The EFFORTS, Journal of Education and Research 2024-05-09T07:59:50+00:00 Milan Shrestha Open Journal Systems <p>The EFFORTS, Journal of Education and Research (EJER) is a peer-reviewed open access research journal published by the Research Management Cell (RMC), Nilkantha Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. EJER publishes research articles, research reports and book reviews annually (in June) and serves as a platform for researchers, scholars, academic professionals, universities, and research organizations.</p> Head Teacher's Self-efficacy with Transforming Leadership for Changing School 2024-05-09T01:22:03+00:00 Devi Prasad Adhikari <p>In the context of Nepal, most of government-aided schools are poorly managed. They could not provide good achievement academically and non-academically. Head teacher's leadership is considered highly significant for the transformation of such schools. The schools are not getting expected change. However, there are very few schools that have been transformed considerably. This study explored the role of head teachers’ self-efficacy and their transformative leadership qualities in connection to the transformation of schools. Along with this, teachers' perception about the head teachers' leadership role and impact in the transformation process were also underpinned. This multiple case study of two government schools from Dhading district adopted qualitative method. The findings were illustrated in narrative and descriptive way. Research findings indicated the current situation of transformed schools, leadership effect, the head teachers' self-efficacy and transformative leadership qualities. The findings are helpful to head teachers, administrators, teachers, policy makers and school managers per se in order to transform schools.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nilkantha Multiple Campus Equitable Pedagogical Practices in Learning Mathematics at Secondary Schools in Nepal 2024-05-09T02:26:00+00:00 Hari Lamsal <p>The central focus of this study is to explore equitable pedagogical practices in learning mathematics in diversified learners’ mathematics classrooms. This study focused on investigating the challenges faced by mathematics teachers to conduct equitable pedagogical practices in learning mathematics in mathematics classrooms and exploring the possible ways to promote equitable pedagogical practices in learning mathematics. An interpretive critical theory paradigm was employed for collecting, analysing, and interpreting data in an iterative process. Qualitative narratives were collected through in-depth interviews, focus group discussions (FGD), and classroom observations of which five secondary-level mathematics teachers of Dhading were observed. Through multi-layered theme analysis and interpretation, the study produced five emergent challenges: linguistic issues, classroom diversity, the dominance of banking pedagogy, student absenteeism, school environment, and socioeconomic position. Moreover, the study showed eight different ways to promote equitable pedagogical practices in learning mathematics: providing additional support for marginalized students, using multi-methods of mathematics teaching, promoting peer and group work, individual treatment, motivational counseling, teaching mathematics relating to daily life, promoting collaborative learning and cooperative teaching, and promoting culturally responsive teaching.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nilkantha Multiple Campus A Comparative Analysis of English Language Education in Nepalese and Finnish Basic Education Curricula 2024-05-09T03:48:39+00:00 Bala Ram Adhikari <p>This article explored the objectives, contents, and pedagogical approaches in English language education examining the Finnish and Nepalese basic education curricula. The study aimed to reveal the similarities and differences between two countries’ English language curricula and to find out why a big difference occurs between Finland’s and Nepal’s English proficiency levels. Data were collected from Finland’s and Nepal’s English language curricula for basic education and the official documents such as acts, decrees, and laws on basic education were also examined to support the data from the curricula. Data were analyzed with the method of thematic document analysis. Overall, the results of the comparative study indicate that both Finland and Nepal aim to increase linguistic and cultural awareness and teach English language for communicative competence. Both countries also would like to encourage pupils to track their English language learning. On the other hand, while the Finnish curriculum offers general guidelines for the instruction of the English language giving flexibility and autonomy to schools, the Nepalese curriculum prevents schools from preparing a flexible plan for English language teaching according to the needs of pupils by offering specific content and testing techniques. The findings reveal that the Finnish curriculum presents guidelines for teachers, students, and local education providers on how to reach educational goals rather than giving specific content for the subjects giving flexibility and autonomy to schools. On the other hand, the Nepalese curriculum provides specific instructions and suggestions for the application of English language teaching with detailed content containing units for each grade and even suggested testing techniques for teachers.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nilkantha Multiple Campus Drivers of Land Abandonment in Neelakantha Municipality: Perceptions of Farmers 2024-05-09T03:56:09+00:00 Pradeep Shrestha <p>This study analysed the role of factors for land abandonment in Neelakantha municipality, Dhading. For this purpose, survey and causal-comparative research design are used. Similarly, Reliability and normality of the collected data was ensured by using cronbach alpha and Shapiro-Wilk test respectively. Then after, inferential statistical tools i.e. Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis have been used to derive the result of the study. This study found that there is a significant impact of high cost of agro product, out migration, rough topography, lack of government protection from international competition, and destruction of food crops by wild animals on land abandonment. However, the impact of irrigation facility and market access on land abandonment was not statistically significant. The findings of the study suggest that the factors that contribute to land abandonment are complex and interrelated. However, the study provides some evidence that the factors that were found to be statistically significant can play a role in land abandonment.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nilkantha Multiple Campus Teacher Education in Nepal and Denmark: A Comparative Study 2024-05-09T04:07:01+00:00 Sujana Lamichhane <p>This article investigated the teacher education policies, practices, and their influence on teaching learning activities in Nepal and Denmark. The study presents a comparison of the teacher education system and practices between Nepal and Denmark. The study is based on the literature reviewed in the case of Denmark whereas in the case of Nepal, it is based on the data obtained from the various stakeholders. The study adopts an interpretive approach under qualitative research design which includes in-depth interviews with university teachers, Center for Education and Human Resource Development (CEHRD) executive and focus group discussions with school teachers. Findings indicate that teacher education in Nepal started far later than in Denmark and shares some similarities with distinct differences in policy stability. Enrollment in teacher education courses is decreasing due to unemployment issues which may affect the quality of education in future. Furthermore, the results indicate that new demand-based approaches to teacher education, capacity enhancement of training centers, effective monitoring mechanisms, qualified teacher educators, and efficient ICT integration are the major aspects of needed improvements.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nilkantha Multiple Campus Teachers' Role in Learner Autonomy in Large ELT Classrooms 2024-05-09T04:44:20+00:00 Anita Shrestha <p>The study aims to find out the role of learners’ autonomy in large ELT class. The learner autonomy is very important and played prominent role in large classroom to make learning effective and interesting and teachers' effectual strategies to generate autonomy in learners. This study adopted qualitative research approach with narrative inquiry design. Five teachers teaching in large classrooms were the respondents. Data for the study were taken by following in-depth interviews as well as the observations of three teachers. The findings suggest that it is very challenging to apply learner autonomy in large number of the students, but it is possible if the teachers have good patterns and techniques to apply it. It also found out that if there are autonomous learners, then the large number of the students don’t exist in trouble in teaching learning activities as it contains various possible intelligence.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nilkantha Multiple Campus Women Investors and Financial Literacy in Nepal 2024-05-09T05:08:18+00:00 Dhan Raj Chalise Jagat Timilsena Sujana Acharya <p>Abstract Financial literacy refers to the ability to understand how money operates. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the factors influencing financial literacy among Nepalese women investors. The study aims to explore how financial attitudes, financial behaviors, subjective norms, intentions toward investment, and knowledge about investment products affect financial literacy among Nepalese women investors. Employing a descriptive and exploratory research design, this study considers all women who are investors in NEPSE as the population of interest. Among these women investors, a sample of 372 was randomly selected after preliminary observations were conducted to identify potential respondents. Data was collected through a set of questionnaires distributed to the respondents. The study revealed significant positive correlations among financial attitudes, financial behaviors, subjective norms, intentions toward investment, and knowledge about investment products as independent and financial literacy as dependent variable under study. Additionally, the regression analysis showed that financial attitudes, financial behaviors, subjective norms, intentions toward investment, and knowledge about investment products had a significant positive impact on financial &nbsp;literacy among Nepalese women investors.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nilkantha Multiple Campus