Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology 2021-01-01T12:00:29+00:00 Prof. Dhan B. Karki, PhD Open Journal Systems <p>The Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology (HiJOST) is a peer reviewed journal published by the Central Campus of Technology, Tribhuvan University, Dharan, Nepal. It welcomes articles from basic sciences, food sciences and technology, nutrition and dietetics, engineering and medical sciences. Papers relating directly or indirectly to all aspects of these fields are also welcomed. The journal aims to provide a forum for expression of new ideas, as well as exposing the knowledge that can further the understanding of issues and concerns relating to science and technology.</p> Short Review on Types of Heat Shock Proteins and Their Fundamental Characters for Body Maintenance Together With Role in Cancer 2021-01-01T12:00:12+00:00 Muhammad Muneeb Moazam Ali Tahir Sarfaraz Wajid Ali Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta <p>Body of living thing is a complex machine that works on multifunctional processes and needs maintenance. Heat shock protein is a specific type of protein that cares about many normal functions of the body. These proteins have many dynamic occupations to shield the body from various diseases and also a key role in the coiling and uncoiling of proteins, prevent from apoptosis and transportation of proteins. Along with these all properties, the foremost function of these proteins is prevention from cancer and a significant role in cancer diagnosis. Commonly heat shock protein known as chaperones and a wide range of their types have been discovered with their functions as well. Recently many scientists are working on additional investigation of heat shock proteins. This review concludes some basic types of heat shock proteins and their elegant purposes and also providing an open eye for new scientist about a further investigation of heat shock protein.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Effect of Drying Temperature and Natural Fermentation on the Phytochemical Composition of Stinging Nettle Buds (Urtica parviflora) 2021-01-01T12:00:11+00:00 Babita Adhikari Smriti Ale <p>Stinging nettle (<em>Urtica parviflora</em>), locally known as sisnu in Nepal, is rich in phytochemicals. Phytochemical are non-nutritive bioactive chemical compounds found naturally in plants; possess antioxidant activity and reduce the risk of different diseases by serving structural and functional role as well as an electrolyte. The effect of drying temperature (50, 60, 70ºC) and natural fermentation (24±1ºC for 15 days) of fresh nettle buds on the phytochemical composition (polyphenol, tannin, flavonoid and antioxidant activity) were studied. The phytochemical screening of the samples was carried out using 80% ethanol through maceration technique. The tannin, flavonoid, total phenol content and antioxidant activity in ethanolic extract of fresh nettle buds were found to be 1.02±0.08 mg/g, 0.126±0.005 mg/g, 145.69±2.01 mg/g and 59.53±0.03% on dry basis respectively. The increase in drying temperature, significantly (p&lt;0.5) decreased the polyphenol contents but had no significantly effect on the tannin, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of leaves dried at 50ºC was found to be maximum (56.72±0.07% on db) and minimum (47.56±0.02%) at 70ºC. The natural fermentation significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased the total phenol (273.2±2.33 mg/g), flavonoid (0.408±0.08 mg/g) and tannin (3.56±0.11 mg/g) content on dry basis. The increase in total phenol and flavonoid content exhibited the subsequent increment in the antioxidant activity (87.69±0.02%). It was found that, nettle buds contained a number of health promoting bioactive compounds such as tannins, polyphenol and flavonoid and their concentration increased significantly by natural fermentation but were not significantly affected by drying temperature (50-70ºC).</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Effect of Frozen Storage on the Water- Holding Capacity and pH of Broiler Chicken cut-up Parts (Gallus gallus domesticus) 2021-01-01T12:00:13+00:00 Arjun Ghimire Pawan Parajuli <p>Broiler chickens (<em>Gallus gallus domesticus</em>) were collected from local chicken suppliers of Dharan (26.8065° N, 87.2846° E), Nepal, and slaughtered to prepare the cut-up parts (breast, drumstick, dorso, wings, and thigh). They were vacuum packed in polythene bags and frozen stored (-21.5 ±3.5ºC) for 45 days to study the effect of frozen storage on the water holding capacity (WHC) of meat. Cooking loss, drip loss, and pH changes were analyzed at 5 days intervals during storage and the data were analyzed using Genstat® v 12.1.The cut-up parts showed a significant change (p&lt;0.05) in pH, cooking loss, and drip loss during 45 days of frozen storage. The pH decreased while the drip loss and the cooking loss increased gradually upon storage. The pH was found to be varied among the cut-up parts with a minimum pH scale of 5.25 for wings, followed by 5.3 for thigh, at the end. The highest drip loss of 6.11% was observed in wings after 5 days of storage which ended up to 8.97% after 45 days of frozen storage while drumstick and thigh samples showed significantly lower drip loss of 6.02%, and 5.43% respectively. The change in cooking loss showed a similar pattern as that of drip loss with a significantly higher value of 37.36% in the breast while it showed no significant difference in drumstick, dorso, and thigh meat. Thus, the study reveals that freezing of broiler chicken meats for a prolonged period adversely affects the WHC of meat</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Ethnomedicinal Knowledge of Kisan Community - A Case Study 2021-01-01T12:00:15+00:00 Manisha KC Nanda Bahadur Singh <p>In the context of depleting indigenous knowledge and their values in the Kisan Community, they seem unaware of their culturally rich traditional practices of using animals and plants for medicinal purpose. It has been essential to document those knowledge of practices for future references. The paper tried to explore and document those knowledge and practices by the Kisan community of Mechinagar 9 and 11 of Jhapa, Nepal. For this purpose, the data were collected through interviews with key informants including conjurer (Dhami/Jhakri), elders of the society and also focal group discussions with the local people. Analysis of the data has shown that 29 animal species belonging to 24 families are used to treat 29 ailments and 57 plant species belonging to 37 families are used for treating 39 different ailments. The commonly treated ailments were common cold, cuts, wounds, diarrhoea, dysentery, etc.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Geological and Geotechnical State of the Nisane Khola Landslide, Dharan, Sunsari, Nepal: a case study 2021-01-01T12:00:16+00:00 Drona Adhikari Champak Babu Silwal Suraj Giri <p>Geological and landslide mapping was carried out in order to delineate the geological and geotechnical state of the Nisane landslide, situated in Dharan Sub-Metropolitan City, Sunsari, Nepal, which has been obstructing the Koshi Highway time and again. The affected area bears metasedimentary and sedimentary rock sequences of the Lesser Himalaya and the Siwalik, respectively. The Dharapani Thrust separates the Chiuribas Formation and the Tamrang Formation of the Lesser Himalaya whereas the Main Boundary Thrust separates the Tamrang Formation and the Siwalik. The Nisane landslide is an old landslide situated in the structurally weak zone having variable activation period. Recently, the landslide reactivated as intense slide after the Gorkha Earthquake, 2015 and is occasionally obstructing the Koshi Highway. The subsidence in highway indicates the landmass is creeping along the tension crack. Kinematic analysis, Rock Mass Rating (RMR) and Slope Mass Rating (SMR), based on the field observation, measurement and laboratory testing, was carried out in eight different slopes of the slide. The results suggested majority of slopes suffers the wedge and plain failures along the major joint sets. The rock masses are of fair class and the slopes are unstable to partially stable. The slopes of major slide are vulnerable and seeks for immediate sustainable treatment.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus on the Basis of Formulated Feed Supply 2021-01-01T12:00:17+00:00 Jay Narayan Shrestha Prabha Niraula <p>&nbsp;Best diet of the fish is the sole of production of aquaculture. Growth performance of <em>Clarias gariepinus </em>on the basis of formulated feed supply was carried out from 7th March to 6th May, 2019 in the laboratory of P.G.Campus, Biratnagar in which 130 juveniles (each of 10±0.11 g.) of catfish were cultured in 13 aquaria feeding with treatment diets having crude protein level 35%, 40%, 45% and 50% for treatment and commercial diet for control. There are no significant differences between the water quality parameters and body weight gain (p&gt;0.05) in all treatments. The highest body weight gain (7.31±0.11 g; 65.20%) and SGR (13.051±1.15 g) was observed in fish fed with T C (45% protein level). This value was lowered than value of control(C) i.e. 7.59±0 g; 69.88% and 13.55±0 g respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was best (13.28±1.89 g) in T D (50% protein level feed). Its value was larger (7.52±1.11 g) in T C than C (7.15±0 g). Mortality rate was highest in T C and C i.e. 30% and lowest in T A and T B i.e. 23.33%. Weight gain of the fish increased with increasing protein level in diet till crude protein level 45% then it was dropped at the diet with protein level 50%. The best weight gain was observed in 7th week having crude protein level 45%. The diet with protein level 45% is suggested for farmers concerning the fish (<em>Clarias gariepinus</em>) in the aquaculture.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Microbiological Quality and Adulteration of Pasteurized and Raw Milk Marketed in Dharan, Nepal 2021-01-01T12:00:19+00:00 Dhiren Subba Limbu Kamana Bantawa Dil Kumar Limbu Mandira Devkota Monika Ghimire <p>&nbsp;This study was aimed to evaluate the quality of raw and pasteurized milk marketed in Dharan. Milk may be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and a mixture of several adulterants and such milk pose a risk to consumers. The study was carried out from September 2019 to January 2020. Collected samples were tested for adulterants (starch, formalin, neutralizer and table sugar) as well as microbial quality (Total Coliform count, Total Viable Count, Thermoduric Count, <em>Escherichia. coli </em>and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>) as per standard guideline. The adulterants starch, formalin and neutralizer were not detected in both raw and pasteurized milk. However, table sugar was present in 45% (9 out of 20) raw milk and 90% (18 out of 20) pasteurized milk. The average Total Viable Count, Total Coliform Count and Thermoduric Count of raw milk were, 59×105 CFU/ml, 14×104 CFU/ml and 5×103 CFU/ml respectively. Similarly, the average Total Viable Count, Total Coliform Count and Thermoduric Count of pasteurized milk were found to be 15×104 CFU/ml, 14×103CFU/ml and 4×103 CFU/ml respectively. <em>E. coli </em>was detected in 30% pasteurized milk whereas <em>S. aureus </em>was isolated from only 20%. Likewise, <em>E.coli </em>and <em>S. aureus </em>were found in 55% and 45% of raw milk respectively. The results of the study indicated that routine monitoring of dairy industries and raw milk vendors, awareness campaign and good hygienic practice should be promoted to upgrade the quality of raw and pasteurized milk.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Moisture Sorption Characteristics of Weaning Food 2021-01-01T12:00:20+00:00 Kabindra Bhattarai Babita Adhikari Prabina Ghimire <p>&nbsp;Stickiness and caking are the significant problems for food powders due to moisture migration from the storage environment. This study was conducted to determine the moisture sorption isotherm of weaning food (Nutrilac and Superceral) and to fit the sorption data in different sorption isotherm models. Static gravimetric method was used to determine the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) at 22-89% RH at 30°C. The EMC data obtained were plotted to the models Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET), Guggenheim Anderson and De Boer (GAB). Results indicated that sorption isotherms were of type II isotherm according to Brunauer et al., (1940) classification. BET model was fitted to the sorption data with coefficient of regression 0.985 and 0.986 for Nutrilac and Supercereal respectively. The GAB model was fitted with coefficient of regression 0.983 and 0.979 for Nutrilac and Supercereal respectively. Monolayer moisture content determined from the BET and GAB model at 30°C were 1.63 and 2.24 g/100g dry matter for Nutrilac and 1.51 and 2.26 g/100g dry matter for Supercereal respectively.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Population Status, Menaces and Management of Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and Tarai gray langur (Semnopithecus hector) in the Forest of Dharan and its Vicinities 2021-01-01T12:00:21+00:00 Ganesh Tamang Ganesh Bahadur Thapa Milan Kharel Asmit Subba Ashish Pradhan <p>The present study was conducted in 28 spots of 10 sampling sites including forest and urban areas of northern part of Dharan, Sunsari District (26.7944° N, 87.2817° E, 349 m msl) and its vicinities in the Province No. 1 of Nepal. The scan sampling method was applied to count the monkey population and their menace was surveyed through the questionnaires and direct field observations. In present study, 69.31% (n=558) Rhesus monkeys species and 30.68% (n=247) Tarai gray langurs were counted within 192.6 km2 of the study site. In 14 troops of Rhesus monkeys and 9 troops of Tarai gray langurs, the gender dominance of female Rhesus monkey and female Tarai grey langur were found to be 40.32% and 58.74% respectively. Whereas, the average male-female ratio was found to be 1:8.3 and 1:5.1 for Rhesus monkey and Tarai gray Langur respectively. The largest single troop recorded was of Rhesus monkey (n=125). A total of 25.2 quintals crops was damaged by both monkeys from the study area this year. Maize (42%) was found to be major crop damaged by Rhesus monkeys. Management of non-human primates through further research is urgently required to minimize their menace and to protect people from the risk of transmission of possible zoonotic diseases. The result of this study can be implied practically for the management of monkey's menaces not only to the Dharan but also to other monkey affected areas of the country.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Process Optimization of Finger Millet Incorporated Extrudates 2021-01-01T12:00:23+00:00 Yadav KC Ranjit Rajbanshi Prabesh Bhattarai Pramesh K. Dhungana Dilip Subba <p>The effects of incorporation of finger millet (<em>Eleusine coracana L.</em>) flour and extrusion conditions on physico-chemical characteristics of corn grit- rice grit-chickpea flour blend expanded extrudates were studied. Response surface methodology was used to study the effects of level of incorporation of millet flour in feed composition (5 to 25 %), feed moisture (12-16%), screw speed (1000-1400 rpm) and extrusion temperature (80–120°C). Single screw extruder was used for the experiments. The level of millet flour incorporation had significant effect on water solubility index (p&lt;0.05), water absorption index (p&lt;0.05) and starch digestibility (p&lt;0.001). Feed moisture had significant effect on water solubility index (p&lt;0.001) and water absorption index (p&lt;0.05). Extrusion temperature had significant effect on water solubility index (p&lt;0.001), water absorption index (p&lt;0.05) and starch digestibility (p&lt;0.05). Screw speed had significant effect on water solubility index (p&lt;0.001) and water absorption index (p&lt;0.05). Numerical optimization study predicted 106.8 °C of extrusion temperature, 1253 rpm of screw speed, 12.67 % of feed moisture, and 22.8 % of millet flour as optimum conditions to produce acceptable extrudates from the feed composite containing millet flour.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Theoretical assessment on hetero-coordination of Alloys Silver-Antimony at Molten State 2021-01-01T12:00:24+00:00 Narayan Panthi Indra Bahadur Bhandari Ishwar Koirala <p>The thermodynamic and structural properties of binary alloy Ag- Sb at temperature 1250K have been reported theoretically using quasi lattice model. The interchange energy has been considered a function of a temperature and thus various thermodynamic quantities are calculated at elevated temperature. The theoretical values of free energy of mixing, heat of mixing, entropy of mixing and chemical activity are reasonable agreement with experimental values in all concentrations of antimony from 0.1 to 0.9. The theoretical analysis tells that the alloy shows both ordering nature in Ag rich end and segregating nature in Sb rich end .The study reveals that the properties of alloy are asymmetric around equi-atomic composition. The Ag_3 Sn complexes are most likely to exist in the liquid state and are moderately interacting.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Utilization of Banana (Musa acuminata) Pseudostem for Biscuit Making 2021-01-01T12:00:25+00:00 Bunty Maskey Pradeep Sangroula Nabindra Kumar Shrestha <p>The aim of this research was to utilize banana pseudostem powder as a functional replacement ingredient for wheat flour in the production of biscuit. In this study, D-optimal mixture design was employed and five different formulations were obtained. The biscuits were prepared by partially replacing wheat flour with banana pseudostem powder from 0-10% and investigated for sensory and quality attributes. The biscuits were subjected to sensory evaluation by ten semi-trained panelists for consumer acceptability. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA (no blocking) at 5% level of significance. From the mean sensory scores, 2.5 parts pseudostem incorporation was selected as the best formulation and subjected for further proximate analysis. The calcium, potassium, sodium, ash, fibre and fat contents were found to be higher in banana pseudostem incorporated biscuit than wheat flour biscuit.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Antibiogram Profiling and Thermal Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Isolated from Milk of Dharan, Nepal 2021-01-01T12:00:27+00:00 Susmita Phattepuri Prince Subba Arjun Ghimire Shiv Nandan Sah <p>Milk is an excellent medium for the growth of many bacteria. This study aimed to determine antibiotic profiling and thermal inactivation of <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and <em>Escherichia coli </em>isolated from raw milk of Dharan. Total viable count, total Staphylococcal count, and total coliform count were carried out by conventional microbiological methods. Identification was done on the basis of Gram staining and biochemical tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test of the isolates carried out by the modified Kirby-Baur disc diffusion method. Thermal inactivation of <em>S. aureus </em>and <em>E. coli </em>were carried out by subjecting to thermal treatment in a water bath. Total plate count ranged from 204×104 CFU/mL to 332×105 CFU/mL. Total staphylococcal count and total coliform count ranged from 14×105 CFU/mL to 8×106 CFU/mL and 11×104 CFU/mL to 3×106 CFU/mL respectively. <em>S. aureus </em>showed an increasing resistance patterns towards Ampicillin, Cefotixin, Carbenicillin and Cefotaxime. Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Amikacin, Gentamycin, Azithromycin, and Chloramphenicol were found to be effective against <em>S. aureus</em>. All the <em>E. coli </em>isolates were resistant to Ampicillin and least resistant to Cefotixin. Chloramphenicol, Amikacin, Azithromycin, and Nalidixic acid were found highly effective to <em>E. coli</em>. The D-values for <em>S. aureus </em>at 56°C, 58°C and 60°C were 1.36 min, 1.19 min, and 1.09 min respectively. The Z-value was 14.92°C. While D-values were obtained as 0.98 min, 0.75 min, and 0.57 min for <em>E. coli </em>at 56° C, 58° C and 60° C respectively, and Z-value was 9.75° C. Hence, <em>S. aureus </em>was found to be more heat resistant than <em>E. coli</em>.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Microbiological Quality and Antibiogram Assessment of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Raw Salad Vegetable Samples of Kathmandu Valley 2021-01-01T12:00:28+00:00 Rojan Poudel Neha Gautam Krishus Nepal Binod Lekhak Milan Kumar Upreti <p>Most typical salad vegetables include carrots, cabbages, lettuces, bell peppers, cucumber, onions, tomatoes, coriander and radishes. The aim of this research was to study the microbiological quality of salad vegetables and perform antibiotic susceptibility of isolates. In this study, total viable count, total coliform count and yeast, mold count were calculated as CFU/ml within sample type and according to various sample sources. Total percentage of isolated bacteria and molds were calculated. Antibiotic sensitivity test of isolated bacteria was carried out by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI 2017 guideline. Average microbial count was ≤ 107 CFU/ml for all sample types. So, it revealed that the vast majority of samples failed to comply with international standards i.e. ≤104 CFU/ml. Total 172 isolates from raw salad vegetable <em>Escherichia coli </em>14 (70%), <em>K. pneumoniae </em>12 (60%) and <em>P. aeruginosa </em>15 (75%) were found to be predominant. Whereas, <em>Trichoderma </em>spp 4 (20%) were most predominant amongst mold. Highest resistivity was against Amoxicillin/ Clavulanic acid and most sensitivity was against Gentamicin followed by Ciprofloxacin and Chloramphenicol. This study showed that raw salad vegetable samples were heavily contaminated and the antimicrobial resistance pattern shown by the isolates is an indication that adequate measure need be taken to regulate drug use in both humans and animals in order to minimize the risk of increasing antimicrobial resistance.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis and its Insecticidal Effect against Galleria mellonella 2021-01-01T12:00:29+00:00 Jyoti Limbu Bijay Kumar Shrestha Jenish Shakya Sabin Bahadur Khatri Hemanta Khanal <p><em>Bacillus thuringiensis </em>(Bt) synthesize a large diversity of crystal proteins (Cry and Cyt) during sporulation which exhibit insecticidal activity against insects and protozoa. The main aim of this study was to isolate <em>Bacillus thuringiensis </em>and study its insecticidal effect against <em>Galleria mellonella</em>. Soil samples from four different geographical locations of Koshi Zone viz. Itahari, Tarhara, Dharan and Vedetar of Eastern Nepal were collected. The isolation of Bt was done by acetate selection method. The insect bioassay of Bt isolates were performed against greater wax moth (<em>G. mellonella</em>) by feeding the third instar larvae by extracted crystal spores with three different concentrations. The overall distribution of Bt from the study sample was found to be 30% (30/100). Bt was isolated from all four geographical location with higher incidence; 9 (36%) in Tarhara region followed by Dharan (32%), Itahari (28%) and Vedetar (24%). However, the incidence of Bt with potent insecticidal activity against <em>G. mellonella </em>was reported to be 4% (4/100). The insecticidal activity of isolated Bt between test and control groups was found to be statistically significant (p&lt;0.05). LC50 value of Bt from Tarhara (Tar1) was 388.29μg/mL, Dharan; Drn8 and Drn1 was 416.20μg/mL and 463.15μg/mL respectively and from Vedetar (Vd5) was 476.63μg/mL. In overall study the Bt isolated from Tarhara (Tar1) region exhibited greater incidence, Bt index, efficacy and effective level of LC50 against greater wax moth. Native Bt strains isolated from soil of Eastern Nepal possess effective insecticidal activity and hence can used as biocontrol agent in controlling honeycomb pest like <em>G. mellonella</em>.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology