Educational Journal <p>The Educational Journal is published by the Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus. Its aim is to develop innovative thought in the field of education, research &amp; educational administration.</p> Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus en-US Educational Journal 2773-7918 A Phenomenological Study of Value (Moral) Education in a School of Kirtipur Municipality <p>This study aims to explore how teachers experience on value education particularly related to moral education of students in a public school in Kirtipur. In addition, the study explores the challenges of maintaining value education that positively and adversely imparts quality education. A qualitative research design embedding phenomenological study was used in this study. Three secondary-level teachers were interviewed for more than half an hour each. The data were analyzed through thematic analysis. The finding shows students show a wide range of moral behaviors that make the importance of value education. In addition, Teachers face certain problems related to the curriculum, social environment, and family while transmitting values to students.</p> Milan Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 1 9 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61690 A Study on Situation of National Identity Card in Nepal: implications and challenges <p>"A Study on the Implications and Challenges of National Identity Card in Bhaktapur, Nepal" is the title of a paper that focuses on looking into how biometric data is collected for identification and verification purposes, especially when it comes to age. The main goals of this study are to look into how the National Identity Card is being used in Nepal and to look into the challenges and problems that come with using the National Identity Card there. The numbers show how the responses were spread out among different age groups, with a focus on those who actively participated. It talks about Nepal's culture and racial variety by stating that the people who answered the survey were from different groups, like the Brahmin, Kshetri, and Janajati. It shows how important it is for the government to keep an eye on different systems, and it emphasizes how important it is for the home ministry to be careful and aware of other ministries and functional units. The phrase stresses how important it is to recognize software and technology for protecting people's privacy, as the Constitution of Nepal, 2072, says that everyone has the right to privacy. It also says that information about the public and the state can be shared, but personal information and actions must be kept safe. Things look like the people of Nepal agree with these rules and conditions. The line also talks about the Right to Information Act, the Right to Duplicate Act, and the Evidence Act of Nepal as ways to get back lost public papers. In the end, it stresses how important it is for central ministries to work together to provide services to the people in a Federal Republic of Nepal. This is especially true when it comes to issuing national ID cards with the help of the home ministry and suggestions from local governments.</p> Romkant Pandey Suresh Bahadur Diyal Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 10 26 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61691 Causes and Consequences of Internal Migration in Bhaktapur District, Nepal <p>This field-based study, titled "Causes and Consequences of Internal Migration in Madhyapurthimi municipality ward 5, Bhaktapur," aimed to assess the demographic profile of in-migrants, understand the reasons for internal migration in the study area, and explore the outcomes of internal migration. The research relied on both primary and secondary data sources, with information gathered from 110 households through structured and semi-structured interviews. Upon collecting and thoroughly reviewing the data, the study revealed several key findings. It was observed that a significant proportion of in-migrants were students and job seekers, primarily falling within the age group of 20 years, which constitutes the economically active population. The analysis of respondents' income sources in their places of origin indicated that 50% relied on agriculture, 26.4% on business, 19.1% on services, and 4.5% on labor for their income. Regarding the demographic composition of the surveyed population, out of a total of 427 individuals across the 110 selected households, 49.18% were male, and 50.82% were female. The predominant religious affiliations were Hinduism (84.3%), followed by Buddhism (7.5%), Christianity (4.7%), and Kirat (3.7%), with the lowest percentage belonging to the Kirat faith. Education-wise, 56.52% of the population was found to have received formal education. The study highlighted that the primary drivers of in-migration were a lack of access to quality education and healthcare services, limited employment opportunities, and challenges in meeting the household's basic needs.</p> Pradeep Kumar Bohara Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 27 35 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61692 Competence Level of B. Ed. First Year Students in Reading Comprehension <p>This study aims to explore the competence level of B.Ed. first year students in reading skill under Tribhuvan University. The data were collected by using two types of testing tools constructed from compulsory English text-book selecting two different reading passages. From the first, 14 objective questions were asked as multiple choice items which carried 14 marks; and from the other reading passage, 12 subjective questions were asked which carried 36 marks. The full mark of the test was fifty and the time allotted to conduct the test was an hour (60 minutes). Two campuses were the institutional samples and forty students from one and sixty students from the other were the samples for the study. Out of these hundred samples, 60 girls and 40 boys were selected proportionally. The marks obtained by the students in objective test item, subjective test item and total are the depended variables and the total number of students, the number of boys and girls are the independent variables. Through the study it was found that the students’ overall competence in reading comprehension was found around 50% in average. The reading competence they performed in objective test item was comparatively higher than subjective test item. In totality, the reading competence level of the boys was slightly better than the girls but the difference does not seem so significant.</p> Lok Nath Timsina Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 36 46 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61693 Contribution of Senior Citizens to Employment Generation <p>The labor market of Nepal is shrinking with the migration of youth to foreign countries in search of employment opportunities. Rapid population ageing further exacerbates the situation, eventually affecting the national economy and development processes. Unlike many nations around the world, Nepal is yet to adopt policies realizing the impacts of population ageing. With less experience and fewer skills, young people often encounter difficulties accessing work. On the other hand, senior citizens have lifetime experience and expertise, which, if transferred to the younger population, can bring changes to the employment scenario among the younger generation and increase their employment rate. It was focused on exploring the skills and expertise of senior citizens in terms of procreating income-generating. The study was conducted in Sindupalchowk, Kavrepalanchowk, and Kathmandu districts with a sample size of 318 senior citizens. Locations were purposively selected keeping in mind the geographical structure of the areas and availability of respondents. Adopting the Snowball Sampling technique, senior citizens active in income-generating activities like agriculture/farming, entrepreneurship, factories, cooperatives, education sector, and others were identified for primary data collection. The snowball sampling was used because it had supported the same cohort of an ageing population and located the old age people in the locality. Besides, qualitative data were gathered through desk review, FGDs, and formal/informal meetings. The majority of the senior citizens interviewed were active in their professions and were contributing to their family economies. They had developed expertise after dedicating a significant portion of their life working in a particular field. Having made progress with their works, the senior citizens see great prospects of their current professions even in the next ten years and highly recommend young generation to involve in similar occupations. Young generations have great prospects ahead of them but require proper guidance.</p> Balaram Devkota Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 47 60 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61694 Drinking Water Supply System in Kathmandu Valley <p>This study designed to analyze physical, chemical and microbiological parameters of drinking water quality and its management by the city water supply system in the Kathmandu Valley. The study covers 18 core areas including 32 samples sites. Altogether 325 samples collected from intake, reservoirs, treatment plants and deep wells to their connectivity as well as alternative sources such as shallow wells, tube wells, processed water and stone spouts of Sundarijal water supply system. Primary information collected through In-depth interview with 155 households (hhs), 15 focus group discussions, interview with 20 water suppliers (government and private sector) and 30 school teachers and students of linking with water supply system within the study areas. The study analyzed 7 physical, 16 chemical and 2 microbiological parameters (Total coliform (TC) and Fecal coliform (FC) following the standard methods (APHA 2000). The findings have elaborated the water quality in the source is acceptable and it is deteriorate the quality linking with its supply chains and connectivity, which is severely affected by the scaled, rusted, leakage, old pipelines and intermittence of water supply. Most of the sampling sites were microbiologically, contaminated (TC 6-&gt;180MPN/100mL and FC 1-7MPN/100mL). The processed water contains lower level of essential minerals because of reverse osmosis treatments.</p> <p>The fluoride (0.8-2mg/L), manganese (0.1-0.5mg/L), ammonia (52-70mg/L), iron 5mg/L, color (20-25°Hazen), pH (6) and turbidity (32-40 NTU) in deep wells, its supplies, well, tube wells were found beyond the value of tolerance level recommended by NDWQS and WHO guidelines. About 98% hhs used traditional methods for water management; indicates poor handling practices. Hence water quality management is a big challenge in Kathmandu Valley in terms of adequate safe water and requires regular surveillances and monitoring system for improvement.</p> Pratima Tamrakar Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 61 73 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61696 Effectiveness of Formative Evaluation on Mathematics Achievement <p>Assessment plays a major role in how students learn, their motivation to learn, and how teachers teach. So in this research I have intended the effectiveness of the formative evaluation with analyzing non-cognitive behavior of students of basic level in mathematics. The mixed method approach was administrated for the study. The data were collected from achievement test of experimental and control group of students, interview and classroom observation form. It was found that there is no significant difference between the achievement score pre-test and posttest of the control group. But there is significant difference between achievements of the experimental group i.e, is the score of posttest is better than the pretest. Furthermore, the students who were teaching with different formative assessment strategies are more active and creative during the classroom teaching rather than the control group.</p> Nara Hari Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 74 85 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61697 Integrated School Teachers’ Experiences on Implementing Inclusive Education Policy of Nepal <p>This study entitled “Integrated School Teachers’ Experiences on Implementing Inclusive Education Policy of Nepal” was carried out to investigate the experiences of integrated school teachers in implementing inclusive education policy of Nepal. The study had been carried out by selecting ten integrated schools of Kathmandu valley by convenience sampling method. Ten special education teachers and ten physical education teachers from each schools were selected by purposive sampling method. Semi-structured interview schedule was prepared and administered to the participants through telephonic interview. The interview questions were reviewed by a physical education and special education experts to maintain its reliability. The study found that teachers have been experiencing low self-awareness about educating students with disabilities. They also experienced serious lacking in their knowledge and skill in them and also their perceptions towards inclusion was immature. They want their school administration to be more responsible and active in developing inclusive culture inside the school and also urged to provide them the opportunities of their professional development through training and exposures.</p> Madhav Shrestha Nam Raj Neupane Ramchandra Giri Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 86 93 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61698 Investigation of the Change in Hydrophobicity of Polycarbonate in Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge (APBDB) Generated with a 50 Hz Power Supply <p>Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) of disc electrodes with diameter 5 cm and thickness 1 cm of each has been used for treatment of the samples. The discharge was produced at fixed inter-electrode gap of 4.5 cm for the study of effectiveness of treatment on the surface of the Polycarbonates (PCs). After the treatment in varying time periods the hydrophobic properties of sample changed to the hydrophilic. To investigate the effect of plasma treatment, contact angle was measured by using goniometer with water as a testing liquid. Effect on the sample due to treatment time, applied voltage and working gas were studied. Treatment carried out in Argon environment produced better wettability compared to atmospheric air. Aging effect was also studied to see the evolution of the wettability after time elapsed by measuring the contact angle up to one month after the treatment. Contact angle was increased from 39.35° C to 56.4° C, which was still very lower than the contact angle 81.2° of untreated sample.</p> Achyut Prasad Sapkota D.P. Subedi R. Khanal B. Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 94 99 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61699 Learner Participation in Science Learning: Creating a Humanized Science Classroom <p>As science learners, learners can learn science from their enriched cultural life world. However, the disempowering forces embedded in science pedagogical practices demotivate the learners to participate in the active science learning process. In this context, this research addresses the question: How have I explored learner participation in science learning to create a humanized science classroom? I applied auto ethnography as a research method and inquiry to portray the critical reflexive narratives I experienced in my science learning journey. The research shows that the learners’ participation in science learning is in/directly influenced by the in/formal modes of science learning. The rigorous and unjust formal schooling cultures demotivate the learners to participate in science learning autonomously. The science teachers must know the learners’ lived experiences and cultural worlds by creating a dialogic space between teachers and students. It can also support modifying and cultivating their internal selves through individual and collective participation. Therefore, the research also offers to know and value the learners’ creativity and acknowledge the learners’ learning experiences beyond the formal academic settings. Furthermore, science teachers need to view the learners through humanized lenses to motivate learners for their autonomous participation in science learning. It possibly counteracts the rigorous schooling cultures that emphasize the directed participation of learners and transform their dogmatic identities.</p> Pratima Thapaliya Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 100 110 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61700 Parental Involvement on Home Schooling of Basic Level Children in Nepal <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">This article explores the Parental Involvement on Home Schooling Practice of Basic Level children during and after COVID in Nepal<strong>. </strong>Many nations put emergency preparations into action because of COVID-19, including lockdowns and closing of schools. Families are now needed to support their children's learning at home due to the new circumstances that have greatly impacted them. COVID pandemic forced students' schools to close, schools are requiring hybrid homeschooling methods. Analyzing parents' impressions of them at-home involvement in their kids' education was the goal of the current study. For the characteristics of home learning, parental involvement, and pupils' learning activities, a basic qualitative method based on interviews and a small number of observations was used. Nine parents with kids in elementary school were used as a sample group for the data collection. Findings showed that parents helped their children during the epidemic by primarily keeping an eye on their focus in class and helping those complete tasks. However, a number of factors seem to play a substantial role in determining parental engagement time, effort, motivation, support for instruction, and learning environment creation. The results also show that parents especially of elementary school children must commit a large amount of time in preparing them for home school activities. The discussion of the implications for policies, schools, and families aims to support children's learning and the success of homeschooling.</span></p> Samjhana Basnyat Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 111 122 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61701 Reasons of Demotivation and Perception towards Mathematics <p>We have always been motivated as teachers to blame low-performing students by claiming that they have negative attitudes toward mathematics, but we are rarely interested in investigating the reasons for their negative attitudes toward mathematics. The goal of this case study was to look into the reasons why low-performing students have a demotivation attitude toward mathematics. The objective of this case study was to analyze the reasons for having demotivation of mathematics among the low-performing students. A low-performing student in mathematics was selected purposively based on her performance in mathematics as the key research participant from a higher secondary. Low-performing one student in mathematics with the help of her/her previous classroom performances was taken as the sample of the study. The information was gathered through a series of in-depth interviews conducted at various levels. The reasons for having demotivation attitudes of mathematics include: being repeatedly failed in exams, not teacher mediator/learning facilitator, lack of time given for practice, less confidence, and a lack of priori or conceptual knowledge.</p> Laxmi G.C. Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 123 127 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61702 Socio-economic and Demographic status of Emigrants’ Households of Baghchaur Municipality <p>This study deals with the “International Labour Migration (A Case Study of Baghchaur Municipality in Salyan District. The primary data was collected from the study area of Baghchaur Municipality. The general objective of the study is to examine the scenario of international labour migration pertaining to study area. Main objectives of the study are to examine the socio-economic and demographic status of emigrant's households, influencing factors, direction and magnitude, and the impact of emigration in the place of origin. The analysis and interpretation of data were carried out by using frequency tables, cross tabulation, with selected dependent and independent variables. International labour migration is seen in direction and destination with increasing volume in study side.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Simple random sampling procedure was applied to collect the primary data and information about the emigrants by using questionnaire. Descriptive research design was used and the total number of international labor migrants were 118 from 100 households. There are 118 respondents were found whereas 111 were male and 7 were female.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>India has the highest volume of emigrants and the flow is increasing now towards Malaysia from Nepal. Skilled migrant workers get high paid jobs. Reliability of human resource agencies have also played the crucial role in finding the work and wage. Amount, frequency and regularity of remittances depend upon the types of works, companies and the destination country. International money express, banks, and western union money transfer are mostly used channels for sending money. The rise in income is evident in the emigrant's household but the expenditure increasing. Unemployment, insufficient agricultural land and poverty are the key factors for emigration associated with origin. Due to the low level of education migrant workers get highly paid in destination countries compared to Nepal. Availability of unskilled works in the destination countries seems appealing to the low educated migrant workers.</p> Rekha Raut Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 128 133 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61703 Student's Engagement in Mathematics Learning on Cesaro Sequence Spaces on Matrix Transformations <p>Abstract available with the full text.</p> Jagat Krishna Pokharel Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 134 140 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61705 Urbanization Trend in Nepal <p>Nepal is a small and landlocked country, situated between Tibet (China) to its north, and India to its east, west and south. It is covered an area 26°22′ -30°27′ latitude and 80°4-′ 88°12′ longitude It is part of Asia and the northern hemisphere. There are two types of settlements in Nepal i.e. Urban and Rural settlements. Urbanization is the population shift from rural to urban areas, the decrease in the proportion of people living in rural areas, and change their ways of livelihood style.</p> <p>Since the industrial revolution in the late 18th century, the urbanization process was led in England and then followed by many other countries. This paper has been written based on secondary / library data. Urbanization process is rapidly increasing in Nepal. In fifth scientific population census there were only 10 urban places with 2.9 percentage. Again, the criteria of municipality also gradually changed from1952/54 to 2017. At a present time there are 293 municipalities including 6 metropolis municipalities and 11 sub- metropolis areas. After the implemented the new constitution 2072, the country is restructuring and divided 7 province. But there has not equally distribution the population due to the infrastructure development and difficulties of geographical condition. The highest 71.9 percentage and lowest49.3 percentage respectively live in Province -2 and Karnali Pradesh (6). According to ecological region, there is no equal distribution of municipality. The highest municipality (109) and lowest municipality (15) are terai region and mountain region respectively.</p> <p>It concluded that the urban population is rapidly increased but province wise such urban places/ municipalities are different. Especially terai is the highest municipalities/ urban centre due to development facilities.</p> Suman Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell, Sanothimi Campus 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 141 154 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61734 तत्वगत आधारमा लक्ष्मीप्रसाद देवकोटाको 'भिखारी’ कविताको अध्ययन {A study of Lakshmi Prasad Devkota's poem 'Bikhari' on the basis of elements} <p>प्रस्तुत आलेख महाकवि लक्ष्मीप्रसाद देवकोटाको ‘भिखारी’ कविताको विश्लेषणसँग सम्बन्धित रहेको छ । यसमा महाकवि लक्ष्मीप्रसाद देवकोटाद्वारा रचित ‘भिखारी’ कविताको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस लेखको उद्देश्य ‘भिखारी’ कवितालाई कविताका तत्वहरु शीर्षक, विषयवस्तु, केन्द्रीय कथ्य, संरचना, भावविधान, लयविधान, विम्बालङ्कार र प्रतिक तथा भाषाशैलीका आधारमा विश्लेषण गर्नु रहेको छ । वस्तुतः भिखारी कविताको विश्लेषणमा गुणात्मक अनुसन्धान ढाँचाको प्रयोग गरिएको छ भने सामग्रीहरुलाई पुस्तकालयीय विधिका माध्यमबाट संकलन गरिएको छ । यस कविताको विश्लेषण गर्दा आवश्यक प्रतिमानहरु निर्माण गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत आलेखमा महाकवि लक्ष्मीप्रसाद देवकोटाकोबहुआयामिक व्यक्तित्वको चर्चा गर्दै उनका साहित्यिक कृतिको संक्षिप्त जानकारी गरिएको छ । देवकोटाको काव्यगत प्रवृत्तिको चर्चा गर्दै उनको बहुचर्चित ‘भिखारी’ कविताको अध्ययन विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । प्रस्तुत लेखबाट महाकवि लक्ष्मीप्रसाद देवकोटा र भिखारी कविता सम्बद्ध सरोकारवाला सबैलाई अपेक्षित सहयोग मिल्ने विश्वास लिएको छु ।</p> नरेन्द्र सिह Narendra Singh धामी Dhami Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 155 161 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61876 द्विभाषिकता तथा बहुभाषिकताः सङ्क्षिप्त परिचय र प्रकार {Bilingualism and Multilingualism: A Brief Introduction and Types} <p>भाषिक प्रयोक्ताले जीवनयापनका क्रममा एकभन्दा बढी भाषामा सञ्चार गर्न सक्ने स्थितिलाई द्विभाषिकता तथा बहुभाषिकता भनिन्छ । यातायात, सञ्चार र प्रविधिको तीब्र विकाससँगै समाज र राष्ट्र बहुभाषिक बन्दै गएको सन्दर्भमा द्विभाषिकता तथा बहुभाषिकताको सामान्य परिचयसहित यसका प्रकारहरूलाई चिनारी गराउने उद्देश्यले यस लेखको रचना गरिएको हो । सैद्धान्तिक प्रकृतिको लेख भएको हुनाले विभिन्न पुस्तक, लेख÷रचना, पत्रपत्रिका आदि द्वितीय स्रोत सामग्रीका आधारमा गुणात्मक विधिको उपयोग गरी द्विभाषिकताका प्रकारहरूलाई उदाहरण सहित चिनाउने कोसिस गरिएको छ । यस लेखमा विशेष स्थितिमा बाहेक द्विभाषिकता शब्दले नै बहुभाषिकतालाई पनि समेटेको छ । द्विभाषिकताका प्रकारको चिनारी गर्ने क्रममा विदेशी विद्वान्हरूद्वारा गरिएको वर्गीकरणको चर्चा गर्दै नेपाली भाषामा नेपाली विद्वान्ले गरेको वर्गीकरणलाई आवश्यकताअनुसार उल्लेख गरिएको छ । विभिन्न विद्वान्हरूद्वारा गरिएका द्विभाषिकताका विभिन्न प्रकारका बारेमा विचार गर्दा सामाजिक द्विभाषिकता र वैयक्तिक द्विभाषिकताभित्र अन्य सम्पूर्ण वर्गीकरणलाई समेट्न सकिन्छ । द्विभाषिकतालाई बौद्धिक विकासको बाधकको रूपमा नलिई सकारात्मक पक्षको रूपमा लिनुपर्ने कुरा विभिन्न अध्ययनबाट पुष्टि भएको छ । द्विभाषिक व्यक्तिहरू एउटै कुरालाई विभिन्न दृष्टिकोणबाट सोच्ने, विश्लेषण गर्ने र सिकेको कुरालाई नवीन ढङ्गबाट प्रस्तुत गर्ने जस्ता सिर्जनशील कार्यमा सक्षम हुन्छन्। साथै धेरै समुदाय तथा संस्कृतिसँग अन्तरक्रिया गरी भाषिक अध्ययन, अनुसन्धानको माध्यमबाट भिन्न संस्कार, संस्कृतिको बारेमा जानकारी लिन र त्यसको ऐतिहासिकताको खोजी गर्न सक्छन्। नेपालको सन्दर्भमा अनुसन्धानको माध्यमबाट द्विभाषिकताको प्रकृतिको पहिचान गर्न सकियो भने भाषा प्रयोगका सन्दर्भमा देखिने कोड मिश्रण र कोड परिवर्तनको कारण र प्रकृति थाहा पाउनुका साथै भाषिक त्रुटि निराकरणमा पनि सहयोग पुग्न सक्छ ।</p> भागीरथा Bhagiratha न्यौपाने Neupane Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 162 172 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61877 दोस्रो भाषाका रूपमा नेपाली भाषा शिक्षण {Teaching Nepali language as a second language} <p>सिकारुले अतिरिक्त भाषिक आवश्यकता परिपूर्ति गर्ने हेतुले सिक्ने भाषालाई दोस्रो भाषा भनिन्छ । यो भाषा पहिलो भाषा प्राप्त गरिसकेपछि सिकिने भाषा हो । यसलाई भाषा सिकाइको आर्जन प्रक्रियाका रूपमा परिभाषित गरिएको पाइन्छ । दोस्रो भाषालाई विमातृभाषा, द्वितीयक भाषा तथा सहायक भाषा पनि भन्ने गरिएको पाइन्छ । दोस्रो भाषा औपचारिक, अनौपचारिक एवम्व्यक्तिगत प्रयासबाट सिक्न सकिने हुन्छ । वस्तुतः यो भाषा सिकाइका क्रममा व्यापक र सीमित दुबै प्रकृतिको भाषिक वातावरणको सुविधा सिकारुलाई प्राप्त हुन्छ । प्रस्तुत आलेखमा दोस्रो भाषाका रुपमा नेपाली भाषा शिक्षणको सैद्धान्तिक अवधारणा अनुरेखाङ्कन गरिएको छ । यस आलेखको तयारीका क्रममा गुणात्मक अध्ययन ढाँचाको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । यसमा सामग्रीको विवेचनका लागि वर्णनात्मक तथा विश्लेषणात्मक विधिको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । यसबाट दोस्रोभाषाका रुपमा नेपाली भाषा शिक्षण गर्न रुचि राख्ने सरोकारवाला सवैलाई सहयोग पुग्ने विश्वास लिइएको छ ।</p> भारती Bharati अधिकारी Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 173 179 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61900 भाषा सिकाइ क्षमतामा विद्यालय प्रकृति प्रभाव {Effects of school nature on language learning ability} <p>भाषाको बोध तथा अभिव्यक्ति क्षमतामा पाइने दक्षताको स्तर नै भाषा सिकाइ उपलब्धि हो । यसको मापनका निम्ति पाठ्यक्रमले तोकेका मापदण्डको अनुप्रयोग गरिन्छ । भाषा सिकाइका विविध प्रभावकमध्ये विद्यालय प्रकृतिलाई पनि महत्वपूर्ण प्रभावक मानिन्छ । प्रस्तुत लेखमा भाषासिकाइ क्षमतामा विद्यालय प्रकृतिको प्रभाव पहिचान गरिएको छ । यसमा सामुदायिक र संस्थागत विद्यालयमा कक्षा नौमा अध्ययनरत विद्यार्थीहरूको भाषा सिकाइ उपलब्धिमा विद्यालय प्रकृतिले पार्ने प्रभावको तुलना गरिएको छ । यसको उद्देश्य विद्यालय प्रकृतिका आधारमा विद्यार्थीको भाषा सिकाइ उपलब्धि क्षमताको तुलना गर्नु रहेको छ । प्रस्तुत लेख परिमाणात्मक अनुसन्धान ढाँचामा आधारित छ । यसमा बहुक्रमिक नमुना छनोट विधिको उपयोग गरिएको छ । यस लेखमा स्थलीय अध्ययन विधिको अनुप्रयोग गरी सामग्री सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनमा विद्यार्थीहरूको भाषा सिकाइ क्षमता परीक्षणका लागि जम्मा १६ पूर्णाङ्कको प्रश्नावली तयार पारी परीक्षण गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनबाट संस्थागत विद्यालयभन्दा सामुदायिक विद्यालयका विद्यार्थीको सिकाइ उपलब्धि राम्रो रहेको तथ्य प्राप्त भएको छ ।</p> महेश प्रसाद Mahesh Prasad भट्ट Bhatta कृष्ण प्रसाद Krishna Prasad पोखरेल Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 180 188 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61902 सामाजिक अनुसन्धानमा अन्तर्वार्ता विधि र यसको प्रयोग {Interview method and its application in social research} <p>प्रस्तुत लेखले सामाजिक अनुसन्धानमा अन्तर्वार्ता विधि र यसको प्रयोग सम्बन्धमा समाजशास्त्रीय आँखाबाट नियाल्ने प्रयत्न गरेको छ । यो अध्ययन विश्लेषणात्मक विधिमा आधारित छ । यसले आफ्नो अध्ययनमा तथ्याङ्कहरुलाई खोज अनुसन्धान कसरी गर्ने, शिर्षक, उद्देश्य कसरी राख्ने, प्रश्नावली कसरी तयार गर्ने, तयार गरिएको तथ्याङ्कलाई कसरी विश्लेषण गरी निश्कर्ष मा पुग्ने र सन्दर्भ सामाग्री कसरी राख्ने भन्नेकुरालाई उल्लेख गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत लेखले ऐतिहासिक सामाजिक तथ्याङ्क भरपर्दो बनाउनलाई मद्दत पु¥याउनका लागी आवश्यक विषयवस्तु राख्नका लागी सहयोग पुर्याउछ ।</p> जन्तराज Jantaraj कार्की Karki Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 189 197 10.3126/ej.v2i2.61972 Assessment of Landslide: A five decade impact study on human life in the Koshi Province <p>Koshi province covers about 82 %of hills and mountain region. Rugged and fragile geomorphology is our landform’s characteristics with various reasons like rock structure, slope, rainfall and unplanned settlement as well as developmental intervention. Geological, morphological, human and physical causes are common factors to trigger the vulnerability. This study has found that 990 human lives have lost and around 107,259 people have affected during 1971- 2020 in the Koshi province of Nepal.&nbsp; Likewise, the maximum number of deaths was 114 people in 2002 and the minimum deaths were 1 person in 1987 during same period. Out of 14 district, four districts have been identified very extremely vulnerable which include Taplejung, Khotang, Okhaldhunga and Sangkhuwasabha, while other four districts Bhojpur, Solukhumbu, Ilam and Panchther are extremely vulnerable districts in terms of landslide hazard. In addition, the analysis of number of human deaths caused by landslide shows that the impact of human life and properties has been fluctuating in each decade over the fifty years. There was high vulnerability of human life in the decades of 1990s and 2000s. In order to reduce the landslide risk in the surroundings of mountain people and their environment, preparedness of adaptation measures should be considered in the future.</p> Balaram Raya Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 198 208 10.3126/ej.v2i2.62125 Exploring English Teachers’ Pedagogical Wellbeing and Classroom Issues: A Narrative Inquiry <p>This paper deals with the classroom issues of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teaching in the context of Nepal and the EFL teachers' ways of addressing them. More specifically, it connects how pedagogical strengths help teachers address the issues that appear in language classrooms. The research has been carried out outlining the qualitative approach grounded in an interpretive research paradigm. The data were collected from three university teachers.&nbsp; Methodologically, the study adopts the three-dimensional narrative spaces as the prior procedures of research methods for theoretical insight. It concludes that teachers' profound knowledge and skills about their well-being are useful to integrate various cultures and content in the classrooms. Pedagogically inbuilt potentials of teachers maximally enhance learners' learning opportunities. Thus, the conclusion obtained in this study is assessed considering teachers' understanding, of classroom issues and their ways of addressing those problems but they may not be generalizable. However, it contributes to teachers' education in general and ELT practice in Nepal in particular.</p> Ganesh Kumar Bastola Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 209 217 10.3126/ej.v2i2.62127 Pros and Cons of Semester System Program under the faculty of education TU <p>This article deals with the pros and cons of the Semester System Program under the Faculty of Education, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. This study has sought to understand and analyze students’ perception towards semester system taking a case of the Faculty of Education related campuses with regard to (a) academic resources, (b) physical resources, (c) governance and image, and (d) overall perception of students and teachers. It followed descriptive research design using questionnaire survey instrument, sematic-chart and check lists. Only one constituent campus was selected in Kathmandu through purposive under non-probability sampling procedure for this study.&nbsp;</p> <p>From this study, it was found that the semester system is better than annual system in terms use of better teaching equipment, efficiency of teachers and students’ performance and results. But in semester system, students’ participation in teaching learning activities has increased, they have improved skills in using electronic tools and presenting skills. Even teachers’ knowledge in using software improved. Although most of the classes under semester system were better equipped, they still lack required equipment and even skilled teachers. Similarly, the campuses running semester system were found facing shortage of budget for the sustainability of the programme. As it was taking months to publish results, it needs correction so that the students get their exam results in time.</p> <p>Moreover, the academic calendar was not followed duly. Likewise, those students who did not meet 80 per cent attendance were also allowed to fill up exam forms and this tendency culminated in poor results and lack of disciplined not only among students but the whole system. Unless these shortcomings are corrected, the semester cannot be effective as was expected during its introduction in 2016.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Om Bahhadur Rayamajhi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 218 228 10.3126/ej.v2i2.62128 Religious and Cultural Use of Plant Resources by Baram Tribe <p>Plants have been used by the humans since the ancient times. Indigenous people have sound knowledge of using floral species in their cultural rituals and customs. The use of such resources depends on indigenous knowledge gained from ancestral experience. So this study was carried out to explore the traditional use of plant species in their culture and religious customs of Barams in their ancestral place (Barpak-Sulikot Municipality of the Gorkha district) under ethnographic research design. Total of six elder people having the socio--cultural knowledge (are also the healers) were selected purposively for the study. In-depth interview and observation with ethic perspective was done frequently from 2076 to 2078 BS. Following the qualitative technique of data analysis, information was analyzed and interpreted thematically. The result shows that Barams have rich indigenous knowledge of using plant resources. They depend on floral resources for medicine, food, fodder, timber and firewood etc. aligning with the cultural and religious use. Total of 29 species were used in total of six worships or festivals and total of 13 species were used in four different cultural rituals of the Baram.</p> Balak Devkota Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 229 239 10.3126/ej.v2i2.62129