Geographical Journal of Nepal <p>The Geographical Journal of Nepal is the official publication of the Central Department of Geography, Faculty of Humanities and Social Studies, Tribhuvan University.</p> Central Department of Geography, Tribhuvan University en-US Geographical Journal of Nepal 0259-0948 © 2018 Central Department of Geography, Tribhuvan University. Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into sectoral policies in Nepal: A review <p>Nepalese people have experienced climate variability for a long time and the mitigation and adaptation responses they have made to reduce the effect of climate variability are not new phenomena for Nepal. However, mainstreaming climate change issues into sectoral policies from the government can be seen as recent activities in Nepal. Nepal has contributed negligible amount of emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) of global greenhouse gas, it is the fourth most vulnerable country in the world. In this context, this paper aims to review climate change adaptation policies in terms of sectoral integration. This paper has adopted text-mining method for information retrieval and knowledge mining and followed step-by-step approach to undertake review of policies. It concludes that National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2010 can be a milestone in sectoral adaptation of climate change issue largely because it has provided the national framework for sectoral adaptation to climate change. However, NAPA ignores the importance of structural and institutional reforms needed for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into sectoral agencies. Climate change Policy, 2011, Local Adaptation Plan of Action (LAPA) 2011, Constitution of Nepal, 2015, Local Government Operation Act (LGOA) 2017, Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act, 2017 and National REDD+ Strategy, 2018 are other prominent legislative and policy frameworks that have significant contribution in sectoral integration of climate change adaptation issues. However, lack of climate change act in order to implement fully these policies into practice for its implementation can be a major obstacle to achieve the goal. In this context, strong legislative foundation with effective institutional mechanism among different sectors will be very crucial to capture the spirit of new Federal Constitution of Nepal.</p> Pashupati Nepal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 12 1 24 10.3126/gjn.v12i1.23412 Scale and spatial representation: Restructuring of administrative boundary and GIS mapping in Bajhang district, Nepal <p>&nbsp;Census and other socio-economic survey data collected at household and settlement level are aggregated and results are presented for specific administrative units. The wide and increasing availability of census and socio-economic data, tools like GIS with an ease to use and advances in methodology has allowed increasing and refined GIS mapping of census variables. However, it is less emphasized that the result of analysis and presentation is always dependent on the unit of analysis. Data aggregation, choice of data classification method and spatial scale all have effect on mapping result. When administrative boundaries are restructured, it necessitates the aggregation of census data of one administrative level to another. In this context, the current paper explores the scale and zoning effect (changing boundary, changing number of units and data aggregation) on mapping census data. It explores the effect of four data classification methods at two spatial scales. Secondary data sources like local administrative boundary of Bajhang district and economically active population in agriculture is selected as representative census variable for mapping. GIS tool is applied for data mapping and analysis. The study found the higher calculated correlation value (0.88) for the restructured spatial units. The distribution of number of spatial units varied significantly between four data classification methods while plotted against the old boundary but there was not much variation in case of newly restructured boundary. The study found that zoning particularly, from smaller to larger units has blurred the spatial pattern visualization leading to a loss of the preferential information. The study concludes that the restructuring of administrative boundaries into larger unit has simplified the detail for spatial representation and has introduced additional generalization. For policy level analysis, use of data available at one level of the spatial unit when aggregated to higher level should be analyzed carefully using different data classification methods and visualization tools because scaled spatial representation matters in planning and policy aspect. It is meaningful to analyze data at different spatial scale to visualize and identify spatial variation.</p> Shobha Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 12 25 40 10.3126/gjn.v12i1.23413 Landscape dynamics in the northeast part of Andhikhola watershed, Middle hills of Nepal <p>&nbsp;Depopulation and increasing greenery due to agriculture land abandonment is general scenario in many highlands of Nepal in recent decades. High resolution remote sensing image is used in land use change analysis. Recently, object based image analysis technique has helped to improve the land use classification accuracies using object based image analysis. Thus, this study was carried out with high resolution image data sources and innovative technique of land use classification in the northeast part of Andhikhola watershed, in the Middle Hill of Nepal. Increasing greenery due to agriculture land abandonment in the hill slope is the major land use change. Secondly, increasing built-up area in lowland along the highway is another. Decreasing hill farmers is the major drivers of converting cultivated land into vegetated area and increasing built-up area is due to urbanization and shift of rural people from hill slope to lowland and accessible area. Converting cultivated land into forest, shrubs and grassland is at marginal land and remote areas which is mostly controlled by altitude, slope gradient and slope aspect. Additionally, land suitability and accessibility are also other important controlling factors.</p> Chhabi Lal Chidi Wolfgang Sulzer Pushkar Kumar Pradhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 12 41 56 10.3126/gjn.v12i1.23415 Tracing livelihood trajectories: Patterns of livelihood adaptations in rural communities in eastern Nepal <p>Mountain communities are adapting their livelihoods to a complex combination of social, political and economic changes and associated risks. Despite recognition of adaption in response to multiple changes in sustainable livelihood and critical climate change literature, risks attributed to biophysical effects of climate change have increasingly assumed importance. Consequently, diversification is promoted as an adaptive approach to reduce such risks. However, understanding livelihood adaptation from the vantage point of climate change alone might lead to a limited understanding of non-climatic factors also shaping it. This paper proposes understanding adaptation through analysing long-term livelihood changes and using society rather than climate change as a conceptual starting point. It argues that such an approach has better potential to highlight a broader range of dynamic drivers operating over decades and to inform contextually grounded rural livelihood adaptation policies. Changes are traced in the overall livelihood trajectories among four rural communities in Nepal, in living memory, to understand the role of adaptation in shaping it. Qualitative life narratives were collected and complemented by key informant interviews, field observations and the analysis of official documents. The findings suggest that livelihoods have shifted not only from subsistence towards income generation but also from engagement in diverse livelihood sectors towards specialisation; the opposite of the advocated diversification. The role of political, economic, social and cultural processes within and outside the community has been prominent in shaping this trajectory.</p> Phu Doma Lama Per Becker Johan Bergström ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 12 57 80 10.3126/gjn.v12i1.23416 Distribution patterns of sugar industry in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India <p>&nbsp;Eastern Uttar Pradesh has a number of mills including large as well as small and ancillaries units because of availability of sufficient amount of sugarcane in this area. It has fertile plain which is highly suitable for cultivation of sugarcane, but many factors related to sugarcane cultivation as well as sugar mills have pushed the sugar industry to be agglomerated at some places which ultimately brought regional variation in distribution patterns and grouped in some clusters. This paper analyses the distribution pattern and clustering of sugar industry in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The study is based on primary as well as secondary data including number of industrial units, capital investment and involved employment. Out of total 30 working mills, 25 mills make clusters occupying eight districts, i.e., Kushinagar, Deoria, Gorakhpur, Mahrajganj and Bahraich, Balrampur, Gonda, Basti. These clusters are located in the Saryupar plain as well as Tarai region which show that sugar industry is exclusively developed in intensive sugarcane production areas.</p> Anil Kumar Tiwari V. N. Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 12 81 100 10.3126/gjn.v12i1.23417 Commercial vegetable farming: Constraints and opportunities of farmers in Kirtipur, Nepal <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;Vegetable farming is one of the alternative sources of earning livelihood and becoming important agricultural practices for income generation and employment opportunities. This paper aims to analyze the constraints and opportunities of vegetable farmers in Kirtipur. Altogether 80 farm household survey were conducted in four major areas of Kirtipur. A total of 20 key informant interviews (KII) were also conducted to understand the perception of farm households on commercial vegetable farming. The result shows that around 94% of the total sampled farm households have leasehold farmland that has spread to different settlements of Kirtipur Municipality. Out of total leasehold farmers, 69% have written agreement with the landowner. The result also shows that the farmers cultivate vegetables in an average area of 5.67 ropani (2884.49m2). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) are the primary vegetable products, whereas cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) and other green leafy vegetables are mostly cultivated as secondary vegetable products. Dug wells are the major sources of irrigation on vegetable farmland. Out of the total sampled farm households, about 42% of farmers are associated with farmers group and 37% have basic training on vegetable farming. Majority of farmers have savings from vegetable production and marketing. Despite few constraints like price fluctuation (81%) and high middleman margins (71%), vegetable farming in Kirtipur has many opportunities particularly being a major source income and livelihood (93%), self-employment generation (87%) and growing market demand (83%). The opportunities in commercial vegetable farming have continuously attracted the farmers in Kirtipur; however, the existing constraints has deprived farmers from their expected returns. Therefore, this paper recommends to portray possible options to promote opportunities and overcome the existing constraints to retain commercial vegetable farming as a sustainable source for farm households in Kirtipur.</p> Mohan Kumar Rai Pashupati Nepal Dhyanendra Bahadur Rai Basanta Paudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 12 101 118 10.3126/gjn.v12i1.23418 Reciprocity between agricultural management and productivity in Nawalparasi district <p>&nbsp;Farm management is the making, organizing and operating a farm through the appropriate and timely inputs for maximum production and profit. This paper seeks to explore farm land management practices in-terms of input use in three different sites: Jahada, Palhi and Ramnagar of Nawalparasi district. The paper is based on collected primary data through household questionnaire survey, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Key Informant Interview (KII) and field observation methods. Secondary sources of data through topographic and cadastral maps have also been used in this study. Use of different types of labour force, increasing the input use of manure, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, use of modern machineries, development of irrigation facilities, land intensification and crop diversification are the major strategies for agricultural development adopted by local peoples in the study sites.</p> Bhola Nath Dhakal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 12 119 134 10.3126/gjn.v12i1.23419 Institutions and rural economy in Rolpa district of Nepal <p>This paper aims to analyze a pertinent academic debate pragmatically whether institutions assist in promoting life standard and betterment of the common people or they act just as an instrument to perpetuate poverty and fulfill the interest of vested group. To accomplish this task, Marxist, Post-Marxist theories are taken into consideration in order to indicate how an institution or the process of institutionalization as such is debated and perceived in social science academia. Likewise, the research also uses the popular research methodology of pragmatism which focuses on data collection, analysis and field study. The research is conducted in Sunil Smirti Gaupalika (Rural Municipality) of Rolpa district and focuses on the role of institutions in order to transform particularly the economic life of the people. The research divides institutions into two parts. The first one includes the governmental local institution Gaupalika. The second part includes INGO/NGOs. This division enables to decipher and historicize what these government and non government institutions have done independently and collectively to uplift the life of target group. The research finds that INGO/NGOs and locals institution in the remote village like Sunil Smirti Gaupalika have played significant roles on uniting the economically poor and make individual and collective efforts to fight against poverty. They work to find out the poor and economically weak section of the society by setting target group, generating the awareness and providing conductive environment for putting collective effort in their fight against poverty to a certain extent. Therefore, these two types of institutions have been found tremendously supportive in uniting what Marx calls “have-nots” of Sunil Smirti Gaupalika. However, the research also finds that mostly Brahmin/Chhetri communities have been benefitted by these programs. In comparison the ratio of economic growth between Brahmin-Chhetri community and Janjati community-Dalit community, the first one is found to be accelerating whereas the second one is slower and sluggish.</p> Shiba Raj Pokhrel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 12 135 152 10.3126/gjn.v12i1.23420