Humanities and Social Sciences Journal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj <p>The Humanities and Social Sciences Journal is a bi-annual, double-blind peer-reviewed journal published by the Research &amp; Educational Development Project Management Committee (RMC), Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> en-US paudel@rrlc.tu.edu.np (Prof. Dr. Rudra Prasad Paudel) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Mon, 25 Apr 2022 08:10:57 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Role of Some Monetary Indicators on Nepalese Economic Growth https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44545 <p>This research paper attempts to examine the causal association between major’s Nepalese monetary factors and Gross Domestic Product growth from 1980–2019. To confirm the short-term and long-term contribution of monetary factors to Gross Domestic Product Growth, Johansen approach to cointegration and Error Correction Model has employed and the results have confirmed that the broad money supply and consumer price index positively and significantly affects Gross Domestic Product growth whereas bank rate is seemed to be negatively and significantly effect on Gross Domestic Product growth in Nepalese economy. Moreover, Error Correction coefficient term (-0.4) confirms the emergence of a nexus between the monetary related variables and Gross Domestic Product growth at 40% speed of adjustments towards the equilibrium.</p> Bashu Dev Dhungel Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44545 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Indirect Tax: Trend and Structure in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44546 <p>This study tries to analyze the trend and structure of indirect tax in Nepal and examine the contribution of indirect tax in Gross Domestic Product of Nepal. This study has been based on secondary data published by the Government of Nepal covering a period between 2002/03 to 2019/20 fiscal year. Descriptive method of analysis has been adopted in the study. During the study period, the percentage contribution of indirect taxes to Gross Domestic Product ranges from 6.60 to 14.45. The percentage contribution is observed to be increasing along with the fluctuation trend till 2018/19 but decreased in 2019/20 as compared to earlier years.</p> Dil Nath Dangal Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44546 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of Economic Performance of China https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44547 <p>This paper examines the determinants of China’s economic performance during 1995-2017 as this development outcome is an economic prototype for developing countries. It employs an Ordinary Least Square technique and finds that proportion of FDI, export, government expenditure, and total debt as a percent of GDP have had a significant impact on GDP growth and GDP per capita growth of China. In addition, human capital largely contributes to economic growth. 1 percent increase in the level of human capital induces 0.21 percent increase in the economic growth for the short run and 0.39 percent increase in China in the long run. Similarly, urbanization induces a positive impact on GDP growth in the long run. Hence, a higher level of human capital and conducive business environment entice a higher inflow of FDI which helps to internalize the modern technology in different sectors of the economy for sustainable economic growth in China.</p> Kamal Paudel Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44547 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Tourism and Women Employment Generation in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44548 <p>The objective of this research paper was to explore and analyze the money-making activities of women in tourism industry of Nepal in Pashupati Nath Area. A descriptive study was carried out among 70 respondents from July 15, 2019 to July 24, 2020 in the Pashupatinath area, using a convenience sampling method. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews, questionnaire, and observation. A fair investment in business activities was found in the study area. Most of the items were bought in Nepal, India, and China. Rudrachhyas were found as the main items that were sold in highest number. The lack of co-ordination from the local stakeholders was observed as a major problem faced by the business people. The study suggests that there should be an effective co- ordination from the related stakeholders for the sustainability of tourism and business activities. The stakeholders’ involvement could take place in several ways, such as providing financial resources, training and education, cost sharing, management of spill over, and reducing disparities. These overall activities may help to attract more customers, finally help to sustain businesses, and increase the economic scope of the study area. Income earned by women before and after working in this sector is statistically significant. P- Value is .001 &lt; .01 indicates the same fact. It rejects the null hypothesis there is no difference in mean income received by women entrepreneurs / employees in their respective works. Now there is a space to pronounce that there is difference in income and alternative hypothesis is true. In the study, it was found that employment can change their economic, social, religious and political access with a feeling of a reputed citizen in a nation.</p> Krishna Raj Acharya Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44548 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Deep Ecological Crisis in D. H. Lawrence's Poem "Love on the Farm" https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44550 <p>This research article is based on the concept of harmonious interdependence between nature, living beings, and non-living beings for the sustained ecological balance. It makes an analysis of a poem by D.H. Lawrence, entitled “Love on the Farm” from deep ecological critical perspective. As a term, deep ecology explores how human beings, creatures, plants and trees are connected in the organic chain. Coined by Norwegian philosopher, named Aryan Naess, deep ecology became an assertive response to the menace of environmental crises taken place in different parts of the world. Considering its far-reaching consequences, universities and academic institutions began to study it seriously. As a result, initiatives were taken to broaden its study premise. Courses were devised and literary works were begun to be interpreted from ecological perspective and research outcomes produced significant insights and conclusions in order to explore this subject matter more comprehensively. On this backdrop, this article fundamentally sets three dominant premises for this research study: a) Human beings are sole causes for environmental loss, and, b) Ecological chain is prerequisite for the survival of the whole planet. On considering these premises, this present research article explores deep ecological elements in the poem “Love on the Farm” and how they are disturbed by domineering and more anthropocentric attitude of human beings. In proving the claim, this article takes first wave of eco criticism as a theoretical tool propounded by eco- critics like Jonathan Bate, Cheryll Gotfelty, and Lyn White, Jr. Then, it analyzes the poem, justifying how conflict with nature and ecology causes disturbance in entire environment. Finally, it concludes: ecological balance is the long-term solution to the survival of living and non-living beings as well as the longevity of whole planet.</p> Bam Dev Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44550 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Antithesis to Machismo in the Poetry of Parijat and Kundan Sharma https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44552 <p>This research paper tries to provide an analysis, from the feministic approach, of the Nepali modernist poetry written by Parijat and Kundan Sharma. They were the avant-garde female poets of the 1960s in Nepali literature to write on the gender issues threatening the patriarchal system. Their antithetical stand to machismo was inspired by the Western academic and literary tradition. Some of the women characters in Parijat's poems are found to have been sufferer under triple marginalization, namely, from the perspectives of economic status, caste and gender. In spite of the fact that the society in the 1960s was inhospitable to gender equality and women's rights, these poets brilliantly articulated agonizing experiences of gender bias pervasive in both textual and practical world. Undoubtedly, the preliminary moderate feministic voice in Nepali poetry initiated by Parijat and Kundan played a significant role to deconstruct myths about women institutionalized by text, tradition and socio-cultural context. Unlike the usual reading, this study shows how these two pioneer female poets initiated revolutionary zeal to defy status quo based on traditional gender role.</p> Dhundi Raj Niroula Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44552 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Pinion Imagery in Chopin’s The Awakening https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44553 <p>This research explores the pinion imagery in Kate Chopin’s novel<em> The Awakening</em>. It tries to look at how the imagery of bird’s wings are used to describe the protagonist Edna Pontellier’s effort to break free from the existing mental and physical state in the anticipation of individual freedom. Being a mother of two children and wife of Léonce Pontellier, Edna has confined within the four walls of her house. However, she has been longing for true contentment and happiness in life. The aim of the research is to examine Edna’s struggle to achieve sexual and personal emancipation through the use of semiotics imagery of pinions. Edna’s attempt to escape her husband, children, and society manifest her strong feelings of eros and spreading wings for self-liberation and awakening however, her wings are broken and landed with injured heart leading her to thanatos.</p> Motikala Subba Dewan Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44553 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Ecoconsciousness Versus Egoconsciousness: An Ecocritical Reading of GM Hopkins’ “God’s Grandeur” and William Stafford’s “Travelling through the Dark” https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44554 <p>This article explores how the poets G M Hopkins and William Stafford attempt to present the conflict between egoconsciousness and ecoconsciousness in their poems “God’s Grandeur” and “Travelling through the Dark” respectively. It also endeavours to find out their strategy and mission of exposing the superiority complex of the humans guided by anthropocentrism and highlighting the significance of ecocentrism necessary for creating balance in ecosystem and human lives. This paper assertively justifies that the poets, through their poems, depict the humans as problems and nature as solution of all problems due to its opposite qualities and the quality of timelessness and spacelessness. To justify the argument, ideas and notions of ecocritics Timothy Clark, Bill Devall and Stan Rowe have been brought as references. Mainly, this research work attempts to excavate and publicize how the writers make ecocritical discourse in demolishing, transforming and raising ecoconsciousness within the people (readers) for environmental preservation and conservation of lives. It is found that the poets effort to transform human minds, attitudes and behavioural practices from egocentric to ecocentric.</p> Nabaraj Dhungel, Kalpana Thapa Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44554 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The (Bio) Political Violence in Atwood’s Alias Grace https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44555 <p>This research explores the (bio)political violence that sets the subject position and subjugation of the women characters including Grace Marks in Margaret Atwood’s <em>Alias Grace</em>. Grace is acquitted as murderess and sent to jail, and to the lunatic asylum to make her docile and succumb to sovereign power. It is biopolitics, the sovereign power over populations that is deployed via social institutions to make her manageable and go docile. Through the state apparatuses the biopolitical governmentality constitutes and disseminates knowledge that helps Grace formulate her subjectivity and subjects to the law. Being a woman, she is discarded, sexually abused, and retained in bare life in the jail. In particular, her resignation to the power marks the inclusive exclusion and political violence over her. This reflect her perennial exclusion from social life. Finally, her servitude, amnesty and wedding epitomizes her oikos and docility under the (bio)political violence.</p> Pradip Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44555 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Nostalgia as a Diasporic Representation in Govinda Raj Bhattarai's Muglan https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44556 <p>The major focus of this paper is on ‘nostalgia’ as a diasporic representation in <em>Muglan</em>, a novel by Govinda Raj Bhattarai. The main characters Sutar Kanchho, Thule, Shekhar Karki, Rai Kanchho and many others leave home in the eastern Nepal and go to India for joining the Indian army. When they are misguided to Bhutan from Siliguri, India and made to work in the Road Construction site, they know that their dream of being army and earn a lot for their families can never come true. They are forced to work hard for almost no payment. Some of them die of hunger. They remember home, family members, cattle, field and relatives in their village in Nepal. They hope to return home one day, but that day never comes. Some of them die helplessly. Because of extreme exploitation over them, they feel alienated and displaced which cause nostalgia in them. Since nostalgia is one of the important features of diaspora, the experience of the characters in <em>Muglan</em> is diasporic. As this study is based on qualitative research the researcher has consulted books, reviews and journal articles related to ‘nostalgia’ and ‘diaspora.’ This is a new concept in the research on <em>Muglan</em>. It will be a new way for the support of the upcoming researchers in the concerned area.</p> Ram Prasad Rai Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44556 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Quest for Idyllic Pleasure in Kincaid's Among Flowers: A Walk in the Himalaya https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44557 <p>This study reads Jamaica Kincaid's travel text, <em>Among Flowers: A Walk in the Himalaya</em> (2005), as the author's quest for idyllic pleasure. Despite her identification as an anti-imperialist writer with her previous works, Kincaid turns towards simply inventing a garden in her hometown, Vermont in this text for aesthetic pleasure. Her arduous journey to the Eastern Himalayan landscape of Nepal for the quest of gardenworthy seeds to grow back in her private garden is intimately fraught with her passions of flowers. Engaging with the critical views of available critics such as Jill Didur, Pallavi Rastogi, Racia Anne Chansky and others on the book as well as concepts from travel writing theory, my study argues that <em>Among Flowers: A Walk in the Himalaya</em> bears Kincaid's search for idyllic pleasure of gardening rather than any imperialist or anti-imperialist underpinnings.</p> Toya Nath Upadhyay Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44557 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Bandipur, Tanahun District https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44558 <p>Nepal is uniquely endowed with rich and diverse natural and imaginative attraction due to its geographical location and cultural uniqueness in the Himalaya. Tourism is the backbone and leading sector for the development of Nepal. Rural tourism refers to tourists staying in or near rural village, often traditional villages in remote areas, and learning about the village way of life. The main objective of the study was to reveal the challenges that impede sustainable rural tourism development in Bandipur. Household survey with structural questionnaire, FGD, KII and field observation methods were applied for primary data and published/unpublished documents were reviewed and analyzed for secondary data. The findings of the study indicated that there is potential for natural and cultural tourism due to the existence of a variety of related resources in and around the study area. However, raising social awareness, capital investment to maintenance natural and cultural resources, prioritization in infrastructure development and the promotion of local communities’ participation is essential for sustainable tourism development.</p> Bhola Nath Dhakal Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44558 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Two-layered Blood Flow through Artery with Mild Stenosis https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44559 <p>Employing the Navier-Stokes equations, and considering the blood flow in an artery in an axi-symmetric form, the blood flow dynamics in cylindrical artery are analyzed by evaluating pressure, pressure drop against the wall, shear stress on the wall. Plasma and core layers are considered in the blood flow in cylindrical artery with mild stenosis. It is analyzed the volumetric rate of blood flow in plasma and core layers of the cylindrical shape artery. It is also observed the pressure gradient on the surface of the stenosis in both layers. The dynamics of blood are analyzed by evaluating the ratio of shear stresses of the surface of stenosis with the radius of the artery.</p> Puskar R. Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44559 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Transmission Dynamics of COVID-19 in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44560 <p>In this paper, we use the basic SEIR model to study the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in Nepal. Fitting the model with the data of Nepal, we estimated 26% of Seroprevalence from 13 March, 2021 and the level of control strategies to reduce COVID-19 cases in Nepal. The value of β is approximated 0.0536 for the study period. Reduction of β by 25%, 50%, 75%, reduces reported cumulative cases by the end of 13th March, 2021 by 34.5%, 55.6% and 68.7% respectively.</p> Khagendra Adhikari, Dhan Bahadur Shrestha, Ramesh Gautam, Anjana Pokharel Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44560 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Epochal Role of Women’s Education to Reduce the Severity of Domestic Violence in Nepal: Evidence from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44562 <p>Violence against women is a deleterious violation of human rights. Despite having the different policy and legal provisions, the incident of domestic violence is still exacerbating in Nepal. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the significant role of education for reducing physical, sexual and emotional violence against women. The study uses the data of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016 which focuses on the 4,444 women ages 15 to 49 years having multiple background characteristics. Mainly, univariate, bi-variate and logistic regression analysis is applied to analyze the data. There is an inverse relationship between the level of education and the degree of violence. The level of education has the strongest and positive effect on reducing violence. The higher level of education has significant effect on reducing physical violence [pushed, shook or had something thrown (OR=0.27, CI: 0.16-0.43), slapped (OR=0.17, CI: 0.12-0.26) and kicked or dragged (OR: 0.11, CI: 0.05-0.23)], sexual violence [physically forced into unwanted sex (OR=0.35, CI: 0.19-0.62) and in forced into other unwanted sexual acts (OR=0.22, CI: 0.08-0.61)] and emotional violence [humiliation (OR=0.28, CI: 0.15-0.50), threat (OR=0.16, CI: 0.07-0.41) and insult (OR=0.36, CI: 0.22-0.58). There is an inverse relationship between the level of education and violence against women in Nepal. Women with higher level of education have significantly contributed to reducing either type of violence and vice versa. So, women’s education can be regarded as a prominent contributing factor for reducing domestic violence in Nepal.</p> Mahendra Kumar Rai Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44562 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Women’s Empowerment in Household Decision-making among the Poor and Non-poor in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44563 <p>Women empowerment is taken as one of the major agenda for the twenty-first century in national and international development issues. The primary objective of this study is to examine the factors associated with women empowerment in household decision-making among poor and non-poor women in Nepal. This study uses data from the 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. The analytic sample size of this study is 9575 currently married women aged 15-49. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the effect of demographic and socio-economic variables on women empowerment in household decision-making. The analysis of the result showed there is a significantly high variation between empowerment status and demographic and socio-economic background among the poor and non-poor. Women who have more children, older age, working women, and residing in urban areas were significant association and more likely to empower in household decision-making than having no children, young age and not working women among both poor and non-poor household wealth. However, women have significantly more decision-making power among non-educated women to compare with educated among poor; it is a quite inverse result among non-poor. Thus, this study suggests that it needs to identify and explore the pertinent issues with genuine reasons of the gap to be empowered in a variety of groups of population in Nepal.</p> Rita Devi Karki, Naba Raj Thapa Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44563 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Physical and Mental Health Problems of Elderly People at Nagarjun Municipality in Kathmandu https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44564 <p>Aging is a gradual, continuous process of natural change that begins in early adulthood. The objective of the study is to analyse the physical and mental health problems of elderly people in Nagarjun Municipality, Kathmandu. Ward number 6 is selected randomly among the 10 wards which has 680 elderly people aged 60+. Yamene formula (n=N/1+Ne2) was used to determine the sample size (n=250) and applied systematic random sampling method to select the samples. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS version 21.0. The most prevalent chronic illness in this study was joint pain (67.20%), followed by Gastrointestinal (51.10%) and Hypertension or BP (39.60%). By using logistic regression analysis it shows that the variable of ownership of land certificate has the strongest net association with [OR=2.06(1.18-3.59)] and other variable involvement in the social and religious organization has the second strongest association with [OR=1.77(0.99-3.17)]. Study shows that elderly who do not have ownership of the land certificate have more than two times mental health problems than who have land certificate. Various health schemes, policies and programs can be designed in the research area and similar setting based on the study findings.</p> Thaneshwar Kunwar Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44564 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Analysis between Collective Action Theory and Compulsion Theory of Sustainability https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44565 <p>This paper has been drawn by taking the following objectives: To review the prevention policies and plans of COVID-19. (ii) To fulfill the gap between the collective action and the Compulsion theory of sustainability. The researcher has used a descriptive research design because he has collected only secondary data from books, journal articles, policies, and reports from different websites. After analyzing those data, the researcher found that all countries' prevention policies are the same. Some Asian countries like Japan, China, and South Korea firmly created the compulsion on ordinary people, health institutions, government authority, and other stakeholders can control COVID-19. On the other hand, some European like Italy, France, and Germany could not create strong compulsion; they could not hold COVID-19. Hence, compulsion is necessary for making plans and policies to get success. In addition, the researcher did not examine the human ecological and environmental aspects.</p> Lila Prasad Limbu Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Education Development Project Management Committee Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44565 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ‘बाँच्ने एउटा जिन्दगी’ उपन्यासमा अधीनस्थ पिँढीका अनुभूति {Experiences of the Subordinate Generation in the Novel 'Living a Life'} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44588 <p>प्रस्तुत आलेखमा उपन्यासकार केशवराज पिँडालीद्वारा रचित बाँच्ने एउटा जिन्दगी (२०४३) उपन्यासमा अभिव्यक्त अधीनस्थ पिँढीका अनुभूतिको पहिचान र विश्लेषण गर्दै त्यस आधारमा कालखण्ड विशेषको नेपाली समाज र संस्कृतिको खोजी गरिएको छ । सम्बद्ध उपन्यासको विश्लेषणार्थ रेमन्ड विलियम्सद्वारा प्रतिपादित साहित्यको समाजशास्त्रीय सिद्धान्त विशेष अनुभूतिको संरचनाअन्तर्गतको ‘वैकल्पिक÷अधीनस्थ पिँढीका अनुभूति’ सम्बन्धी अवधारणालाई उपयोग गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत अध्ययनअनुसार यस उपन्यासले लगभग आधा शताब्दी लामो कालखण्डको नेपाली सामाजिक संरचनालाई कार्यपीठिकाका रूपमा रोजेको छ । राणा शासनको पछिल्लो सामन्ती राज्यव्यवस्थाद्वारा संरक्षित मूलधारको संस्कृतिमा वैकल्पिक पिँढीका रूपमा रहेको अधीनस्थ पिँढी वा समुदायले झेलिरहेको उत्पीडन तथा सहनको संस्कृतिमा तिनको अभ्यस्तता र प्रतिरोध चेतविहीन अवस्थाले नै प्रजातन्त्रोत्तर नेपाली समाजमा पनि निरन्तरता पाइरहेको स्थिति छ । साथै, पुरानो र नयाँ संस्कृतिको सङ्क्रमणकालीनताबाट गुज्रिरहेको नव पुस्तामा आश्रित अघिल्लो पुस्ताले संरक्षण र आदरका साटो तिरस्कार र अवहेलनाको प्राप्तिमा निराशा र दीनताका कुण्ठाजन्य अनुभूति सँगालिरहेको छ तथापि प्रतिकार चेतमा त्यस पिँढीमा उदीयमान अनुभूति निर्माण हुँदै गएको सुखद अवस्थाको चित्रण पनि उपन्यासले गरेको छ । त्यसै परिप्रेक्ष्यमा परिवर्तित समयसन्दर्भलाई चिनेर स्वावलम्बी, स्वतन्त्र र सुखद बुढ्यौली जीवनका बारेमा सोच्ने, निर्णय लिने र त्यसलाई कार्यान्वयन गर्ने तहसम्मका तिनमा उद्बुद्ध अनुभूतिका संरचनाका माध्यमले परिवर्तनउन्मुख सामाजिक संस्कृतिलाई पनि प्रस्तुत उपन्यासले सङ्केत गर्नसकेको निष्कर्ष लेखको अन्त्यमा प्रस्तुत छ ।</p> <p>{In the present article in the novel Living a Life (2043) by the novelist Keshav Raj Pindali<br />Identifying and analyzing the experiences of the subordinate generation expressed on that basis Special Nepali society and culture has been explored. Raymond for analysis of related novels The sociological theory of literature formulated by Williams under the framework of special experience The concept of 'alternative / subordinate generation experience' has been used. According to the study, this novel covers the Nepali social period of about half a century long The structure has been chosen as the working group. By the last feudal state system of Rana rule The subordinate generation or community as an alternative generation in the protected mainstream culture His habitual and resistance to the culture of persecution and tolerance is due to his unconscious state There is a situation of continuity in the post-democracy Nepali society as well. previous generation dependent on the new generation going through transitional period The attainment of contempt and contempt is accompanied by a frustrated feeling of despair and humility, however It is also a depiction of the pleasant state of mind that is emerging in that generation The novel has done. Recognizing the changed time context in the same perspective, self-reliant, independent and He has the ability to think about happy old life, to make decisions and to implement them Enlightened experience.}</p> विदुला Bidula घिमिरे Ghimire Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44588 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 रिमालको ‘माया’ एकाङ्कीमा वेदान्त दर्शन {Vedanta philosophy in Rimal's 'Maya' one-act play} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44591 <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा गोपालप्रसाद रिमालको माया एकाङ्कीमा वेदान्त दर्शनको प्रभाव कसरी र के कस्तो अवस्थामा परेको छ भन्ने प्रमुख जिज्ञासा उठाई त्यसलाई वेदान्त दर्शनका स्थापित मान्यताका आधारमा विवेचना गरिएको छ । रिमालका माया एकाङ्कीमा महिलाले महिलामाथि गर्ने अन्याय र अत्याचारको चित्रण गरिएको छ । एकात्मवादी वेदान्त दर्शनको प्रभावलाई केलाउनका लागि ब्रह्मलाई आधार मानेर विवेचना गरिएको छ । माया एकाङ्कीमा वेदान्त दर्शनको प्रभावको विश्लेषण गर्नु यस अनुसन्धानात्मक लेखको उद्देश्य रहेको छ । यस अध्ययनले साहित्यमा दर्शनको पहिचान गर्ने कार्यलाई सहयोग पुर्याउने छ । यस लेखमा रिमालको माया एकाङ्कीलाई प्राथमिक स्रोत सामग्री र नाटक र दर्शनसँग सम्बद्ध जानकारीमूलक लेख तथा समालोचनाहरूलाई द्वितीयक सामग्रीका रूपमा उपयोग गरिएको छ । तथ्यहरूको विश्लेषण गर्दा निगमनात्मक विधिलाई आत्मसात् गरिएको छ । वेदान्त दर्शनका सम्प्रदायहरूमध्ये अद्वैत वेदान्तका मूल मान्यताहरू ईश्वर, आत्मा, मन, मोक्ष, पापधर्म, भाइचारा आदिलाई आधार मानी मानवले मानवकै व्यवहार गरेका खण्डमा दुःख र समस्याबाट मुक्ति प्राप्त गर्न सकिन्छ भन्ने अद्वैत वेदान्तवादी निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> <p>{Vedanta philosophy on Gopal Prasad Rimal's Maya Ekanki and By raising the main question of what condition it is in, it has been established by Vedanta philosophy Consideration is given on the basis of beliefs. In Rimal's Maya Ekanki, women attack women Injustice and oppression are portrayed. The effect of monotheistic Vedanta philosophy it has been considered on the basis of Brahman for evaluation. Vedanta in love alone the purpose of this research article is to analyze the effect of philosophy. This study It will help in the work of identifying philosophy in literature. Rimal's love in this article the primary source material and informative articles related to drama and philosophy Criticisms have been used as secondary material. Analysis of facts The deductive method has been adopted. Advaita among the sects of Vedanta philosophy the basic tenets of Vedanta are based on God, soul, mind, salvation, sin, brotherhood, etc. That human beings can be saved from suffering and problems if they behave like human beings Advaita Vedantaist conclusions have been drawn.}</p> विनोद Binod कार्की Karki Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44591 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ‘छोरी ब्रह्माण्ड’का कथामा मानव–रोबोट सम्बन्ध {The human-robot relationship in the story of 'Daughter Universe'} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44604 <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा सरुभक्तको विज्ञान कथासङ्ग्रह छोरी ब्रह्माण्ड सङ्ग्रहका कथामा अभिव्यञ्जित मानव–रोबोट सम्बन्धको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यो लेख छोरी ब्रह्माण्ड सङ्ग्रहका कथामा मानव–रोबोट सम्बन्ध के कस्तो छ भन्ने प्राज्ञिक समस्याको समाधानमा केन्द्रित छ । यसका निम्ति पुस्तकालय कार्यबाट प्राथमिक र द्वितीयक सामग्री सङ्कलन गरिएको छ भने आइज्याक आसिमोभले रोबोट भिजन (सन् १९९०) मा प्रस्तुत गरेका रोबोटसम्बन्धी मान्यतालाई सैद्धान्तिक आधार बनाई (क) सङ्कटापन्न मानव श्रम, (ख) सन्तानेच्छा र रोबोट र (ग) मानवका जैविक सीमा र रोबोट गरी मुख्य तीन पक्षमा आधारित विश्लेषणको ढाँचालाई उपयोग गरिएको छ । यस सङ्ग्रहका कथामा अभिव्यञ्जित मानव–रोबोट सम्बन्धको विश्लेषणबाट भविष्यको समाजमा रोबोट प्रयोगका सकारात्मक सम्भावनासँगै तिनले निम्त्याउन सक्ने जोखिमतर्फ पनि ती कथाले सचेत गराएको निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ ।</p> <p>{In the present article, Sarubhakta's collection of science fiction is expressed in the story of Chhori Brahmand collection the human-robot relationship has been analyzed. This article is in the story of the daughter universe collection the human-robot relationship focuses on solving scientific problems. Its Primary and secondary materials have been collected from library work for Isaac Asimov's Theory of Robotism, presented in Robot Vision (1990) Based on (a) critical human labor, (b) childbearing and robots and (c) human An analysis framework based on three main aspects, including biological boundaries and robots Is From the analysis of the human-robot relationship expressed in the story of this collection to the future Along with the positive possibilities of using robots in the society, they also point out the risks that they can cause The story warns The cautionary conclusion is presented.}</p> विष्णुप्रसाद Bishnuprasad ज्ञवाली Gyawali Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44604 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ‘सुम्निमा’ उपन्यासको समाजशास्त्र {Sociology of the novel 'Sumnima'} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44605 <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक लेख उपन्यासकार विश्वेश्वरप्रसाद कोइरालाको सुम्निमा उपन्यासमाअभिव्यक्त समाजशास्त्रीय आयामको विश्लेषणमा केन्द्रित छ । यसअन्तर्गत सुम्निमा उपन्यासमाप्रयुक्त प्रजाति, क्षण र पर्यावरणको अभिव्यञ्जना के कसरी अभिव्यक्त छ भन्ने प्राज्ञिकसमस्याको निरूपण गर्ने शोध उद्देश्य सम्पन्न गर्न पश्चिमी विद्वान् तेनले अघि सारेका साहित्यकोसमाजशास्त्रीय सिद्धान्तको उपयोग गरिएको छ । विश्लेषणात्मक विधिको उपयोग गरी गुणात्मकअनुसन्धानका रूपमा तयार गरिएको यस लेखमा पुस्तकालयीय विधिअन्तर्गत सङ्कलन गरिएकाप्राथमिक र द्वितीयक सामग्रीको उपयोग गरिएको छ । विवेच्य उपन्यासको समाजशास्त्रीयअध्ययनबाट प्रजातिगत संरचनाअन्तर्गत आर्य र अनार्य समाज, संस्कृति र तिनका मूल्यमान्यताको सम र विषम संरचना व्यक्त गरिएको, भिन्न सांस्कृतिक चेतना र सामाजिक मूल्यबाटएकता तथा समन्वय उन्मुख विशिष्ट युगचेतनाको क्षणगत संरचना रहेको र प्रजातिगत पहिचानएवं प्राकृतिक, सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक एकता र अनेकतामूलक वातावरणको मिश्रणले मानवसभ्यतामा संयोजनयुक्त विशिष्ट पर्यावरणको चित्रण गरिएको यस आलेखको प्राप्ति प्रस्तुतभएको छ ।</p> <p>{The present research article focuses on the analysis of the sociological dimensions expressed in the novel by the novelist Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala. The sociological theory of literature put forward by the Western scholar Ten has been used to complete the research objective of determining the scientific problem of how the species, the moment and the environment used in the novel are expressed in Sumnima. This article, prepared as a qualitative research using analytical methods, uses primary and secondary materials collected under the library method. The sociological study of the critique novel expresses the even and heterogeneous structure of Aryan and non-Aryan societies, cultures and their values ​​within the racial structure. This article or section needs sources or references that appear in credible, third-party publications.}</p> हरिप्रसाद Hariprasad सिलवाल Silwal Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44605 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ‘माधुरी’ नाटककी दुलहीसाहेबका असामान्य चरित्रको विश्लेषण {Analysis of the unusual character of Dulhisaheb in the play 'Madhuri'} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44606 <p>माधुरी नाटककी दुलहीसाहेबका असामान्य चरित्रको विश्लेषण शीर्षकभित्र दुलहीसाहेबकाअसामान्य अवस्थाको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । ऊ आफ्नो सानो छोरो डिप्थेरिया रोगले औषधीगर्दागदै मृत्यु भएपश्चात् पुत्रवियोगको पीडाका कारण असामान्य अवस्थामा पुगेपछि घरकाप्रत्येक व्यक्तिलाई शङ्काले हेर्ने, कसैलाई पनि विश्वास नगरी चिन्ताग्रस्त हुँदा असामान्यअवस्थामा पुगेकी छ । मरेको छोरो फर्किएर आई कपडा लागाउँछ भन्ने, भान्सेले खाना पकाउँदाविष प्रयोग गरेको ठान्ने, नातामा दाजुबहिनी पर्ने माधुरी र प्राणराजालाई प्रेमीप्रेमिका ठानीअनेक शङ्का गर्ने दुलहीसाहेबको चरित्र पुत्रवियोग र सौतेनी ईष्र्याकाकारण असामान्य बनेकोउसको व्यवहारलाई मनोवैज्ञानिक आधारमा हेरिएको छ । यहाँ विषयपरिचय, अध्ययनकोविधि, नाट्यवस्तु, व्यवहारका आधारमा, प्रकृतिका आधारमा, समायोजनका आधारमा,अभिवृत्तिका आधारमा, संवेगात्मक परिपक्वताका आधारमा, मानसिक अन्तद्र्वन्द्वका आधारमा,मानसिक अस्वस्थताजस्ता विभिन्न उपशीर्षकका आधारमा दुलहीसाहेबका असामान्य चरित्रकोमनोवैज्ञानिक सिद्धान्तअनुसार विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । दुलहीसाहेबको चरित्रमा के कस्तो समस्यारहेको छ? भन्ने प्राज्ञिक समस्याको समाधान खोज्ने कार्य गरी दुलहीसाहेबको चरित्र असामान्यभएको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> <p>{Analysis of Dulhaisaheb's Unusual Character in Madhuri Natak After her young son died of diphtheria while undergoing treatment, she became abnormal due to the pain of miscarriage.The behavior of the bride, who thinks that the dead son will come back and put on clothes, that the cook has used poison in cooking, that Madhuri, who is related to her brother, and Pranaraja, who have many suspicions, are abnormal due to miscarriage and stepmother jealousy, has been looked at on psychological basis. Here the subject matter, the method of study, the drama, the behavior, the nature, the adjustment, the aptitude, the emotional maturity, On the basis of mental infighting, various sub-headings such as mental illness, the unusual character of the bride has been analyzed according to the psychological theory. What is the problem with Dulahisaheb's character? It has been concluded that the character of Dulahisaheb is unusual by searching for a solution to the academic problem.}</p> ठाकुरप्रसाद Thakurprasad पोख्रेल Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44606 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 खगेन्द्र सङ्ग्रौलाका कथामा दलित प्रतिरोधी चेतना {Dalit resistance consciousness in the story of Khagendra Sangraula} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44607 <p>खगेन्द्र सङ्ग्रौला सीमान्तकृत, निम्नवर्ग तथा दलितका विषयमा कलम चलाउने कथाकारहुन् । उनका दलित विषयक पाँचवटा कथालाई आधार बनाई तिनमा रहेको प्रतिरोधी चेतनाकोअध्ययनमा प्रस्तुत लेख केन्द्रित छ । वर्णव्यवस्था र जातव्यवस्थाका कारण कथित माथिल्लाजातिकाले दलितहरूमाथि गर्ने भेदभाव, छुवाछुत, शोषण, अन्याय र अत्याचारबाट मुक्तिका निम्तितिनले विरोध, सङ्घर्ष वा विद्रोह गर्दै आएका छन् । प्रस्तुत लेखमा सङ्ग्रौलाका कथाहरूमादलितहरूमाथि हुने गरेका आर्थिक, शैक्षिक तथा यौन उत्पीडन तथा शोषणका विरुद्ध प्रतिरोधीचेतना प्रायः कथामा सशक्त रूपमा आएको र केही कथामा नारी चरित्र कमजोर देखिए तापनिदलनमा परेका पात्रहरूको प्रतिरोधी चरित्रको उद्घाटन गरिएको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> <p>{Khagendra Sangraula is a storyteller who writes about marginalized, lower class and dalits. This article focuses on the study of resistance consciousness based on his five stories about dalits. Due to the caste system and caste system, the so-called upper castes have been protesting, struggling or rebelling for the liberation from discrimination, untouchability, exploitation, injustice and oppression of the Dalits. In the present article, Sangraula's stories conclude that the resistance against economic, educational and sexual harassment and exploitation of Dalits has been strong in most of the stories and in some of the stories, the female characters have been shown to be weak but the resistant character of the characters has been inaugurated.}</p> उषा Usha श्रेष्ठ Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/hssj/article/view/44607 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000