Education and Development <p>Education and Development is published by the Research Centre for Educational Innovation and Development (CERID), Tribhuvan University, Balkhu, Kathmandu, Nepal</p> Research Centre for Educational Innovation and Development (CERID) en-US Education and Development 1816-7691 <p><a title="CC BY-NC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY-NC 4.0</a>. This license requires that reusers give credit to the creator. It allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, for noncommercial purposes only.</p> Editorial Vol.32(1) <p>No abstract available.</p> Bal Mukunda Bhandari Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 1 Adapting English Teacher Professional Development to Shifting Educational Situations in Higher Education: Trends and Prospects <p>This study explores the need for transforming professional development for English teachers. Similarly, it focuses on the overview of traditional professional development methods and proposes alternative approaches, such as personalized learning and collaborative communities of practice. In addition, the article highlights the importance of aligning professional development with the evolving demands of the English language curriculum and the challenges posed by digital technologies. The study explores the necessity of adapting English teacher professional development programs to changing educational conditions through thematic-based content analysis of the research found in Google Scholar and Eric databases. Furthermore, related papers and litmaps were used to analyze the authorship and coverage of the study. Recent research from the ERIC and Google Scholar databases strengthens the need for ongoing, workplace-based, and personalized professional development programs that are connected with the evolving demands of the English language curriculum and digital technology. The findings of this study, thus, reinforce the need for transformative professional development programs that are aligned with the changing demands of the English curriculum and digital technology and prioritize the individualized learning needs of instructors. The research underlines the necessity for English teachers to adjust their professional development practices to meet the ever-evolving requirements imposed by the English curriculum. The results suggest that professional development strategies should be adapted to meet the changing educational circumstances. Overall, the study offers guidelines for the design and implementation of transformative professional development programs that improve teacher learning and student outcomes.</p> Yadu Prasad Gyawali Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 1 1 20 10.3126/ed.v32i1.61605 Association of Mother's Education with Maternity and Newborn Care Practices in Nepal <p>Mother’s education plays a crucial role for enhancing maternal and child health. This paper aims to examine the association of mother's education with maternity and newborn care practices in Nepal. It builds primarily on secondary data obtained the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016. In this study, it was found that 22.4 percent of mothers with no education made four or more antenatal care visits, which increased to 31.2 percent among those who had completed SLC or higher levels of education. In terms of place of delivery, more than 30 percent of the mothers who completed SLC or higher education chose to had their babies in health facilities. Likewise, over 30 percent of mothers who having SLC or higher education ensured their own and their newborns' health was assessed by healthcare professionals after delivery. Mother's education plays a significant (p&lt;0.05) role in increasing antenatal visits, motivating women to have deliveries with health facilities, giving preference to health checkups of mothers and newborns before and after delivery, and preferring health checkups of the mothers and the newborns by health personnel, which eventually improved maternal and newborn health. The main finding of this study is that increasing levels of mother's education have a significant positive association with maternity and newborn care practices in Nepal. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that the nation invest in women's education up to a higher level to improve the health status of both mothers and children.</p> Om Chandra Thasineku Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 1 21 32 10.3126/ed.v32i1.61557 Cognitive Development Assessment of Pre-Primary School Children in Pokhara <p>This study focused on evaluating cognitive development in urban pre-schoolers in Pokhara. It aimed to assess the socioeconomic and cognitive statuses of early childhood development (ECD), and explored influencing factors. The research involved 160 children aged 4-5 from eight ECD centers in Pokhara, with ECD facilitators, parents, and principals as respondents. It used Jean Piaget's and Lev Vygotsky’s theories, employing mixed methods. The research tools involved observation checklist sand interview guidelines whereas the statistical analysis involved regression analysis-ANOVA. The findings showed that most kids were from Dalit and Janajati communities, relying on daily wage labor and lacking permanent homes. About two-thirds of them displayed cognitive progress. The influential factors included teacher training, home learning environment, family income, and housing ownership. Overall, their cognitive development was unsatisfactory in the researched context. The study suggests towards collaboration among stakeholders and policy changes for improvement.</p> Indira Pant Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 1 33 48 10.3126/ed.v32i1.61558 Education in the Era of Digitization: An 'ABCDE' Model <p>This study aims to explore the answers to the questions of how and what technology is bringing about radical changes in human life and how and what education system can make humans able to cope with the challenges posed by technology. To get the answer to these questions, I have followed the desk review strategy as a methodology. I essentially reviewed some related literature, heavily relying on internet-based literature. A systematic review process was followed to gather the relevant data from the text. The review was carried out in three steps: locating data sources to be used, defining criteria for rating the quality of the studies, and presenting and analyzing the findings.As the information was secondary as well as theoretical; themes were developed and then analyzed and interpreted accordingly. Exponential development of technology is bringing about unprecedented changes in various aspects of society. Now we are facing a radically changing situation in the job market. It is estimated that up to half of the world’s jobs are at high the risk of disappearing due to automation in the near future. It is the first time in human history that we have the possibility to follow everybody all the time and get to know someone better than one knows oneself. Inequality among human beings is mounting rapidly. Human abilities are gradually downgrading due to technological advancement. The study proposes an ‘ABCDE’ model of education to make children able to cope with the changing situation.</p> Yadav Acharya Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 1 49 62 10.3126/ed.v32i1.61568 Establishing Philosophy for the Development of School Curriculum <p>This paper is an attempt to explore the guidelines for establishing philosophy for school curriculum development. It is a theoretical article that consulted several philosophies, theories, books, and research articles to understand multiple realities and issues of philosophy concerning curriculum development. The data collection and analysis were organized with global themes that emerged through the review of different literature. The paper has analyzed that the curriculum development process required a particular process rather than employing an established philosophy. The curriculum depends upon what society has understood about education and should be designed upon building such society which the society aspires to transform into. The legal and political system, educational philosophies, global and local philosophical perspectives of curriculum development, curriculum conceptions, and contemporary educational issues are the major influencing factors to ponder upon for developing a philosophy of school curriculum.</p> Jiwan Dhungana Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 1 63 78 10.3126/ed.v32i1.61570 Mathematics Teachers’ Reflection on Essential Digital Skills and Techniques for Effective Online Mathematics Instruction <p>Digital skills are necessary to integrate novel technologies in instructional practices of each subject including mathematics. The aim of this research was to explore the necessary skills for teaching mathematics and practical ways to teach mathematics online. The qualitative survey design was used among 277 mathematics teachers in Nepal through open questionnaires using Google Form. The list-based sampling strategy was used to collect the data. The results were analyzed by using word cloud and descriptive methods. The findings indicate that every mathematics teacher should have skills in using different tools like video conferencing, collaboration, subject-specific software, visualization, and LMS. Furthermore, an access to the internet, digital devices, and resources is necessary for all teachers and students in this age. Skill development, use of novel instructional activities, use of digital tools, resource management, and development, collaboration, and communication are the key areas of mathematics teachers for effective teaching online.</p> Bishnu Khanal Dirgha Raj Joshi Krishna Prasad Sharma Chapai Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 1 79 92 10.3126/ed.v32i1.61571 Role of Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) for Economic Growth of Nepal <p>Information and communication technology (ICT) refers to a broad range of technological resources and techniques used to send, store, produce, share, or exchange data or information as well as a number of technologies that make it easier to communicate, such as the internet, wireless networks, mobile phones, and other channels of communication. In this research, key informant interviews (KII) were conducted with NTA representatives, executive members, Mayor, Deputy Mayor, Ward Chairpersons of Pokhara Metropolitan City, representatives from Nepal Telecom. ICT has played a significant role in economic growth by enabling business to increase productivity, reduce costs, and improve efficiency. It can benefit a number of economic sectors, including health, education, industry, tourism, service, agriculture, culture, banking and entrepreneurship. ICT has transformed education by making it more accessible, flexible, personalized, and effective enabling learners to access educational resources from anywhere. OCE can be benefitted through ICT with respect to re-engineering of EMIS. It improves healthcare delivery by enabling remote consultations, telemedicine, and digital health records facilitates disease surveillance, monitoring, and research and improves financial inclusion through access to mobile banking, digital payments, and online financial services. Investing in human capital is critical to promoting ICT use in all sectors of the economy. Although ICT has many positive effects, it is crucial to acknowledge and deal with any negative effects in order to guarantee that technology is used responsibly and with respect.</p> Rajendra Kumar Pokhrel Anju Pokhrel Gautam Avi Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 1 93 104 10.3126/ed.v32i1.61577 Translanguaging as a Mediator of Learning: Observation in the EFL Classes of Nepal <p>This paper explores the implementation of translanguaging in English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) classes, focusing on its application in the context of sociocultural learning theory. By conducting naturalistic observations of 21 Grade 9 EFL lessons in three community schools in Kathmandu, the study investigated the benefits of translanguaging for Nepali-English emergent bilinguals. Thematic analysis of the classroom discourse using ATLAS.ti revealed that translanguaging effectively facilitated English learning through cognitive, affective, and interactional mediations. The research context featured low motivation and cognition levels, with Nepali as the common mother tongue (MT) for both teachers and students. In this scenario, translanguaging played a crucial role in mediating English language learning. The study underscores the importance of embracing students’ MT alongside English to foster a more effective and meaningful learning experience for emergent bilinguals in the contexts similar to the researched one. This highlights translanguaging as one of the valuable tools in target language learning (TL).</p> Uma Nath Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 1 105 120 10.3126/ed.v32i1.61586 Understanding Problems Encountered by Dyslexic Learners in Mathematics: A Qualitative Inquiry <p>Dyslexic learners often experience difficulties in mathematics, which can hurt their academic achievement and future success. This study aimed to understand the problems encountered by dyslexic learners in mathematics. The study involved five dyslexic learners in grades V and VI from public schools in the Kathmandu Valley. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. The analysis revealed five themes: difficulty applying mathematical concepts, the impact of dyslexia on mathematics achievement, challenges related to language, comprehension, and memory, math anxiety and self-esteem, and individual differences and support systems. The results of this study highlight the need for targeted support and interventions that address the specific needs of dyslexic learners in mathematics education to improve their overall academic performance. It is recommended that a multi-faceted approach be implemented to support dyslexic learners in mathematics education, which should support the learners to overcome their challenges and achieve success in mathematics.</p> Rajendra Kunwar Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 1 121 140 10.3126/ed.v32i1.61590 Understanding the Attitudes of School Teachers Towards Inclusive Education at the Local Context of Nepal <p>Teachers' positive attitudes are widely acknowledged as necessary for successful policy making and implementation of inclusive education. This study aims to assess general education teachers’ attitude towards inclusion of children with special needs education into regular education classrooms. It seeks to replicate previous findings regarding the effects of gender, age group, educational qualification, years of teaching, teaching levels and the class size in relation to inclusive education in the local context of Nepal. Following descriptive survey design, ninety-five general education teachers from Kirtipur Municipality, Nepal responded. For this study all schools located in that municipality were selected, and the teachers by using a census approach. The "Scale of Teachers’ Attitude Toward Inclusive Classroom (STATIC)" created by Cochran (1999) in Missouri, United States was adapted into Nepali language and used as a data collection tool that has four themes in a 5-point Likert-type scale. The midpoint or point 'three' of the replies was regarded as neutral, while less than that was labeled negative and more than that was considered a positive attitude. The major findings of the study indicate that the overall attitudes of the teacher participants are positive toward inclusive education, however it seems only at a minimal level or slightly positive. There was no significant difference in overall attitudes by teachers’ gender, age group, educational qualification, teaching levels, teaching experience and students class size. The study concludes that more effort is required to enhance the teachers' understanding of inclusive education by various means including in-service training, seminars and exposure as well as promoting a collaborative culture. The internal consistency among items was indicated acceptable level and inter-themes correlation were positive.</p> Krishna Bahadur Thapa Shovakhar Aryal Devaraj Acharya Phillipa Munday Anjan Basnet Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 1 141 156 10.3126/ed.v32i1.61595 Use of Stimulus Variation Skill in Teaching Health Education <p>This study has assessed the state of knowledge about stimulus variation skills and practical classroom use among college-level health education teachers. Using a qualitative phenomenological study design, the researchers collected data from health education teachers teaching master's health education in Dolakha, Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, and Chitwan districts. Eighteen health education teachers participated in in-depth qualitative interviews, nineteen teachers' classes were observed, and 4 focus group discussions including 26 teachers were conducted. The qualitative data were analyzed thematically. The results found out from this study demonstrated that there was confusion among teachers whether stimulus variation was a motivational skill or it was a matter of pedagogy. It showed that the participants had a little knowledge of purposeful movement inside the class, effective and appropriate use of gestures, change in speech pattern, interaction style, sense channels, postures and many more stimulus variation skills. Some teachers used intentional movement, and a smaller number of teachers used sensory channel changes and postural changes. In this regard, education college teachers need re-orientations on using all six stimulus variation skills.</p> Kusum Raj Subedi Bhagwan Aryal Ram Krishna Maharjan Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 1 157 168 10.3126/ed.v32i1.61600