Humanities and Social Sciences Journal <p>The Humanities and Social Sciences Journal is a bi-annual, double-blind peer-reviewed journal published by the Research &amp; Educational Development Project Management Committee (RMC), Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> RMC, Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus en-US Humanities and Social Sciences Journal 2594-3065 Non-Linear Relationship Between Remittance Inflow and Inflation in Nepal: An NARDL Approach <p>This paper examines non-linear relationship between remittance inflow and inflation in Nepal on the basis of time series data. The Zivot unit-root testing, which permits a single substantial break in the model, the NARDL cointegration analysis, which was used to check for the presence of the structural break, and the examination of the long-run asymmetry connection were the econometric techniques used in the study. Findings of the study indicate being a long-term asymmetric cointegrating link between remittance inflow and inflation. It was found to be positive shocks of inflation subsequently increasing remittance inflow in Nepal. According to the asymmetric dynamic multiplier, the positive shock contributed more to raise inflation multiplier over time than that of the negative shock. The government of Nepal needs to develop a thorough plan for the efficient use of remittances initiating efficient policies. The findings of the study might be helpful to policymakers to create an effective plan for reducing inflation created by remittance inflows.</p> Dil Nath Dangal Aditya Pokhrel Renisha Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 14 2 1 18 10.3126/hssj.v14i2.58085 Post-Pandemic Informal Employment of Handicrafts Firms in Kathmandu Valley <p>This study tries to examine the informal economic activities during the post-pandemic period on the basis of primary data analysis. The data were generated during the pre-pandemic period whereas the main attributes of economic activities have been compared to the post-pandemic periods. The labours of informal employment in handicrafts firms in the pre-pandemic period have completed just 6.19 classes of education—unorganized and untrained—termed as unskilled with low production efficiency. Their income was estimated with an average of Rs. 23417.84 per month just to survive workers for family level in the capital city of Kathmandu.The family’s monthly income was highly impacted (1640.965 at p &lt; 1%) by the allocation of average per day working hours (12.66 hrs.) on a family basis. In the lockdown situation, informal workers were unemployed completely—reached poor conditions—returned to their homes all 54 percent of migrated and homeless workers in Kathmandu Valley. However, during the post-pandemic situation, all informal workers in the Valley shifted their occupation from handicrafts to other side wage earners shocked by the lockdown. Informal economic activities in this sector are still facing different challenges of social security, job guarantees, and social networking facilities provided by the government. Their estimated monthly income does not seem to be sufficient due to the present increasing inflationary rate of 8.5 percent. Thus, growing informal economic activities are the cause of the hard lockdown during the pandemic of COVID-19. Similarly, the Ukraine-Russia war and undecided government policies have made the situation further worse.</p> Padma Kumar Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 14 2 19 29 10.3126/hssj.v14i2.58086 Application of Critical Discourse Analysis in a Poetic Text <p>Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) has been one of the dominant research tools for textual analysis.It is mostly dealt through language and power relation in analysis as to how the surface of language embeds the power structural elements. In the beginning it was the part of Critical Linguistics and academic pursuits by Norman Flaircough (2010), Ruth Wodak (2006), Terry Lock (2004), Paul Gee (1999) and others expanded its horizons. As a result,several texts have been interpreted from the stand point of critical discourse analysis. Role of language, discourse, social interactions, ideology, power factors, and semiotic elements take account in the process of interpretation and explanation of a particular text. Based on the contextual premise, this article tries to explore how critical discourse analysis and how it is employed in the poetic text. For this purpose, this article analyzes a poem entitled " Shout" by Simon Armitage. Furthermore, the analytical approach consists of three dimensional components: The first is linguistic analysis, also known as textual analysis. The second is interpretative approach in which the text can be interpreted from social interactions as a form of discourse. And the third is explanatory in which the text can be interpreted from the perspective of power and ideology.</p> Bam Dev Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 14 2 30 41 10.3126/hssj.v14i2.58087 Narrativization of Trauma as Performance in Modiain <p>This study scrutinizes and analyzes Mahabharata War from the perspective of performance studies. The text chosen for analysis is a seminal work of Bishweshwor Prasad Koirala as a satire against war, Modiain. The paper intends to show the violence, futility of war, enormous pain, fear, estrangement, unhappiness and shadow of war hanging in the mind of survivors mainlywomen. The specter of Nari narrats the war scene where the battlefield glistened and blurred like vapor coming out of hell. The agony of widowhood and looking for their lovers are other nodal points of the research. Further, war invites violation which is very chilling issue and the performance of war is very destructive. The events are deeply felt with pain when Nari narrates the war scene in the form of spirit.</p> Laxmi Regmi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 14 2 42 49 10.3126/hssj.v14i2.58089 Panoptic Life in Orwell's Nineteen Eighty Four <p>This article discusses panopticon as a controlling mechanism that moulds the conduct of Winston Smith and Julia in George Orwell's political novel 1984. It aims at examining the government tactics; panopticon, that exerts power for controlling and constructing the subjectivity. Taking the reclose to Jeremy Bentham’s penal theory of panopticon, Michel Foucault appropriates his notion of biopolitics to remap how power constitutes the subjectivity of the population. This article probes into the state paradigms that indoctrinates and makes people docile via panopticon in 1984 to subject Julia and Smith to power and their rendering of self-subjection as the political outcasts. Finally, the surveillance telescreen of the Big Brother instantiates to fortify absolute regime leading it to institutionalized punishment and outlawry of Smith and other in Orwellian novel.</p> Pradeep Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 14 2 50 61 10.3126/hssj.v14i2.58090 Politics in the Representation of Women in Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night <p>The major concern of this paper is to study on how women are represented in the comedy Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare. In the drama, the women characters Viola, Olivia and Maria stand as a challenge to the patriarchy in the society. All of them resist the convention that dominates women. They can work equally well independently as males do in everyday life. In fact, they represent the voice for equality between men and women. The drama reflects the social situation in England during the renaissance when consciousness about women’s rights and capability starts growing. The drama shows that women are also courageous, creative and competent if they are given the opportunity. This study is based on qualitative research methodology. So, I as a researcher have consulted various books and journal articles for support. It applies the concept of feminism seeking equality between men and women. This study will be a help for the coming researchers in the area.</p> Ram Prasad Rai Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 14 2 62 70 10.3126/hssj.v14i2.58091 Speeds of Decay of Temperature Distribution in a Laterally Insulated Copper Bar <p>Employing one-dimensional heat equation, speeds of decay of the temperature distribution in a laterally insulated copper bar are analyzed. Eigenfunctions and their corresponding Eigenvalues of the model equation are derived and analyzed with different period of time. The temperature distribution with given initial temperatures on copper bar in period of time are also analyzed. One-dimensional heat equation of a laterally insulated copper bar is also solved for examining and analyzing its temperature distribution Eigenfunction and corresponding Eigenvalues. Further, finite difference method is used to solve the temperature distribution numerically, and comparing its results with analytical solution.</p> Puskar R. Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 14 2 71 81 10.3126/hssj.v14i2.58092 Reflection of Reality and Unreality in the Sanitation Sector in Nepal <p>This study, explores the development trend of sanitation coverage and compares and contrasts government reports and the reality of the sanitation sector. The researcher has used a descriptive research design and a quantitative research method. The data collection technique was field observation because the researcher observed 228 houses to find the reality of having and not having toilet households. The researcher found that the Nepal Government’s record of sanitation coverage is not real because the Nepal Government claimed cent percent of households have toilets in the study area. But it was found that 60% of households do not have toilets. However, this study does not cover factors of sanitation. The other factors need further study.</p> Lila Prasad Limbu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 14 2 82 94 10.3126/hssj.v14i2.58093 स्थानीय निर्वाचन २०७९ मा दलहरूको अवस्था <p>प्रस्तुत लेख स्थानीय निकायको निर्वाचनलाई विषय बनाएर लेखिएको छ । राज्यका हरेक निकाय जनतासँग जोडिने भए पनि परोक्ष सरोकार राख्ने भनेको स्थानीय निकाय हो । स्थानीय निकाय सङ्घीय शासन प्रणालीको मूल आधार हो । यसको स्थायित्व, दीर्घजीवन र संस्थागत विकास, यसले प्रदान गर्ने सेवामा भरपर्छ । त्यो खालको सेवा यसका प्रतिनिधिहरूको चयन गर्ने आवधिक निर्वाचनमा निर्भर हुन्छ । निर्वाचनबाट प्रतिनिधि छान्ने कुरा दलको दबदबामा भन्दा पनि स्थानीय जनता र विकाससँग जोडिएको व्यक्ति नै उत्तम हुने दृष्टान्त प्रस्तुत गर्नु लेखको उद्देश्य रहेको छ । पुस्तकालयीय विधिबाट सङ्कलन गरिएका स्रोतहरूको प्रयोग गरी सिस्टम थ्योरी विधिबाट अध्ययन गरिएको यस लेखमा सैद्धान्तिक र योग्यभन्दा निर्वाचन जित्ने एक मात्र लक्ष्यका साथ उम्मेदवार उठाउने र पार्टी सदस्यको नाममा तिनै उम्मेदवारलाई मत दिन दबाब दिने कुरा हाबी भएको देखिन्छ । जुन कुराले तत्काल राजनीतिक दलहरूलाई फाइदा हुने जस्तो देखिए तापनि कालान्तरमा दल र व्यवस्थाकै लागि अनुत्पादक हुने निष्कर्ष रह्यो ।</p> ढाकाराम सापकोटा Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 14 2 95 106 10.3126/hssj.v14i2.58094 मैना गीतिकाव्यमा वर्णविन्यास वक्रता <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा लक्ष्मीप्रसाद देवकोटाको मैना गीतिकाव्यमा वर्णविन्यास वक्रताको स्थितिलाई कुन किसिमले विश्लेषण गर्न सकिन्छ भन्ने प्रमुख जिज्ञासा खडा गरिएको छ । त्यसलाई संस्कृत काव्यशास्त्र अन्तर्गतकुन्तकको वक्रोक्तिवादी सौन्दर्यका छ भेदमध्ये वर्णविन्यास वक्रता पहिलो भेदले मूलतः व्यञ्जन वर्णमा आधारित तथा व्यञ्जनबाट बनेको अक्षरको कवित्वयुक्त अभिव्यक्तिमा हुने आवृत्तिद्वारा चमत्कार उत्पन्न गर्छ भन्ने मान्यतालाई काव्य विवेचनाको आधार बनाइएको छ । यस अध्ययनले समालोचनामा वक्रोक्ति सौन्दर्यको अवस्था पहिचान गर्न सहयोग पुग्नेछ । यस लेखमा पुस्तकालयीय विधिबमोजिम लक्ष्मीप्रसाद देवकोटाको मैनागीतिकाव्यलाई प्राथमिक स्रोत सामग्री र वक्रोक्ति चिन्तनसँग सम्बद्ध ज्ञानमूलक समालोचनाहरूलाई द्वितीयक सामग्रीका रूपमा उपयोग गरिएको छ ।विश्लेषण गर्दा निगमनात्मक विधिलाई अवलम्बन गरिएको छ । मैना गीतिकाव्यमा लोग्ने स्वास्नीको बेमेलबाट लोग्नेको हत्या, देवरसँगको यौन सम्बन्ध सार्वजनिक हुने डरले छोरीको समेत हत्यालाई देखाएर देवर भाउजू नरकमा परेको सन्देशसँगै वियोगान्त अवस्थालाई प्रस्तुत गर्ने क्रममा वर्णविन्यास वक्रताको चामत्कारिक प्रयोगले काव्य भाषिक रमणीयता र लय माधुर्यले विशिष्ट छ भन्ने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> विनोद कार्की Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 14 2 107 115 10.3126/hssj.v14i2.58095 वैरागी काइँलाका कवितामा पर्यावरण चेतना <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानमूलक लेखमा कवि वैरागी काँइलाका कवितामा प्रस्तुत भएका विविध पर्यावरणीय पक्षको विश्लेषण गरी उनका कवितामा अभिव्यञ्जित भएका पर्यावरणसम्बन्धी चिन्तनको स्वरूप पहिल्याइएको छ । पर्यावरणीय विषय वर्तमान विश्वमा सबैभन्दा धेरै चिन्ताको विषय बन्दै गइरहेको छ । प्रकृतिमाथि मानिसको नियन्त्रणको प्रयास र उपभोक्तामुखी जीवनशैलीका कारणले मानवेतर प्राणीसँगै स्वयम् मानिसकै जीवन पनि सङ्कटग्रस्त बन्दै गएको छ । यसै कथ्यको केन्द्रीयतामा रही रचना गरिएका स्थानीय परिवेशसँग सम्बद्ध विविध कविताहरूको विश्लेषणबाट पर्यावरण र मानिसको सम्बन्धलाई नियाल्ने सन्दर्भमा यहाँ वैरागी काइँलाका कविताका सोद्देश्य छनोट गरिएका साक्ष्यहरूको विश्लेषण गरिएको हो । कवितामा निरन्तर सांस्कृतिक परिवेशका सापेक्षमा पर्यावरणीय चिन्तन प्रस्तुत गर्ने काइँला नेपाली जीवन र प्रकृतिप्रतिका सचेत कवि हुन् । उनका कविता चिन्तनमा आधारितयो अध्ययन पर्यावरणीय समालोचनाका सैद्धान्तिक पद्धतिलाई आधार मानी नेपाली कविताको पाठपरक विश्लेषण गर्ने उद्देश्य लिएर पूरा गरिएको हो । यस गुणात्मक अध्ययनबाट काइँलाका कविताहरू पर्यावरणीय सचेतता र ह्रासोन्मुख सांस्कृतिक पक्षका विषय प्रस्तुतिका हिसाबले सफल रहेको निष्कर्ष प्राप्त भएको छ ।</p> गीता त्रिपाठी Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 14 2 116 126 10.3126/hssj.v14i2.58096 अग्निदत्त+अग्निदत्त उपन्यासमा अनुभूतिको संरचना <p>प्रस्तुत आलेखमा ध्रुवचन्द्र गौतमद्वारा रचित अग्निदत्त+अग्निदत्त उपन्यासको अनुभूतिको संरचनाका मान्यताबाट विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । अनुभूतिको संरचना साहित्यको समाजशास्त्रीय समालोचना सिद्धान्तको एक महत्वपूर्ण उपागम हो । यसका निम्ति रेमन्ड विलियम्सद्वारा अघि सारिएको साहित्यको समाजशास्त्रअन्तर्गत अनुभूतिको संरचनासम्बन्धी सैद्धान्तिक पर्याधारको प्रयोगगरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत आलेखमा उक्त सैद्धान्तिक दृष्टिले अग्निदत्त+अग्निदत्त उपन्यासमा निहित अनुभूतिका संरचनात्मक पक्षहरू के कस्ता छन् भन्ने शोध समस्याको प्राज्ञिक समाधान गर्ने शोधउद्देश्य रहेको छ । यो गुणात्मक शोधपद्धतिमा सम्पन्न गरिएको अनुसन्धानात्मक आलेख हो भने यसमा सिद्धान्तलाई अघि सारेर विश्लेषण गरी त्यसको आधारमा निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । अनुसन्धानात्मक विश्लेषणबाट अग्निदत्त+अग्निदत्त उपन्यासमा विसङ्गतिको बोध, पौराणिक कथन, मिथकीय जिज्ञासा, नैराश्य, आशङ्का, तनाव, पारिवारिक र सामाजिक दबाब, सन्न्यासबोध, भय, संशय जस्ता विशिष्ट अनुभूतिको संरचनाहरू अभिव्यञ्जित भएको सार पाइएको छ ।यस आलेखमा पुस्तकालयीय स्रोतमार्फत प्राथमिक र द्वितीयक प्रकृतिका सामग्रीको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । यस आलेखलाई एपिए ढाँचामा प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ ।</p> हरिप्रसाद सिलवाल Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 14 2 127 136 10.3126/hssj.v14i2.58097 नेपाली भाषामा व्याकरणात्मक परिवर्तन <p>परम्परागत रूपमा रूपतŒव र वाक्यतŒव दुवैमा कालक्रममा देखापरेको परिवर्तन नै व्याकरणात्मक परिवर्तन हो । व्याकरणत्मक परिवर्तन ऐतिहासिक भाषाविज्ञानको महŒवपूर्ण अध्ययन क्षेत्र हो । व्याकरण, व्याकरणात्मक परिवर्तन, भाषिक परिवर्तन, व्याकरणीकरण, भाषाका विभिन्न पक्षको विश्लेषणका सन्दर्भहरू आदि ऐतिहासिक भाषाविज्ञान अध्ययनका आयामहरू हुन् । यी विभिन्न आयामहरूमध्ये यस शोधलेखमा नेपाली भाषामा देखिएको व्याकरणात्मक परिवर्तनलाई अध्ययनको विषयवस्तु बनाइएको छ । ऐतिहासिक भाषाविज्ञानको अध्ययनअन्तर्गत पर्ने हुनाले प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानमा वर्णनात्मक भाषाविज्ञानको अध्ययनका क्रममा हुने क्षेत्रीय पद्धतिबाट सामग्री सङ्कलन गरिएको छैन । इतिहासको समयक्रममा भएका भाषिक परिवर्तनका पक्षहरूमध्ये व्याकरणमा हुने परिवर्तनका सामग्रीलाई प्राथमिक सामग्रीका रूपमा प्रयोग गरिएको छ र उपलब्ध प्राथमिक सामग्रीलाई भाषिक परिवर्तनको सिद्धान्तका आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस शोधलेखको विश्लेषण खण्डमा लिङ्ग, वचन, पुरुष, आदर आदि व्याकरणात्मक कोटिमा भएको परिवर्तन र नेपाली भाषामा देखापरेका व्याकरण परिवर्तनको स्वरूप प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । प्राचीनकालीन नेपाली भाषाको स्वरूप, समयक्रममा व्याकरणिक क्षेत्रमा देखापरेको परिवर्तन र हाल नेपाली व्याकरणका विभिन्न कोटिहरूको अवस्थालाई निष्कर्षका रूपमा उल्लेख गरिएको छ ।</p> यज्ञेश्वर निरौला Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 14 2 137 147 10.3126/hssj.v14i2.58105