INTELLIGENCE Journal of Multidisciplinary Research 2024-05-08T12:47:42+00:00 Asst. Prof. Jas Bahadur Gurung Open Journal Systems <p><em>INTELLIGENCE Journal of Multidisciplinary Research</em> is published by the Research Management Cell, Pokhara Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University Affiliate, Pokhara, Nepal. The aim of IJMR is to publish up-to-date, high-quality, original research papers alongside relevant and insightful reviews from various areas of social sciences.</p> List of Reviewer 2024-05-07T03:22:47+00:00 Jas Bahadur Gurung 2024-04-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Predictive Modelling for Per Capita GDP of Nepal 2024-05-06T02:05:02+00:00 Dipendra Bahadur Chand <p>A nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is an important index that reflects the health and performance of an economy and its aggregate income. In this paper, annual data of Nepal's GDP for the period 1960 – 2022 is used to forecast the GDP of Nepal through Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) modelling techniques. We seek to make accurate long-term predictions for the period 2023 – 2037 to gain insights into the future expected trajectory of economic growth in Nepal. In the present empirical study, stationarity at the second-order differencing with the ARIMA (2, 2, 1) model is identified to predict the GDP of Nepal for the next 15 years. The finding shows that the forecast values of Nepal’s GDP will be $1384.426 per capita in 2023 and $2180.822 per capita in 2037. Our study provides skeletal guidance for government bodies and investors who rely on planning and strategizing resources on accurate predictions of GDP per capita. By accurately predicting GDP per capita, administrators in investment and policy making can make informed economic decisions that may steer economic growth, stability, and development in an optimum direction. </p> 2024-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Research Management Cell (RMC) Liquidity Crunches in the Banking Industry of Nepal 2024-05-05T01:53:21+00:00 Bharat Ram Dhungana <p>Liquidity crunches in the Nepalese banking sector have been a critical issue for the last few years. This research aims to examine the causes, consequences, and improvement of liquidity crunches in the context of the Nepalese banking industry. This study is based on primary sources with explanatory and descriptive research design. The study population is all the bankers and experts involved in the banking sector - commercial banks, development banks, and regulatory authorities of Pokhara Metropolitan City, Kaski, Nepal. The five-point Likert scale questionnaires were developed to collect the data from the 213 banking professionals based on the non-probability sampling method. This study found a significant impact of government capital expenditure, bank lending policy, and monetary policy on liquidity crunches in the banking industry. The liquidity crunch hampers the growth of business and industry, and discourages entrepreneurs because they are not getting loanable funds as and when required. It creates instability in the financial system, deteriorates the investment environment, generates high inflation and unemployment rates , and affects economic growth rate in the country. The government should increase capital expenditure capacity. Bank lending policy should be directed towards a productive investment. Appropriate monetary policy should be designed to address the liquidity crunch problem in the banking sector. For this, the government and regulatory authority may promote an inclusive and sound financial system in the nation.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 RMC Pokhara Multiple Campus An Insight on the Geometry of the Golden Ratio 2024-05-05T02:02:55+00:00 Iswar Mani Adhikari <p>Mathematics has a strong logical interconnection with structural design and architecture. Ratios are good examples of their interconnectivity. Nature is attractive due to the proper ratios of various components in them and between others. In nature, trees, forests, leaves, flowers, fruits, Himalayas, hills, valleys, springs, rivers, lakes, etc. show a rhythmic balance and seem harmonic and aesthetically pleasing. The golden ratio is considered the most pleasing to human visual sensation not limited only to aesthetic beauty but also found prominently in the natural world and is a fascinating topic. It can be constructed in different ways depending on the geometrical structures preferred. In this paper, our focus is on the geometry of the golden ratio.</p> 2024-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 RMC Pokhara Multiple Campus Assessing the Engagement of Textile Design Graduates in Textile Entrepreneurship 2024-05-05T03:45:58+00:00 Adebayo Abiodun Adeloye Olugbenga Benjamin Emidun Oluwatoyin Funke Akinnibosun <p>This research investigated the trend of textile design graduates venturing into entrepreneurship, exploring the motivating factors and strategies employed by these entrepreneurs. The study adopts survey research design using a questionnaire as the data gathering tool. The population of the study are textile graduates in selected schools in Southwest Nigeria comprising of federal universities, state universities and polytechnics. One hundred and four (104) graduates were sampled using snowball sampling techniques. The data collected were analyzed quantitatively through descriptive analysis using frequency, percentage and mean score. The result of the research reveals that they are increasingly involved in textile entrepreneurship. It was discovered that fashion design is the most subscribed entrepreneurial area by textile design graduates closely followed by Adire production. It was also revealed that textile design graduates engage in entrepreneurial areas outside the textile design field such as banking, real estate and web development among others. It is recommended that tertiary institutions should encourage students to participate in entrepreneurial competitions, both within and outside the institution to enlighten them more about textile entrepreneurship. It is also recommended that tertiary institution should update their curricula to ensure that they have adequate theoretical and practical content to produce graduates well-pre pared for the competitive textile market.</p> 2024-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 RMC Pokhara Multiple Campus Empowerment of Women through Entrepreneurship in Gorkha District, Nepal 2024-05-06T01:21:42+00:00 Samjhana Koirala Shrijan Gyanwali Deepesh Ranabhat <p>Promoting women’s empowerment through entrepreneurship and income-generating activities is a crucial factor in advancing the development of both families and society. This study investigates the impact of women's entrepreneurship on their empowerment, focusing on decision-making roles, reduced dependency, increased income levels, shifts in social perception, and employment generation in Gorkah District, Nepal. A sample of 150 women entrepreneurs was purposively selected for primary data collection, employing research-administered questionnaires. In this study, partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to assess relationships between independent and dependent variables. The findings reveal that decision-making role, employment generation, and change in income levels significantly and positively influence women's empowerment, indicating that improvements in these areas are associated with increased women's empowerment. This research provides valuable insights for policymakers and practitioners and supports women’s entrepreneurship to promote women empowerment.</p> 2024-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Board Diversity and Firm Value: Evidence From Nepalese Financial Institutions 2024-05-06T01:37:53+00:00 Rajendra Thapa <p>The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence on the relationship of board diversity of corporate board with the value of financial institutions in Nepal. The sample comprises 38 financial institutions listed in NEPSE with 380 firm-years observation for the period 2011/12 to 2020/21. Balance panel datasets were employed to investigate using multiple regression models to examine the relationship between board diversity (female and minority directors) and firm value measured by Tobin's Q and MBR. The result shows a significant positive relationship between firm value and the presence of both female and minority directors. Moreover, the evidence supports that the presence of female directors in the boardroom effect more in the firm market value than as compare to the minority directors. Furthermore, the study concludes that control variables like board size, presence of independent director and firm size have positive significant effect on firm value, but leverage has significant but negative relation with the firm market value of financial intuitions in Nepal. The study result has the practical implication for government, policy makers and regulating authorities in formation of diverse board that can increase the firm value and performance. It also provides additional insight to the corporate governance literature and helps to fill the gap on board diversity and firm value in Nepalese financial institutions. </p> 2024-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 RMC Pokhara Multiple Campus Remittance Dynamics: Unraveling Socio-Economic Impact on Households in Pokhara 2024-05-06T02:11:32+00:00 Mohan Bhandari <p>This research aims to evaluate the socio-economic implications of remittances on households in Pokhara Valley, Nepal by employing a positivist approach, empirical observation, quantitative analysis, and statistical methods through comparative research design and utilizes statistical tools such as chi-square tests and independent samples t-tests. Quantitative data are collected through structured questionnaires, enabling numerical insights into spending patterns, human capital investments, and agricultural involvement for hypothesis testing. From the findings of this study households receiving remittances demonstrate higher investments in health and education, positively impacting their socio-economic status. However, migration for remittances has led to a decreased labour supply, negatively affecting agricultural involvement. The research concludes by emphasizing the need for further comprehensive research to elucidate the broader socio-economic consequences of remittances on households at the national level. The study holds implications for policymakers, urging measures to encourage remittance investments in domestic development. It recommends addressing import trends and balancing payment deficits by leveraging remittance funds. Additionally, the research suggests for initiatives supporting agricultural production, small industries, and market development to utilize remittance funds for broader economic growth.</p> 2024-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Adaptation of Migrated Upper Mustangi People in Pokhara, Nepal 2024-05-06T02:28:30+00:00 Bhim Prasad Neupane <p>The adaptation process of migrant people from the Upper Mustang to Pokhara found a social issue. The trend of permanent and seasonal shifting was prominently observed in this study. The individual and community-level adaptation process of the in-migrants in Pokhara, and multi-ethnic societal adjustment were considerable. This research concentrated on specific ethnics of the Himalaya region of Mustang district who migrated to Pokhara and adapted in hilly ecology. The study was trying to seek the pattern of migration from the Upper Mustang their circumstance and their adaptation in Pokhara. The study area of this research was covered the migrant population in Pokhara from Lomanthang and Lo Ghekar Damodar Kunda Rural Municipalities of Upper Mustang. This study was based on a qualitative research design with interpretative research paradigm. Six informants residing in Pokhara seasonally or permanently both rural municipalities were selected representatively. For the qualitative information in-depth interview was taken with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. Due to the climatic vulnerability, people from Upper Mustang were shifting in Pokhara permanently or seasonally for survival. The extreme cold, occasional summer rainfall, soil erosion and glacier outburst are major threats of the life security of migrants. Whereas, the common destination of migrants found Pokhara becaue favorable climate, life survival opportunities and historical legacy of socio-economic connection.</p> 2024-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 RMC Pokhara Multiple Campus Green Banking Initiatives: Policy and Practices in Commercial Banks of Nepal 2024-05-06T02:49:00+00:00 Ghanashyam Tiwari <p>Environmental and social (E&amp;S) risk management has grown in key aspects of sustainability in banks and other financial institutions these days. A socially inclusive, climate-friendly and green banking system is only possible with the effective management of E&amp;S risk in their business transactions. This study assesses the present implementation status of sustainability within commercial banks in Nepal, by examining their adherence to the environment and social risk (ESRM) guidelines issued by Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB). Using a descriptive research design, the study utilizes ESRM reports published by NRB in 2078/79 and 2079/80. The study examines the present state of ESRM guideline implementation across three key aspects of policy formation, training and development activities for bank employees, and incorporation of environmental and social risks within the core strategies of commercial banks. The result found a satisfactory level of implementation of ESRM guidelines. The policy formulation and governance indicators are almost realized and other indicators have satisfactory and progressive levels of operation in the banks. Effective implementation of sustainable guidelines and initiatives will be accomplished innovative financial instruments that incentivize green investments and support climate-resilient practices can further expedite the transition to a sustainable banking landscape. Overall, this study offers valuable insights into the current state of ESRM in Nepal's commercial banks, shedding light on the progress that can pave the way for a more sustainable and green financial system in Nepal. </p> 2024-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Research Management Cell (RMC) Bank Specific Factors, Macroeconomic Variables and Market value of Nepalese Commercial Banks 2024-05-06T03:02:25+00:00 Ramesh Paudel <p>The present research has been carried out to identify the relationship and impact of bank specific factors, macroeconomic variables on the market value of Nepalese commercial banks. This research is based on descriptive cum causal research design with quantitative data from secondary sources. The study adopts panel regression to capture both cross sectional and longitudinal data characteristics and employs ordinary least square model with 120 observations of 20 commercial banks as entire population from the period of 2016/17 to 2021/22. The study reveals that banks with higher loan growth and size tend to maintain efficient market value, yet careful lending areas selection are crucial to mitigate no performing loan risk, which can decrease profitability and increase market risk. Higher non-interest income to non-interest expenses, operating revenue to operating expenses are major dimension to increase the market value. Book value per share and dividend payout ratio reflecting investor confidence in the bank’s net worth and consistence return. The banks might adopt the strategy of diversifying lending portfolio, introduce non-interest income generation program along with increases the size and operation of the activities. The bank could follow the policy of increasing cash and stock dividend through higher profit. The study focuses on selected bank specific and macroeconomic factors without considering fixed/random and structural model. Future studies aim to employ in identifying causal link between bank factors, service quality and market value with different panel data model.</p> 2024-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Research Management Cell (RMC) Male Involvement in Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights 2024-05-06T03:12:47+00:00 Parshuram Lamsal Vijay Aryal Anup Adhikari Youraj Roka <p>Sexual and reproductive health and rights focus on advocating, supporting, and participating in various aspects of male involvement in sexual and reproductive health and rights. Family planning, safe abortion, HIV and RTIS/STI prevention and treatment, and maternal health care pursue male involvement. The article employs a review of relevant contemporary literature from various resources. Men have three specific sexual roles as clients, supportive partners, and agents of change to their spouses as well as societies. More specifically, men's involvement accelerates the effectiveness of family planning programmes, promotes mitigating gender-based violence, promotes women empowerment, enhances adolescent reproductive health, maternity care, and knowledge and behavior change on HIV/AIDS, STIs, and RTIs. However, there are more significant challenges to male involvement in sexual and reproductive health and rights. Despite the need for men’s involvement in SRHR, there are barriers in various forms, such as social stigma, cultural determinants, and financial restrictions. Government policies can address the barriers to providing equitable services to needy people. </p> 2024-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Research Management Cell (RMC) Volume 3(1) 2024-05-07T01:49:50+00:00 Jas Bahadur Gurung 2024-04-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024