The Harvest 2024-03-28T08:25:54+00:00 Prof. Dr. Ganesh Prasad Pathak Open Journal Systems <p>The Harvest is a multidisciplinary journal published by Universal College (affiliated to Tribhuvan University), Maitidevi, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> Analyzing the Cognitive Approach of Nepali Youth Job Seekers towards Online Recruitment 2024-03-26T09:23:28+00:00 Binod Ghimire Jitendra Upadhyay Surendra Prasad Joshi Sugam Subedi Prajwal Karki <p>This study explored the factors influencing job seekers’ behavioral intentions to use e-recruitment platforms in Nepal. The study examined the relationships between Performance expectancy, effort expectancy, subjective norms, objective norms, facilitating conditions, and behavioral intentions. A sample of 250 students from public and private colleges participated. Through descriptive and causal-comparative methodologies, significant correlations between the variables were revealed. Regression analysis highlighted the predictive ability of performance expectancy (= .296, p &lt; .001) and subjective norms (= .485, p &lt; .001). The findings underscore the importance of these factors in shaping job seekers’ intentions to use online recruitment. This study contributes valuable insights for practitioners and stakeholders in the online recruitment sector, guiding tailoring platforms to the preferences of Nepali job seekers.</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Portfolio Analysis of Financial Institutions in Nepal 2024-03-26T09:37:13+00:00 Churamani Pandeya Santosh Shrestha <p>In this paper we empirically investigated risk return dynamics of the financial institutions that were selected from the Nepal Stock Exchange for the period of 2016-2022. The objective of this study is to analyze the portfolio of different FIs based on the return and risk parameters using ex-post returns data. This study employed financial and statistical tools to draw the conclusion. The beta values show that commercial banks’ share prices are more volatile than the prices of development banks and finance companies. The alpha coefficients reveal that share prices of all commercial banks and development banks are found overvalued and couple of finance companies is undervalued. The results of correlation coefficient offer a scope of diversification in the Nepalese stock market.</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Why Literature? Devkota and Vargas Llosa on Literature 2024-03-26T09:43:17+00:00 Hriseekesh Upadhyay <p>Literature along with music and arts is viewed in both Eastern and Western tradition as an essential mark of civilized human beings. Lacking any of these would render a human to the level of animal existence. We all aspire to rise to the higher level than that. Literature makes us understand our inner feelings and helps us overcome our darker inclinations. It enlightens us about what might be rumbling in the minds of fellow human beings. Literature composed in ancient times or in our own living era, literature of the distant continents or our own homeland makes us evolve into better human beings. The predominance of science and technology in our times makes literature even more important for the mental health and general well-being of humanity.</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Vedic Literature and Its Universal Concepts: Rishi, Devata and Chanda 2024-03-26T09:47:34+00:00 Krishna Chandra Sharma <p>Rishi, Devata, Chanda, are the three foundational pillars of the four Vedas: Rik,Yaju, Sama and Atharva. Each of these four is collection of mantra and mantra collection is called Samhita. Each Samhita consists of Brahmana, Aranyaka and Upanisad texts and these are interpretive texts of Samhita. Both Samhita and interpretive texts form the vast body of Vedic literature. Samhitas are original texts whereas Brahmana and Aranyaka are their interpretations, and the Upanisads are philosophic texts of the Vedas. Rishi, Devata and Chanda are formative elements of the Vedas. Rishis are the wise scholars who have realized Vedic mantras and handed the same to their disciples which in the long run develop different Sakha or branches of each Veda and such sakha altogether were 1131 and now only 26 sakha with their texts are available. Concept of Devata is suggestive of the theme and the subject matter of Vedic literature. In the Vedas Devatas are representatives of divine entity having certain physical form. The sun, the wind/ Indra and Agni (fire) are three Devata of the space, interspace and the earth. Vedas discusses One Almighty Brahma/ Purusha taking different forms as Devata based on various performances. Each Vedic Samhita and all interpretive literature follow structural pattern and especially Rigveda follows rigid metrical pattern. Each mantra of Vedic literature demands proper understanding of its Rishi, Devata and Chanda in order to capture its true spirit.</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Tetracycline susceptibility in multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples in tertiary care hospitals of Kathmandu, Nepal. 2024-03-26T09:51:55+00:00 Lata Ghimire Megha Raj Banjara Abdelkodose Mohammed Hussen Abdulla <p><em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, being an opportunistic pathogen, is frequently associated with various infections in human. The clinical sector feels challenge regarding the management of multidrug resistant<em> S. aureus</em>. Besides the B-lactam antibiotics, Glycopeptides, Tetracycline, Quinolones, Macrolide-lincosamide streptogramin B family of antibiotics are also commonly prescribed to deal with such infections as an alternative drug. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess tetracycline susceptibility in multidrug resistant <em>S. aureus</em> in clinical samples. This study was conducted over the period of 15 months from March 2020–May 2021. The clinical samples were collected from the three different tertiary care hospitals of Kathmandu, Dirghayu Guru Hospital, Chabahil, Bhaktapur Cancer Hospital, Bhaktapur, and Shankarapur Hospital, Jorpati. The sample processing and laboratory work was carried out in the Microbiology Laboratory of Dirghyau Guru Hospital to determine the proportion of different phenotypes of MDR among S. aureus and their association with methicillin resistance. Two hundred sixty six isolates of <em>S. aureus</em> were included in the study. Methicillin resistance was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion method. Among 2004 clinical samples processed, 266 (13.27%) isolates were <em>S. aureus</em>. The multidrug resistant strain isolated from OPD was 56.84% (54/95) and from inpatient was 43.15% (41/95). Among the 266 <em>S. aureus</em>, 28.94% MRSA and 71.05% MSSA isolates were detected. Tetracycline resistance was found in 9.8% of total <em>S. aureus</em> isolates whereas 27.36% (26/95) among MDR <em>S. aureus</em> isolates. Resistance to Tetracycline was higher in MRSA as compared to MSSA. Detection rate of MRSA in this study shows the necessity to improve health care practices to control MRSA infections. Tetracycline can be used as an alternative antibiotic against the <em>S. aureus</em> infection.</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Effect of Leverage, Assets Growth, Market Capitalization and Firm Age on Profitability of Nepalese Commercial Banks 2024-03-26T09:58:00+00:00 Nischal Gautam Aakash Bangshi <p>The study examines the effect of leverage, asset growth, market capitalization and firm age on the profitability of Nepalese commercial banks. Return on assets and return on equity are selected as the dependent variables. The selected independent variables are debt to equity ratio, debt to assets ratio, long-term debt to assets ratio, short-term debt to assets ratio, assets growth rate, market capitalization and firm age. The study is based on secondary data of 11 commercial banks with 110 observations for the period from 2012/13 to 2021/22. The data were collected from publications and websites of Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB), Ministry of Finance (MoF), and annual reports of the selected commercial banks. The correlation coefficients and regression models are estimated to test the significance and importance of leverage, assets growth, market capitalization and firm age on the profitability of Nepalese commercial banks. The study showed that debt to equity ratio, debt to assets ratio and short-term debt to assets ratio have positive impact on return on equity. It indicates that higher the debt equity ratio, debt to assets ratio and short-term debt to assets ratio, higher would be the return on equity. In contrast, debt to equity ratio, debt to assets ratio and short-term debt to assets ratio have negative impact on return on assets. It indicates that higher the debt equity ratio, debt to assets ratio and short-term debt to assets ratio, lower would be the return on assets. Similarly, long-term debt to assets ratio and assets growth have negative impact on return on equity and return on assets. It means that increase in long-term debt to assets ratio and assets growth leads to decrease in return on equity and return on assets. Likewise, market capitalization has a positive impact on return on assets. It means that increase in market capitalization leads to increase in return on assets. However, firm age has a positive impact on return on equity and return on assets. It means that increase in firm age leads to increase in return on equity and return on assets.</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Growth of GDP and Foreign Trade of Nepal: Trend analysis 2024-03-26T10:03:31+00:00 Shambhu Prasad Adhikari <p>It is clear that the total size of the economy and the total volume of trade have been increasing in Nepal. Both export trade and import trade contribute to economic growth, but the trade deficit increased rapidly over two decades. This paper investigates the trend analysis of foreign trade and GDP growth of Nepal during the last two decades. This paper has used annual statistical data from fiscal year 2001/02 to 2022/ 23 to analyze the trend of GDP growth and foreign trade of Nepal. Obviously, export and import trade play a crucial role in the economic growth of Nepal, but considering the fact of serious trade deficit, policy implications should be concentrated on exportoriented economic growth rather than import-oriented economic growth.</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Implications of International Labor Migration from the Perspective of Migrants and Returnees: Symbolic Interactionism Approach 2024-03-26T10:11:08+00:00 Shraddha Shakya <p>The current debate on migration and development focuses on utilizing social and economic remittances, and adopting a co-development approach to promote development through migration. In Nepal, after the 2015 earthquake, many returnees and migrant households are struggling with poverty and feel compelled to migrate again. Additionally, people often aspire to migrate without being fully prepared for migrant life. This study aims to analyze the impacts of diaspora strategies on the longterm development of international labor migrants, aspiring migrants, returnees, and migrant households. An ethnographic qualitative research study was conducted in Sindhupalchowk district in 2016 to gain a deeper understanding of this phenomenon from the perspective of actors at the micro, meso, and macro levels. Empirical data was analyzed using the symbolic interactionism approach and narrative analysis, which helped understand how these actors interpret their experiences before and after migration. To discuss the economic aspects of migration, the Neoclassical theory (Borjas) has been applied, while to discuss sociological aspects and transnationality, the Migrant network theory and transnationalism perspective (Fiast, Fauser, Reisenauer) together with Peggy Levitt’s concept of social remittances have been applied. The study found that while the State views international labor migration as caused only by economic factors, transnationality has become a key factor at the micro and meso levels, influencing the social, familial, and economic transnational spheres of life of the actors. The study suggests that the State needs to view this phenomenon from a transnational perspective to address the sociological aspects and ensure the long-term development of international labor migrants, returnees, and migrant households.</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Foreign Policy and National Interest 2024-03-26T10:17:31+00:00 Shreedhar Gautam <p>Nepal’s foreign policy is guided by the collective desire of the people to preserve national independence and promote socio-economic interest. Our foreign policy is almost affected by geographical and cultural relations with the neighboring countriesIndia and China. Nepal must maintain very well-balanced relations with them in order to be a prosperous nation, and should not forget the Divya Upadesh of Prithivi Narayan Shah, late Kings Mahendra and Birendra (zone of peace). However, the post 1990 democratic Nepal is found lacking on many fronts in its foreign policy. Nepal should try to be self-reliant for basic needs of the people, based on common interest and mutual respect. Our political leadership must focus on economic development of the nation with a common voice and effort. But Nepal is being always a loser with India in various treaties. The issue of Kalapani, Lipulekha, Limpiyadhura is being a matter of dispute with India. Similarly, MCC, SPP, BRI are also disempowering us. Therefore, we have to maintain good relations with all by identifying our areas of mutual co-operation and collaboration keeping in mind our Panchasheela principles. Always we have to believe in people’s power and eliminate fear of foreign interference so as to make Nepal self-reliant and economically prosperous and peaceful.</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Decoding Deconstruction: Unveiling the Layers in Mahakavi Devkota’s Poetic Works 2024-03-26T10:22:03+00:00 Tara Prasad Adhikari <p>“Decoding Deconstruction: Unveiling the Layers in Mahakavi Devkota’s Poetic Works” explores the intricate tapestry of Mahakavi Laxmi Prasad Devkota’s poetry, using a deconstructionist point of view. The paper reveals unimagined Deconstructionist features within Devkota’s works, akin to the ideas developed by Jacques Derrida during the 1960s. Devkota has questioned all the so-called hierarchies that were prevalent in Nepali society then. He has questioned human-centric discourses. Thus, his poems exemplify a deconstructive mindset. They invite readers to embrace ambiguity, explore new perspectives and transcend traditional modes of interpretation. This study illuminates how some of the poems by Mahakavi Devkota are so very close to the deconstructionist view developed by Derrida and so e other theorists in the 1970s.</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Customers’ Preference of Palpali Dhaka Garments in Kathmandu Valley Ordered Logistic Model 2024-03-26T10:31:16+00:00 Yogesh Ghimire Udaya Raj Paudel Devid Kumar Basyal Purnima Lawaju Anil Bhandari <p>Dhaka is a handcrafted cloth with a specific meaning in Nepal. Despite its indigenous value, Producer &amp; Supplier are not aware in promotional activity of the Palpali Dhaka garment is not sufficient. So, there is lack in preference of Palpali Dhaka garment. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the determinant of customer preference of Palpali Dhaka garment in Kathmandu valley. Following exploratory research design was adopted and data was collected using structured questionnaire. Where ordered logistic model was used for inferential analysis, both descriptive and inferential analysis was used. Respondent were sampled from Kathmandu valley. Simple random sampling technique was used for 196 respondents. KOBO toolbox was used for data collection. The study found that the promotion of Palpali Dhaka garment is affected by major determinants. The factors which are significant to customer preference of Palpali Dhaka garment are Brand, Quality, Knowledge source, Family type, Advertising, Reducing Challenges which shape customer preference. Based on the findings of the study, the study concluded that for the better promotion of Palpali Dhaka garment the producer and supplier should improve promotional activity, improve Brand and Quality of Palpali Dhaka.</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024