Forestry: Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal <p>Official journal of the Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Hariyokharka, Pokhara, Nepal.</p> Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Nepal en-US Forestry: Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal 2631-2425 <p>© Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry</p> Effect of Water Stress in Soil Nitrogen Dynamics under Intercropping System with Maize and Sorghum <p>Global warming, one of the most persistent threats to nature, is expected to result in severe droughts in many parts of the world. Droughts are supposed to effect individual plants and/or plant communities by changing their a/ biotic interactions. The objective of this study was to elucidate drought effects on soil nitrogen allocation in different aggregate sizes. This was done by growing <em>Zea mays</em> and Sorghum bicolor in monoculture and mixture. Nitrogen allocation under drought stress was traced using nitrogen stable isotope <sup>15</sup>N. Drought disintegrated soil aggregates into finer aggregates for sorghum monoculture and decreased the aggregate proportion in small macro-aggregate fraction for maize monoculture. For plant mixture, drought increased total nitrogen content in micro-aggregate fraction and uptake of added <sup>15</sup>N in bulk soil. Hence, the study showed that mix planting maize and sorghum offer better resistance against changes in plant biomass and nitrogen content which suggests its effectiveness in nitrogen conservation during water stress. Moreover, intergrowing maize and sorghum under agroforestry systems also produce advantageous results.</p> Asim Sharif Utsab Thapa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-31 2018-07-31 15 1 12 10.3126/forestry.v15i0.24916 Effectiveness of Solar-powered Fence in Reducing Human - Wild Elephant Conflict (HEC) in Northeast Jhapa District, Nepal <p>Human Elephant Conflict (HEC) is a product of complex interaction between human and elephant that represents the detrimental impact for both. This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of 17 km solar-powered electric fence installed in 2015 in north-eastern part of Jhapa district (Bahundangi VDC) against transboundary herds of wild elephants (150-200) that annually enters into Nepal from India and caused HEC. For this study, the detailed information on HEC incidents (human casualty and injury, crop and property damage) before and after the fence installation was collected. Affected wards within Bahundangi VDC were purposively selected for households survey (N=100), consultations and group discussions (N=5) and participatory field observations. We encountered poor maintenance and care of the electric fence and in some places covered by grasses and climbers questioning its sustainability. In-spite of it, the number of incidents of HEC sharply reduced by 96.13%. Before the fence (in 2014), the estimated economic loss per household per year in the VDC was 103 USD (crop=95 USD and property=8 USD). Remarkably, there was reduction in economic loss of crop and property damage by 93% and 96% respectively. Besides, chi-square test of independence showed that there was significant difference in damages among the 4 affected wards of Bahundangi VDC with respect to paddy crop but not with maize crop, cowshed and other properties. After the fence installation, only few elephants accidently entered in some areas by breaking the solar fence and caused few incidents of crop and property damages. From the overall evaluation, solar fence was found effective in reducing HEC by protecting human lives, crops and properties.</p> Bijaya Neupane Binod Khatiwoda Subash Budhathoki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-31 2018-07-31 15 13 27 10.3126/forestry.v15i0.24917 Effects of Predicted Reduced Summer Rainfall on Growth and Development of Silver Birch (Betula Pendula Roth) and Downy Birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh) <p>Climate is one of the major factors that govern the distribution of tree species. Climate change has already affected the growth, structure and distribution of trees and woodlands. Global climate change projections are wetter winters, drier summers and significance changes in temperature regimes in the next few decades. The main objective of this study was to experimentally demonstrate the effects of decline in summer rainfall, as predicted by UKCP09/IPCC, on height and diameter growth in two co-occurring silver birch (<em>Betula pendula</em> Roth) and downy birch (<em>Betula pubescens</em> Ehrh) and provide further understanding of the changes in growth and development in response to a decrease in water availability. One-year-old seedlings were grown in a temperature-controlled greenhouse for eight weeks in a split-plot experimental design. Their height and diameter were measured and analyzed. Result showed that plant height and diameter was significantly reduced with increased water stress. <em>B. pendula</em> showed higher physiological traits indicating that this species can perform better than <em>B. pubescensin</em> water-deficit conditions.</p> Dhirendar Kumar Pradhan Christine Cahalan Sunita Ulak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-31 2018-07-31 15 28 44 10.3126/forestry.v15i0.24919 Landslide Susceptibility Zonation Mapping in Post- Earthquake Scenario in Gorkha District <p>Landslide hazard zonation map is prepared to assist planners to implement mitigation measures so that further damage and loss can be minimized. In this study, post 25 April 2015 earthquake remote sensing data were used to prepare landslide inventory. Landsat images after the earthquake were downloaded from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) website and processed using ArcGIS, ERDAS imagine and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) as an extension in ArcGIS. The study was carried out in Gorkha district as this was the epicenter of the main earthquake of 25 April 2015 and consequently was highly affected by earthquake triggered landslide. The digital imagery was processed to analyze land use/land cover type. Geological features were analyzed using the criteria like color, tone, topography, stream drainage, etc. Primary topographic features like slope, aspect, elevation, etc. were generated from Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Seismological data (magnitude and epicenter) were obtained from Department of Seismology. For Landslide Susceptibility Zonation (LSZ) different thematic maps like Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) map, slope map, aspect map, lithological map, buffer map (distance from road and river/water source), soil map, and seismological map were assigned relative weights on the ordinal scale to obtain Landslide Susceptibility Index (LSI). Threshold values were selected according to breaks in LSI frequency and a LSZ map was prepared which shows very low, low, moderate, high, very high hazard zones in Gorkha district.</p> Him Lal Shrestha Mahesh Poudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-31 2018-07-31 15 45 56 10.3126/forestry.v15i0.24920 Devastating Monsoon: Water Induced Disaster Management Practices in Nepal <p>Nepal is prone to a variety of recurring natural disasters such as floods, landslides, snow avalanches, thunderstorms, drought, earth quake and epidemics. In particular, floods, landslides, hailstorms and drought are almost regular phenomena. This paper has focused mainly on water induced disaster (Monsoon) prepared through review of documents, consultation with related line agencies and field level interaction with affected communities. The paper also seeks to explore and document the major disasters and their impacts in Nepal. It discusses policy and program, institutional arrangement and activities related to the disaster management as well as identification of gaps in the policy and program. Nepal has attempted to manage the prevalence of these hazards and their associated disasters through both informal civic involvement and formal government instruments. A legal and policy environment to deal with disasters has existed in one or the other form in Nepal since 1982, and these have been reviewed. Study showed that disaster management activities only found initial response rather post disaster program. However, findings of the previous and present programs and activities on disaster management have not addressed effectively to the vulnerable people and to reduce the impact from disasters at the local level. It is suggested that disaster management policy and program should be integrated and mainstreamed in development agenda.</p> Krishna Raj Tiwari Santosh Rayamajhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-31 2018-07-31 15 57 76 10.3126/forestry.v15i0.24921 Assessing the Coverage of Urban Green Space in Butwal Sub-Metropolitan City, Nepal: A GIS based Approach <p>Urban green spaces are integral part of urban infrastructure. Green spaces can offer a number of benefits ranging from inner spiritual to outer materialistic values. Available green spaces in particular area especially in urban places need to be identified and located properly with scientific way and means so that we can use those places in emergency caused by natural or human induced hazards. This study has tried to measure the green space available for people dwelling in Butwal Sub-Metropolitan City of Nepal. An attempt was made to quantify green spaces in urban environments from Landsat 8 OLI imageries using object-oriented approach and field verification. The study concluded that the total green space available in Butwal Sub-Metropolitan City is 86.37 km<sup>2</sup> i.e., around 86% of total municipal area and per capita green space is around 623 m<sup>2</sup>.</p> Mahendra Singh Thapa Gokul Poudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-31 2018-07-31 15 77 86 10.3126/forestry.v15i0.24923 Upstream-downstream Connectivity: An Overview of Hydrological and Ecological Functions in relation to the Churia-Terai Conservation in Nepal <p>The Churia-Terai (CT) is interlinked by the Churia range, Bhabar and Terai, where Terai exist as granary basket of the country and the Churia and Bhabar is the recharge zone of Terai. Changing environment of the Churia range has directly affected the condition of upstream and downstream. To recommend the appropriate watershed management linking upstream and downstream on this landscape, functional analysis were carried out using ecological and hydrological parameters based on secondary literatures. For the proper management of the watershed and its alarming cause of deterioration, understanding upstream and downstream linkages or process is must. Deforestation leads to climate change (temperature and precipitation) and watershed deterioration, which has become the aggravating factor for landslide and soil erosion in upstream and flood in the downstream. The paper highly stressed development of conceptual framework with clear functional activities based on integrated watershed management approach linking the upstream-downstream hydro-ecological phenomena. Thus the paper recommends integrated watershed management with a clear policy which helps to focus priorities and manages its bio-physical condition in a sustainable basis.</p> Shambhu Paudel Reecha Basnet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-31 2018-07-31 15 87 96 10.3126/forestry.v15i0.24924 Attempts of Recentralization of Nepal’s Community Forestry <p>Nepal’s community forestry is regarded as a milestone in decentralized forest management, several researchers agree on the livelihoods and environmental outcomes from the community forest, however, the outcomes in governance perspective is rarely questioned. Through the review of the literature, policy documents and decrees, and questionnaire survey in nine community forest user groups in western hills of Nepal; we demonstrate how recentralization is taking place in community forestry in lieu of decentralized policies and discuss their implications on limiting the role of local forest users in forest management. Recentralization through the lens of inventory requirements has been observed in community forestry through (i) the formulation of strategies and policies favorable to increase the role of forest bureaucrats in community forestry (ii) changing the use of technical knowledge patterns and requirements and (iii) increased bureaucratic power. The increased technical knowledge in the form of inventory based forest management planning is found to be the major step in curtailing the devolved rights and increasing the bureaucratic power. Formulation of strategies, guidelines, circulars and policy intervention create a favorable environment for the bureaucrats to exercise more power compared to the autonomy provided by Forest Act 1993. The highly influential upward accountability in community forestry thus questions the modality of decentralized forest management in Nepalese community forestry.</p> Srijana Baral ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-31 2018-07-31 15 97 115 10.3126/forestry.v15i0.24925