, Research Committee 2020-11-08 2020-11-08 4 1 174 191 10.3126/craiaj.v4i1.32759