Interdisciplinary Journal of Innovation in Nepalese Academia <p>The Interdisciplinary Journal of Innovation in Nepalese Academia is published by Kathmandu Model College (KMC), Bagbazar, Kathmandu, Nepal. It provides a forum for the publication of scholarly articles in the fields of management, computer application, and humanities &amp; social sciences.</p> Kathmandu Model College en-US Interdisciplinary Journal of Innovation in Nepalese Academia 2976-1204 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This license allows reusers to copy and distribute the material in any medium or format in unadapted form only, for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator. </span></p> Transnational Ethos in Adichie’s Americanah <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">This paper analyses Nigerian novelist Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s <em>Americanah</em> as a transnational fiction that shows how transnational identity is formulated in a liminal space. The issues like trans-nationality, globalization, and home are associated with the issue of identity. To carry out the analysis, we use theoretical insights from Transnational Studies which revolves around the life of people living in a globalized world: we are living in the world where there are no border restrictions and due to technological advancement, people can be present virtually in different places at the same time. This paper analyzes how Adichie’s <em>Americanah</em> redefines the notion of immigrant’s identity and explores transnational ethos in relation to the concepts of nationality, globalization, home, and culture through the portrayal of two Nigerian lovers Ifemelu and Obinze. Adichie portrays her Nigerian characters like Ifemelu in transnational context not only to critique Western multicultural ethos—policy to encourage transnational immigrants to assimilate to mainstream culture of the hostland—but also to valorize the role of transnational subjects like Ifemelu for the development of their homeland even in the age of ‘globalization’.</span></p> Badri Prasad Acharya Prabal Koirala Copyright (c) 2022 Kathmandu Model College 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 1 1 67 78 10.3126/idjina.v1i1.51969 Subversive Humanism in Manto’s Partition Fiction <p>Ironizing the violence to convey the political message about minority, Saadat Hasan Monto uses humanistic radical irony as a vehicle for political commentary by demystifying the politics of the representation of violence in official texts of both modern India and Pakistan. Partition affected every sector of human affairs badly. So, partition stories depict the irreplaceable loss displacement, dispossession, abduction, rape, painful death and other forms of violence that common people suffered from all three communities: Hindu, Sikh and Muslim. Manto counts the prime position who dealt with reality of the existing violence by showing it at various levels as familial, social, economic, political, religious others. In that course Manto also subverts the limited and biased notion of partition, which took partition of India as only the partition of territory and people. In the light of Hutcheon’s notion of ‘radical use of irony’, I argue that Manto’s use of irony in “Cold Meat” and “Open it” shows the utter cruelty of the people in power and authority at the time of partition violence and humanity shown by the marginalized section of society. His writing encapsulates his empathy for the victims and his belief in the essential goodness of humanity. The humanity that shines through in his writings about the down-trodden people living in the fringes of society, and the victims of partition violence of 1947 are an integral part of his stories.</p> Bimal Gautam Copyright (c) 2022 Kathmandu Model College 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 1 1 79 86 10.3126/idjina.v1i1.51970 Mythical Association of Male Body in Baahubali Series <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">This study entitled as “Mythical Association of Male Body in </span><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">Baahubali Series” explores how S.S. Rajamauli destabilizes the cinematic convention of the constructed female body in consideration of the male gaze in the Bollywood film industry. It investigates the entertainment industry’s presentation of the male body for both the male and female gaze in <em>Baahubali Series</em>. Moreover, the manuscript highlights the glorification of the male body through rigorous training and constant maneuver in resonance with the Eastern mythologies and Hindu scriptures. The study discovers the reworking of myth and archetype in film and an ideal male body prepared in gym centers and training institutions. Cinematic representations of Bhima, Krishna, Lord Vishnu and Arjuna mythologize male bodies. The research paper examines the texts from the perspectives of Body Studies and the body myth from the Eastern epic traditions, including Mahabharata, Ramayana and Hindu hymns. Similarly, the body of Baahubali rehearses Bhima and Krishna, the body of Bhalla Deva with Duryodhana and the body of Bajjala Deva with Dhritarastra. The Hollywood film industry’s projection of the body with resonance of myth and archetype subverts the traditional notion of body as impure trivial thing. Since the representation of the body in Bollywood movies has barely been explored, this study can be significant source for the researchers of myth, movie and masculinity in the future.</span></p> Kalpana Thapa Copyright (c) 2022 Kathmandu Model College 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 1 1 87 95 10.3126/idjina.v1i1.51971 Angst of Displacement in V.S. Naipaul’s Magic Seeds <p>This paper aims to explore how Naipaul articulates dislocated and disjointed sensibility of the individuals drifting in diasporic location. Presenting precarious situatedness between ancestral and adopted homeland, Willy, the anti-hero of <em>Magic Seeds</em>, represents the problems of post-coloniality such as difficulties in discovering roots, detecting one’s own history and finding an authentic identity. By taking theoretical insights on diaspora identity and hegemonic relationships in identity formation, this paper reveals that Naipaul snubs diasporic space regarding it to be a threshold to estrangement and alienation.</p> Laxman Bhatta Copyright (c) 2022 Kathmandu Model College 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 1 1 96 103 10.3126/idjina.v1i1.51972 Indeterminacy of Meaning in William Blake’s “The Sick Rose” <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">This study attempts to make deconstructive reading of William Blake’s poem “<em>The Sick Rose</em>”. It also shows how the literary text can be interpreted from multiple perspectives deriving infinite meanings from the same text. The major motive of this research is to demonstrate potentiality of every text to be creatively misread generating various possible meanings. The paper also projects the fact that deconstruction is not destruction, rather it is reconstruction. It displays how the use of language in the text creates contradiction, un-decidability and multiplicity opening up possibility for new meanings. To justify the argument, deconstructive ideas of the philosophers Jacques Derrida and Roland Barthes have been used. The four steps of deconstructive reading- a. Reading the Text b. Finding the Binaries c. Hierarchizing the Binaries and d. Creative Misreading-have been followed for the study of the poem “<em>The Sick Rose</em>”. This research can be a contributing source for promotion of deconstructive reading of anything prevailing in the society and thereby decentering the center and re-centering the margin opening up possibilities for new perspectives, meanings and truths.</span></p> Nabaraj Dhungel Copyright (c) 2022 Kathmandu Model College 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 1 1 104 111 10.3126/idjina.v1i1.51973 Order of Mind and Society: Reading The Winter’s Tale vis-à-vis Selected Teachings of Buddha <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">This paper reads <em>The Winter’s Tale</em> by William Shakespeare and Buddha’s teaching on mindfulness collected mainly in <em>The Middle Length Discourse of Buddha</em> and <em>The Dhammapada</em> together. Unable is the human mind to predict the kind of thoughts it might experience next, same is the case with life that human beings live in this universe. Leontes in the play finds it hard not to believe on his thoughts. Since he fails to watch his own thoughts, he loses several precious belongings in his life. Buddha in his teachings makes us cautious about the trick our own thoughts can play upon the beholders. Be aware of own thoughts is the call. Two different forms of expression produced over two different times and places, the play and the teachings as tales of human mind may help readers to articulate one with the help of other. The paper concludes that together these texts reveal to the readers that society is run as much as by people in power politically and militarily as it is by the people who are mindful and act responsibility. Without mindful individuals, powerful rulers alone fail to provide order to their society and life.</span></p> Shiva Rijal Copyright (c) 2022 Kathmandu Model College 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 1 1 112 120 10.3126/idjina.v1i1.51974 Destination Management for Sustainable Tourism: A Case Study of Bungamati and Khokana <p>Development is a peaceful transformation of all round betterment. Tourism is one of the best means to attain development at the local level. To be sustainable, it must be accepted by the local people. The local people need to be aware of tourism, involve in tourism activities, realize its benefit, and impacts to be sustainable. Nepal, as a destination, includes many destinations within it such as Everest region, Annapurna region, Pokhara, Chitwan, and so on. Kathmandu Valley as a destination contains seven World Heritage Sites, which is a world record by itself. Among several local heritage sites, culturally rich Newar villages of Bungamati and Khokana have all the basic elements to be a tourism destination. The comparative analysis of these two destinations analyze the local perception about tourism, sustainable tourism, impacts and benefits of tourism and identifies the variables and factors needed to be studied to be a sustainable tourism destination.</p> Ananda Ghimire Deep Kumar Baral Copyright (c) 2022 Kathmandu Model College 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 1 1 1 15 10.3126/idjina.v1i1.51961 Enhancement of WRF Model Using CUDA <p>The main aim of this paper is to implement and run WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model on Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) with the help of NVidia’s CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) in a normal machine. Without GPU, the model needs high-end systems to be executed smoothly. For this, CUDA code is executed for a particular microphysics module to create an object file which is then added to the WRF model. Later the object file is executed on the GPU with the help of CUDA.</p> Ashish Maharjan Ashish Shakya Copyright (c) 2022 Kathmandu Model College 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 1 1 16 22 10.3126/idjina.v1i1.51963 Causes and Consequences of In-Migration: A Study of Ratnanagar Municipality, Chitwan <p>The study focuses on the causes and consequences of in-migration in the context of Ratnanagar Municipality Chitwan. Since fifty years people from hill side have migrated to Ratnanagar municipality. This study basically focuses on why the people from hill and India have migrated to Ratnanagar. The study follows both qualitative and quantitative research designs and asks the questions about the causes to settle down in Ratnanagar that are analyzed on the basis of priorities. Conclusion has been drawn on the basis of analysis and show why they migrated to Ratnanagar and which of the priority plays an important role for those who have migrated from their homelands to the municipality. Searching for jobs and facilities are the major causes to come down in the area. To find out the causes and consequences, questions were asked to fifty individual respondents and analyzed their priorities to migrate in the study area.</p> Chandra Prasad Dhakal Copyright (c) 2021 Kathmandu Model College 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 1 1 23 32 10.3126/idjina.v1i1.51965 Nexus between Global and Local in Chitwan Magars’ Performance Culture <p>The study analyzes the performance culture of the Magar living in Chitwan. Their culture is growing as hybrid form with mixing of the entities of global and local culture. Main concern of this study is related to the issue why and how performance culture of Chitwan’s Magar in-between of local and global culture. Qualitative research design was used to analyze the issue raises in the paper. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used and conclusion has based on the interpretation and analysis of the collected data. It is found that due to influence technology, migration , influences of mass commutation and social media, demand of tourism play role to adopt global culture and issue of self-recognition, self-dignity and indigenous feeling of pride force to continue and preserve their native cultural value and practice.</p> Rishiram Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Kathmandu Model College 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 1 1 33 41 10.3126/idjina.v1i1.51966 The L2 Motivational Self System among Nepalese College Level Learners of English <p>The main purpose of the study is to validate Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self System (2005; 2009) among Nepalese college level learners in a rural district of Nepal named Solukhumbu. In particular, the study aims to find out which among the three dimensions (Ideal L2 self; the- Ought to L2 self; L2 learning experience) of Dörnyei’s L2 motivational self-system impact the learners motivation in learning second language. The study employed 50 survey questions along with six background questions to the data. Correlation analysis of the data provides considerable empirical support for the validity of the L2 motivational self- system and its relevance in Nepalese context, with Ideal L2 self as the strongest predictor among the three dimensions of Dörnyei’s L2 motivational self-system along with some relation to L2 learning experience while comparing Ought to L2 self. However, Instrumentality prevention came to be the strongest contributor to the criterion measure, whereas instrumentality promotion contributes more to the ideal L2 self, highlighting the need to understand the association of English targeting future goals to become successful and to find better job.</p> Santosh Timilsina Copyright (c) 2022 Kathmandu Model College 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 1 1 42 49 10.3126/idjina.v1i1.51967 Job Satisfaction and Change Readiness: A Study of Global IME Bank <p>Any organization’s innovation is the key factor for gaining sustained competitive advantage. In achieving the innovation, change is an important factor and to bring about the change, employees’ change readiness is indispensable. So, creating employees’ change readiness largely avoids the resistance to change. This study mainly attempts to explore the positions of employees’ job satisfaction and to analyze the impact of job satisfaction on change readiness. To explore the position, cross sectional research under descriptive research design and casual research design have been adopted respectively. Based on the primary data collected from branch managers of Global IME Bank, the researcher explored the impact of job satisfaction on change readiness. Under the descriptive statistics, minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation have been used to describe the position of managers’ job satisfaction. Under the casual analysis, Karl Pearson’s correlation and regression analysis have been adopted to analyze the impact of job satisfaction on change readiness and test first hypothesis. Under the inferential statistics, independent sample t-test and analysis of variance have been adopted to test the second hypothesis. Cronbach’s Alpha has been calculated to test the reliability of data. The position of managers’ job satisfaction was found to be above to the average in investigated banks. It was also identified significant positive relationship between job satisfaction and change readiness and no significant difference in change readiness in different groups of gender, age, level of education and length of employment. This study proposes that managers should increase employees’ job satisfaction level to create employees’ change readiness so as to reduce the change resistance significantly and introduce the change successfully.</p> Surya Balami Copyright (c) 2022 Kathmandu Model College 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 1 1 50 64 10.3126/idjina.v1i1.51968