Forestry: Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal <p>Official journal of the Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Balkhu, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> en-US <p>© Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry</p> (Prof. Dr. Krishna Raj Tiwari) (Sioux Cumming) Tue, 19 Mar 2024 13:29:45 +0000 OJS 60 Avian Diversity and Seasonal Abundance in Banpale Forest, Kaski District, Nepal <p>Baseline information on bird diversity is essential for biodiversity monitoring and conservation as birds are often considered a key indicator of ecosystem health and ecological balance. Studies from other countries suggest that green patches, like university campuses, play a vital role in local bird conservation in urbanized regions. In the Kaski district of Nepal, the study of bird diversity is limited to the larger lakes of the Pokhara valley. Banpale Forest, one of the few green patches in the Pokhara valley, is considered a hotspot for birdwatching; however, no proper studies have been conducted to explore the bird diversity. This study examines the species diversity and seasonal abundance of birds in the Banpale Forest of the Institute of Forestry, Pokhara. Two trails built by villagers and students for walking were used as transects for the study. A total of 2,975 bird individuals of 125 species were counted in the survey conducted from June 2018 to May 2019, with 12 field visits along a 2.17km trail. Passeriformes (54.03%) and Accipitridae (13.71%) were the dominant order and family respectively among the recorded species. Species diversity (H’) was higher in the winter season (H’=3.99), with species richness of 13.26 and species evenness of 0.88. Insectivores (n=54) were the dominant foraging guilds among the recorded species. The high avifaunal diversity and conservation value index of Banpale Forest indicate the need for conservation planning in the region.</p> Milan Baral, Anisha Neupane, Manshanta Ghimire, Krishna Prasad Bhusal Copyright (c) 2022 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Synergy between Carbon and Biodiversity in Restored Forests: A case from leasehold forestry of Nepal <p>Studies on forest carbon stock have increased in Nepal, especially in community forests, as a result of worldwide recognition of the role of sustainable forest management in climate change mitigation. Leasehold forests, which contribute greatly to reviving degraded forests and livelihoods of pro-poor communities, however, have been sidelined from such studies. This study assessed the biomass carbon stock of leasehold forests and its relationship with tree diversity in the Nawalpur district in Nepal. The concentric sample plots with subplots were laid, measuring trees (8.92m radius), saplings (5.64m radius), and regeneration (1m radius), in eleven leasehold forests. Plant diversity was calculated using the Shannon–Wiener diversity index (H’) to assess forest conditions. The average carbon stock was found to be 11.40 t/ha, where the stock varied by nature of intervention. The average carbon stock in non-tree-based restoration sites was estimated to be 3.81 t/ha, which was significantly lower than in tree-based restoration sites (14.49 t/ha). A total of 37 species of trees were recorded from 45 sample plots distributed across eleven LFUGs. Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient between forest carbon stock and diversity index was 0.613, which shows a strong positive correlation and was significant at a 99% confidence interval. There was a synergy between biomass carbon stock and tree diversity because communities were protecting the existing tree species and planting multipurpose trees to meet their need for forest products. The study concludes that leasehold forestry contributes positively to the enhancement of carbon stock and tree diversity.</p> Siddhartha Aryal, Sony Baral, Bijendra Basnyat, Yajna P Timilsina, Kalyan Gauli, Tek Maraseni Copyright (c) 2022 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Status of springs in the mid-hills of Khotang district Nepal, (A case study from Diktel Rupakot Majhuwagadhi and Halesi Tuwachung Municipality) <p>The study was conducted in Buipa (ward no.14) of Diktel Rupakot Majhuwagadhi municipality and Durchim (ward no.5) of Halesi Tuwachung municipality in Khotang district, Nepal. A total of 45 springs were mapped. The study showed 62.2% of the springs to be open springs, and the rest were modified into concrete structures. Seventy-seven percent of the springs were found to be drying up. The study showed 20% of the springs had dried up already and 17.7% were on the verge of drying. Most of the springs found were depression springs. At Durchim of Halesi Tuwachung, 16 out of 18 springs had discharge rates less than 0.05 l/s. Twelve of these had dried already. Thirty-seven per cent of the springs were located farther than 1km, of which 6.67% were also in a drying condition and more than 51% were farther than 500m. People used springs on various occasions and local festivals. Forty per cent of springs were drying due to landslides and road construction. In the Koshi basin, 78% of annual rainfall occurred during the monsoon and only 2.8% during the dry period. Springs are fully monsoon-dependent and slight fluctuation in the rainfall patterns could greatly affect the discharge in the springs</p> Binaya Wagle, Shiv Kumar Manjan, Sunil Kumar Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparison of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 spectral indices for estimating aboveground forest carbon in a community forest <p>This study aimed to estimate and map the Above Ground Forest Carbon stock in the Salbote Karele Community Forest in Ilam district. The research used field surveys and satellite data from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 to determine biomass and carbon stocks. A total of 30 inventory plots covering 283.56 hectares (ha) were surveyed, resulting in an estimated mean biomass of 156.48 ton ha<sup>-1</sup> and carbon stock of 73.55 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>. The biomass was then correlated with five different Vegetation Indices (VIs), computed from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 image and used to develop various simple linear regression models. The study found that Sentinel-2 data showed the highest correlation with observed biomass (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.76) and lowest prediction error (RMSE = 78.44 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>) compared to Landsat-8 data. The linear regression model developed from Sentinel-2’s NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data predicted a mean AGB of 129.82 ton ha<sup>-1</sup> and AGC of 61.01 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>. This research highlights the importance of using Sentinel-2 data for estimating Above Ground Forest Carbon stocks due to its combination of spectral capabilities and broad applicability. It also shows that the Salbote Karele community forest is of great significance as it stores suitable amounts of carbon</p> Anish KC, Sanjeeb Bhattarai, Pravesh Pandey Copyright (c) 2022 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Assessment on Land Use Land Cover Mapping: Sentinel-2 Versus Landsat-9 <p>Landuse is the human use of land and is inferred from land cover, which refers to the physical and biological cover on the surface of the land. Land use changes and impacts on land cover are key measures of environmental change caused by human activities, especially in rapidly developing areas. Information on such land use change patterns is required for sustainable development planning. Commencement of the Sentinel-2 satellite in mid-2015 and Landsat-9 satellite in late 2021 is opening new possibilities in Earth observation and monitoring through higher spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. Many researchers have been curious to compare improvements in these two satellites. This research tests the real difference in the quality of the results delivered by Sentinel-2 and Landsat-9 imagery when basic classification methods are applied. This study aims to assess the precision of the LULC classifications derived from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-9 data and to reveal which dataset presents greater accuracy. The Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud computing platform was used, and the Pokhara metropolitan area was selected as the study area for this case study. The annual composite of Sentinel-2 Multispectral Instrument (MSI) and Landsat-9 Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, acquired for the period January 1, 2022 to August 31, 2022, was used as a satellite imagery in the study. The RGB and NIR bands of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-9 were used for classification and comparison. LULC images were generated using pixel-based supervised Random Forest machine learning algorithms for classification. In this study, the study area was classified into four land classes, i.e. Forest, Agriculture, Settlements, and Waterbodies. As a result of the accuracy assessment, the Kappa statistics for Sentinel-2 and Landsat-9 data were 0.78 and 0.72 respectively. The resultsobtained showed that Sentinel-2 MSI presents more satisfying LULC images than Landsat-9 TOA data. However, this situation can change if different statistics and classification methods are used.</p> Sandesh Dhakal, Saroj Kandel, Lila Puri, Saurav Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Silvicultural Systems in the Restoration of Normal Forest: A Review <p>This paper review show different silvicultural systems help to restore normal forests, their usefulness and limitations. It is based on a desk review of various secondary data. Nature of ownership, management objectives, and site quality determine the silvicultural system to be adopted. In regular (even-aged) forest, normality is carried out by the clear-felling system, uniform shelterwood system and coppice system while irregular (uneven-aged) normal forest is managed using the selection system. As perfect normality is unattainable, the role of the manager is to reach maximum attainable position. It regulates the supply of forest products on sustainable basis as well as restoring the health and vitality of the forest.</p> Alizza Ghimire, Sarmila Paudel, Abinash Devkota Copyright (c) 2022 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Pathogenic fungi associated with economically important tree species in a planted forest in Ghorahi, Dang, Nepal <p>The structure and composition of healthy ecosystems, as well as the production and protection equations, are all influenced by forest diseases. This study was conducted in a planted forest in Ghorahi, Dang, Nepal, to document pathogenic fungi associated with economically important tree species, viz. <em>Tectona grandis</em>, <em>Dalbergia sissoo</em>, <em>Eucalyptus camaldulensis</em>, and <em>Bombax ceiba</em>. By using a stratified random sampling technique, a total of 10 quadrats, with a sample size of 20x20m, were located. Each plot was then divided into quadrats of 10x10m. The diseased samples were collected and brought to the laboratory. A total of 10 fungal pathogens were identified. Of them, eight pathogens were identified to species level and two to generic level. These 10 pathogens are <em>Erysiphe tectonae</em> (powdery mildew), <em>Oliveatectonae</em> (leaf rust), <em>Alternaria alternata</em> (leaf blight), <em>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides</em> (leaf blight), <em>Cylindrocladium reteaudii</em> (leaf blight), <em>Fusarium</em> <em>sp</em>. (dieback), <em>Alternaria alternata</em> (leaf blight), <em>Fusarium solani</em> (gummosis), <em>Fusarium</em> <em>sp.</em> (canker), and <em>Maravalia achroa</em> (leaf rust).</p> Sanjay Kumar Jha, Sadikshya Thapa Copyright (c) 2022 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding the relationship between community forest user group and local government in changing federal context of Nepal <p>After the promulgation of a constitution of a federal democratic republican state in 2015, the federal government of Nepal has been restructured into an enlarged system of local government, resulting in a new interface between community forestry and the local government. We examined the community forest governance relationship with local government in the new federal system. This study is the outcome of policy reviews, interviews with stakeholders (n=120), and field observations in four different community forest user groups (CFUGs) within two provinces in Nepal, i.e., Bagmati and Gandaki.This study found that increasing interest from local government in resource management for environmental services, particularly for ecotourism infrastructure development, has increased positive collaboration between local government and CFUGs. However, controversial legal provisions and the organizational structure of forestry offices were found to be major barriers to better collaboration. More than 80% of the forest stakeholders favoured the increased role of local government in monitoring CFUGs; however, most forestry officials were reluctant to involve local government in forest-related activities. Benefit sharing with the local government has already been started in CFUGs; however, multiple tax provisions by local, provincial, and federal governments on CFUG funds have created conflicts among the stakeholders.</p> Keshav Raj Acharya, Krishna Prasad Dahal, Prabin Bhusal, Bikash Adhikari, Binita Dahal, Prabin Pandit, Achut Raj Gyawali Copyright (c) 2022 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Vegetation Dynamics of Tree Species inside the Forest of Institute of Forestry, Hetauda <p>A vegetation analysis of tree species was undertaken in the 92.69 hectares (ha) of the forest connected to the Institute of Forestry (IOF), Hetauda Campus. The study separated the forest into two strata, and a total of 10 circular sample plots (each plot measuring 500 m<sup>2</sup>) were constructed using systematic sampling with a sampling intensity of 0.5%. Enumeration of tree species was carried out within the sample plots. A total of 139 individual trees representing 16 (10 in stratum 1 and 12 in stratum 2) different tree species were recorded (60 in stratum 1 and 79 in stratum 2). Diversity indices were used for calculating vegetation parameters. According to the Importance Value Index, <em>Shorea robusta</em> was dominant in both strata, followed by other heterogenous species. The Shannon Wiener’s index and Simpson’s Diversity Index were higher in stratum 2, but the dominance index was lower than in stratum 1. Stratum 2 had a marginally higher measure of both evenness and richness than stratum 1. The study investigated the vegetation structure of the riverine and tropical moist deciduous forest in the study area. Increasing human interference had no significant effect on diversity and number of species among the strata. This study provides the baseline data necessary to characterize the phytodiversity of the forest area of the Institute of Forestry, Hetauda Campus for conservation and sustainable management.</p> Animesh Poudel, Mohit Joshi, Sweta Jha, Sushila Bhatta, Anisha Bidari Copyright (c) 2022 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial Volume 19 <p>Not Available</p> Editorial Board Copyright (c) 2022 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000