International Journal of Silkroad Institute of Research and Training https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt <p>International Journal of Silkroad Institute of Research and Training is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal that focuses on the diverse field. It follows an open access policy and is published twice a year.</p> en-US <p><strong>CC BY-SA:</strong> This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, so long as attribution is given to the creator. The license allows for commercial use. If you remix, adapt, or build upon the material, you must license the modified material under identical terms.</p> ijsirt@gmail.com (Bijay Lal Pradhan, Ph.D.) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 17 Jan 2024 13:25:37 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Message from Editor-in-Chief International Journal of Silkroad Institute of Research and Training (IJSIRT) https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61950 <p>As we embark on the journey into the second volume of the International Journal of Silkroad Institute of Research and Training (IJSIRT), it is with great enthusiasm and anticipation that we extend our warmest greetings to all members of the scholarly community. Our collective commitment to advancing the frontiers of knowledge, fostering innovation, and promoting high-quality research has brought us to this significant milestone.<br>In the world of academics, researchers are always exploring new ideas and trying to understand things better. It's like a never-ending adventure into the unknown, where researchers are like explorers discovering new things and adding in the world of knowledge. IJSIRT is a platform for scholars on this journey, giving them a place to share their groundbreaking discoveries and learn from each other. </p> Bijay Lal Pradhan Copyright (c) 2023 Bijay Lal Pradhan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61950 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge Regarding Lung Cancer among Adults at Selected Community of Ratnanagar, Chitwan https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61770 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cell in one or both lungs Lung cancer is the 2nd most common cancer worldwide. It is the most common cancer in men and the 2nd most common cancer in women. <br /><strong>Methods</strong>: A descriptive cross-sectional study on “Knowledge regarding Lung Cancer among Adults at Selected Community of Ratnanagar, Chitwan” was carried out to find the level of knowledge regarding lung cancer. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample and the sample size was 101. Data was collected by using semi-structured interview guide. The collected data was entered in SPSS version 22 and analysis was done using descriptive statistics.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: Findings of the study reveal that among 101 respondents, 58.4% were in the age group of 19-39. Similarly, majority (82.2%) were female. Most of the respondents (92.1%) were Hinduism. Likewise, 64.4% were Janajati. And more than half of the respondents (58.4%) were literate. Majority (74.3%) of the respondents were non-smokers. The study findings summarized the level of knowledge into three categories where nearly half (47.5%) of the respondents had moderate knowledge of lung cancer. Whereas 29.7% had good knowledge and 22.8% had poor knowledge about lung cancer. <br /><strong>Conclusions</strong>: This study concludes that, though majority of the respondents had moderate and good level of knowledge regarding lung cancer but there is still knowledge gap in some risk factors such as exposure to asbestos and radon gas. So, awareness programmes on lung cancer should be planned and implemented from concerned authority in community setting so that incidence of lung cancers can be reduced to some extent.</p> Sushila Koirala, Ranjana Subedi, Hari Prasad Upadhyay Copyright (c) 2023 Sushila Koirala, Ranjana Subedi, Hari Prasad Upadhyay https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61770 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and Associated Factors of Workplace Violence among Nurses Working in Selected Hospital of Chitwan District https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61769 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Workplace violence represents an escalating global challenge that is not only a public health concern but also a significant social issue. The objective of this study is to find the prevalence and associated factors of workplace violence among Nurses of selected hospital. <br /><strong>Methods</strong>: A hospital based cross- sectional study was carried out among nurses working various hospital of Bharatpur, Chitwan between November 2022 to March 2023. A self-structured questionnaire was used for data collection using Google form. Descriptive and analytical study were used to analyze data. Frequency and percentage were used for categorical data while mean and standard deviation were used for continuous variables. Chi-square test were used association between workplace violence with sociodemographic. p-value &lt;00.05 was considered as statistically significant. <br /><strong>Results</strong>: Prevalence of work place violence is 43.6% (with 95% CI as 36.7% to 50.40%). Majority of the nurses were victim from verbal abuse (71.91%) followed by physical violence (21.34%) and least (6.75) were suffered from sexual violence. Also, 53.93% violence were occurred inside the health institution Age (p-value=0.017), ethnicity (p-value=0.042), marital status (p-value=0.0209) and position in the hospital (p-value=0.033) was found to be statistically significant with the prevalence of violence. <br /><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The existence of workplace violence within the healthcare institutions in this region is a pressing issue and a social challenge. Verbal abuse is more prevalent than physical aggression and sexual harassment in the majority of hospitals.</p> Prativa Sedain, Keshab Raj Sapkota, Hari Prasad Upadhyay Copyright (c) 2023 Prativa Sedain, Keshab Raj Sapkota, Hari Prasad Upadhyay https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61769 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation among Nurses in Selected Hospitals of Bharatpur, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61660 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cardiac arrest is a significant public health problem projected to account for 15–20% of all deaths. It is also recorded by WHO to be an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a lifesaving medical procedure for victims of sudden cardiac arrest. The objective of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation among nurses in selected hospitals of Bharatpur, Nepal.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional analytical study design was employed. A convenience sampling method was used to select the study areas as well as for data collection in selected hospitals of Bharatpur. A self-administered questionnaire and Likert scale was used to obtain data. Data obtained were summarized as frequencies, percentages, mean, standard deviation and associations were then tested using Likelihood, Fisher exact and Pearson’s chi-square test, at 5% Significance. <br /><strong>Results</strong>: Total 216 nurses participated in the study, the result of the study indicated that majority of nurses in selected hospitals had poor knowledge (52.3%), with majority of positive attitude 52.3%. Out of 216 subjects, 27.8% had taken part in in-service education/ training while only 98(45.4%) nurses had performed CPR and has good practice 64.3%. <br /><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The study result shows that the nurses still had inadequate level of knowledge, attitude and practice. In these facilities need further training and periodic workshop on cardiopulmonary resuscitation to help nurses improve upon quality of care given to cardiac arrest patients.</p> Babita Ghimire, Sujana Aryal, Hari Prasad Upadhyay Copyright (c) 2023 Babita Ghimire, Sujana Aryal, Hari Prasad Upadhyay https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61660 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Trend Analysis of Inflation and its Relationship with Economic Growth of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61664 <p><strong>Background</strong>: The price level and its growth, inflation, is an important economic indicator. Inflation can be defined as the persistent rise in the general price level across the economy over time. Inflation is an increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods resulting in a substantial and continuing rise in the general price level. Inflation is everywhere and is interestingly touchy issue in macroeconomics.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: This research is cross-sectional and analytical and is completely based on secondary data to examine the trend and impact of inflation on economic growth rate of Nepal. To find the relationship between inflation, GDP, growth rate, money supply, CPI correlation matrix and multiple regression model were used.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: Globally the inflation rate of emerging and developing economies is projected to decline by 0.2 percentage points to 4.9 percent in 2021 from 5.1 percent in 2020. In 2021, among the South Asian countries Pakistan is expected to have the highest inflation and Maldives the lowest. The average inflation rate of Nepal during 2015 to 2020 was 6.1 percent. There is fluctuation in annual inflation rate. The trend of GDP and CPI index of Nepal is in increasing order. There is negative correlation between GDP and Inflation while positive correlation of GDP with growth rate, CPI, Money supply.<br /><strong>Conclusions</strong>: It is very important that inflation be controlled in order to address poverty as well as economic growth. It can safely be concluded that policies that stabilizes the inflation to the certain threshold level matters for the long run economic growth</p> Hari Prasad Upadhyay, Bijay Lal Pradhan Copyright (c) 2023 Hari Prasad Upadhyay; Bijay Lal Pradhan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61664 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study Between Conventional Polypectomy With Microdebrider Assisted Endoscopic Sinus Surgery https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61401 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Nasal polyposis is a frequent presentation in ENT &amp; HNS OPD. When endoscope was introduced, surgical management of nasal polyposis took a turn. More recently microdebrider use is in frequent practice. The objective of this study is to compare the surgical outcome in patients undergoing microdebrider assisted endoscopic surgery and conventional methods using sinus endoscopes in the surgical management of nasal polyps.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: The study was a prospective randomized study carried out in department of ENT in college of medical sciences Bharatpur from January 2021 to December 2021. Forty patients undergoing nasal polypectomy were randomly allocated into two groups; Group C (n=20) underwent FESS using conventional instruments, Group M (n=20) underwent FESS assisted with microdebrider. Comparison was done based in intraoperative blood loss and surgical duration, and post operative outcome.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: Blood loss was significantly less in Group M when compared with group C (P=0.000). Mean surgical time was also significantly less in group M (79.5 min), (P=0.000). No difference was found regarding postoperative scaring, crusting, nasal discharge, synechiae formation, polyp recurrence and hospital stay (P&gt;0.05) when two groups were compared. Significant symptomatic improvement was observed in both groups in 3 and 6 months follow up visits when compared with preoperative symptoms. Significantly low postoperative VAS score in Group M was observed when compared with group C at 3 months postoperative follow up. <br /><strong>Conclusions</strong>:It was concluded that FESS using conventional instruments or assisted with micodebrider is acceptable for surgical management of nasal polyposis. When both techniques are available, microdebrider assisted FESS is superior regarding less intraoperative blood loss, shorter surgical duration and better postoperative outcomes.</p> Bibek Sharma, Apar Pokharel, Chhanya Bhandari, Hari Prasad Upadhyay Copyright (c) 2023 Bibek Sharma, Chhanya Bhandari, Apar Pokharel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61401 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Dietary Pattern and Its Impact on Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls among Chepang Community in Raksirang Rural-Municipality of Makawanpur District https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61774 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. An adolescent is defined as individuals in the 10-19year age group. The health and nutritional status of adolescent girls affects their health and their survival in future. Adolescents, particularly girls, are increasingly conscious of their body which leads to low intake of food rich with nutrients. Teenage girls may excessively restrict their energy intake, out of a desire to be thin, which has a serious threat on their nutritional status.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: Descriptive cross sectional study design was applied in ward number 5 of Raksirangrural municipality of Makawanpur district usingsemi-structured questionnaire and all adolescent girls (127) of aged 10-19 years were involved as the respondents of the study. The study duration was 7th June to 25th December 2017. The data was entered and analyzed with the help of software SPSS version 16.0. <br /><strong>Results</strong>: The prevalence of underweight was found to be 27.6%. Study shows the participants consume protective fruits and vegetables group and other fruits and vegetables group in less quantity as comparison to other food groups. Though most of the participants were literate, knowledge on nutrition about 8% had adequate knowledge and 91% had poor knowledge.<br /><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Nutritional status of adolescent girls of Raksirangrural municipality is found to be poor. The research recommends improving nutritional status and feeding habits especially intake of wheat, meat and yellow fruits focusing on adolescent girls.</p> Vivek Uprety, Bipindra Pandey, Manoj Sigdel, Keshab Raj Bhandari, Sunil Neupane, Kshitiz Karki Copyright (c) 2023 Vivek Uprety, Bipindra Pandey, Keshab Raj Bhandari, Sunil Neupane, Kshitiz Karki https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61774 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Achieving Academic Success Through Fostering Career Planning of Nepalese Higher Secondary Students https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61773 <p><strong>Background</strong>: High school students often view career planning as a task for college, but initiating this process during high school is crucial for continuous self-discovery. This approach aims to enable citizens to navigate the complexities of the ever-changing labor market effectively.<br><strong>Method</strong>: Descriptive and exploratory research methodologies, strategically chosen to identify problems and illuminate current marketing conditions and practices within the realm of higher secondary schools. The target population encompasses all higher secondary schools and their students in Kathmandu Valley, with a sample of 25 colleges selected using a convenience sampling method.<br><strong>Result</strong>: The findings of the study exhibited noteworthy consistencies in responses across different demographic groups, thus providing a basis for generalization among the target audience. The study highlighted that a career is a composite outcome of job-related experiences acquired throughout an individual's professional journey. Furthermore, the research underscored the dynamic nature of career planning, which continuously adapts to the rapid changes in the global economy. The evolving landscape of career planning places a strong emphasis on career building, with the overarching goal of assisting individuals in developing resilience and self-reliance.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study emphasized the importance of maintaining a harmonious balance between work and life roles, recognizing the significance of holistic career development in the contemporary socio-economic context.</p> Krishna Prasad Neupane, Hem Chandra Dhakal, Dhruba Kumar Budhathoki, Dhan Raj Chalise Copyright (c) 2023 Krishna Prasad Neupane, Hem Chandra Dhakal, Dhruba Kumar Budhathoki https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61773 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge and Practice Regarding Menstrual Hygiene among School Going Adolescents of Kohalpur Municipality https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61097 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Menstruation is still considered as stigma in our society. The talks and discussion regarding menstruation is not quite acceptable because of shame and fear. Therefore many girls and women have become the victim of sour incidents like diseases ,rape ,death ,depression etc. We made a small effort to access knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene among school going adolescent girls of Kohalpur municipality through study.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: A cross sectional study was conducted from June to September 2021 among 359 students from grade eight, nine and ten of 4 different schools of Kohalpur municipality. Semiopen questionnaire were prepared and analysis was done to access knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene. </p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: 90.3% females had adequate knowledge about menstrual hygiene while 9.75 % females had poor knowledge .Majority of females were engaged in good menstrual practices.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Majority of females had adequate knowledge about menstrual hygiene but it has not being adequately brought into practices and the attitude of females towards menstrual hygiene is still unsatisfactory. As a result there is a need of awareness programs regarding menstrual hygiene and its management.</p> Lalan Mahato, Priyanka Poudel, Aakash Jaishwal, Sheetal Pathak Copyright (c) 2023 Lalan Mahato, Dr. Priyanka, Aakash Jaishwal, Sheetal Pathak https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61097 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Children Ever Born and its Associated Factors of Women in Tansen Municipality of Palpa District Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61665 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Fertility refers to a couple’s, individuals, groups or population’s ability to bear children. It primarily affects women in the reproductive age range of 15 to 49 years. Fertility is one of the most important factors influencing population change in practically all countries. This study is aimed to determine the socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence fertility in women in Tansen Municipality. <br><strong>Methods</strong>: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 144 married women of Tansen municipality using primary. Data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. In descriptive statistics, mean, standard deviation, frequency distribution, pie-chart, bar-diagram, and cross-tabulation tools were utilized, while inferential statistics used chi-square test and t-test. <br><strong>Results</strong>: The average age of respondent is 29 years with standard deviation 3.72 years. The average age of respondent whose Children ever born (CEB) is less than two (28.61±3.55) is statistically lower than that of having more than two CEB (32.44±4.63), (p-value=0.003). Education (P-value=0.007), and contraceptive/family planning knowledge (p-value=0.041) are factors that contribute to the decreased the number of children ever born to women. The longer duration of age contributes significantly to the rise in CEB. Women with a higher level of education appear to have a key role in reducing the number of CEB. The result of the study shows that the women having high level of knowledge about family planning and contraception use decreases the CEB of the women.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Findings show that age, education, and contraceptive/family planning knowledge are all factors that contribute to the increased number of children ever born to women.</p> Keshav Raj Bhandari, Kalpana Ghimire, Hari Prasad Upadhyay, Deepak Bahadur Pachhai, Supendra Karki Copyright (c) 2023 Keshav Raj Bhandari, Kalpana Ghimire, Hari Prasad Upadhyay, Deepak Bahadur Pachhai, Supendra Karki https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61665 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Teachers’ Perspectives on Slow Learners in the Science Classroom https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61662 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Educators encounter a significant challenge when it comes to instructing students with slower learning abilities in the field of science classroom. Students with limited cognitive abilities are typically identified as slow learners. The objective of this study was to examine the attitudes of teachers towards students with slower learning abilities in science classrooms and analyze their perceptions of these students. <br><strong>Methods</strong>: The study has been conducted by selecting a sample of 51 science teachers who teach at basic and secondary school levels. A representative sample of 51 teachers, who teach at basic and secondary level, were selected from 6 public schools in Chandragiri Municipality, Kathmandu district and 10 public schools in Ratnanagar Municipality, Chitwan district. The required data were gathered using a survey that employed three-point Likert-type questionnaires. The data were analyzed using frequency and percentage analysis. <br><strong>Results</strong>: The findings indicate that the science teachers exhibited a positive attitude towards students who have a slower learning pace. <br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: It is recommended to prioritize the enhancement of their science learning experience.</p> Bisna Acharya, Surya Sigdel, Omkar Poudel Copyright (c) 2023 Bisna Acharya, Surya Sigdel, Omkar Poudel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61662 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Patients’ Participation in Surgical Treatment Decision Making in General Government Hospital of Bharatpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61767 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Patient participation means involvement of the patient in decision making or expressing their opinions about different treatment methods, which includes sharing information, feelings and signs and accepting and rejecting health team instructions. The study aims to find out the level of patient participation in surgical treatment decision making of admitted patient in general government hospital of Chitwan.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A descriptive cross –sectional research was carried out to assess the level of participation in surgical treatment decision making. Non-probability, purposive sampling technique was used. A set of valid instruments containing 16 item was used to assess the level of participation. Ethical clearance was taken from Institutional review Committee of Shree Medical and Technical College (SMTC-IRC 20221206-43). Data were collected and analyzed in statistical package for the social science version. <br><strong>Results</strong>: The result of the study shows that maximum respondents 51.8% belonged to age group less or equals to 40 years. Among 226 respondents 58.4% were female and 41.6% were male. Among them, more than half (62.8%) of the respondent had high level of participation and (37.2%) of the respondents had low level of participation.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The findings of the study indicate the participation of patient in surgical treatment decision making. These findings may help hospital and concerned authorities to make appropriate policy and take corrective action to increase the level of patient participation in treatment decision making.</p> Soni Dharel, Jyoti Pokhrel, Hari Prasad Upadhyay, Prativa Sedain Copyright (c) 2023 Soni Dharel, Jyoti Pokhrel, Hari Prasad Upadhyay, Prativa Sedain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61767 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Affecting Purchase Decision of Life Insurance Policy of Customer in Chitwan https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61768 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Life insurance policy enjoys a unique position in the field of investments and should be judged in this light. The policy owner behaviour towards life insurance than the conventional savings and protection view. The objective of this research was to assess the intentions of people towards purchasing decision of life insurance, to analyze the awareness level of life insurance in Chitwan and to examine the relationship among perception, attitudes, awareness and purchase decision.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 150 policy holder respondents in Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal. Non probability purposive sampling technique was used for data collection. Data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. In this research Independent Variables was (Purpose of Buying, perception and evaluation alternatives, trust) while dependent Variable was (Purchase of Life Insurance Policy). Data was analysed by using SPSS 20. P-value &lt;0.05 was considered as statistically significant. <br><strong>Results</strong>: Majority of the respondents are between 30-40 years age group which is 37.3 percent of the respondents, 26.7 percent of the respondents are 20-30 age groups. Correlation coefficient between the independent variables purpose of buying and dependent variable factor affecting customer purchase life insurance policy is found to be statistically significant. <br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The study concludes that the factors affecting customer purchase on life insurance policy includes education, economic status, medical emergencies, better returns, comparison with other insurance companies, perception of individuals, available alternatives and trust.</p> Manish Bahadur Bista, Hari Prasad Upadhyay Copyright (c) 2023 Manish Bahadur Bista, Hari Prasad Upadhyay https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61768 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Capital Adequacy and its Influence on Bank Profitability in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61771 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Capital is a fundamental component for any organization's existence and operation. It serves as the lifeblood for initiating and sustaining businesses, regardless of their scale. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the financial performance of Nepalese commercial banks' capital adequacy ratios. Considering the performance of Nepalese commercial banks, it explicitly investigates the impact of capital adequacy ratio, cost income ratio, debt to equity ratio, equity capital to assets, bank size, and liquid ratio.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: This study investigates the impact of capital adequacy on the profitability of commercial banks in Nepal, utilizing secondary data from all commercial banks spanning 2013 to 2022. Analyzing 20 commercial banks, the research reveals that Nepalese commercial banks, on average, generate a respectable profit with typical return variance. The Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) consistently surpasses the 10% regulatory threshold, ensuring compliance with Basel III requirements and NRB directives. <br><strong>Results</strong>: The Average Assets Ratio (AAR) signifies a proactive approach to lending, contributing to enhanced profitability, while the Government Securities to Total Investment Ratio (G-STIR) indicates risk-averse practices with investments in risk-free assets. The Non-Performing Loans Ratio (NPLR) reflects the challenge of balancing low returns and high risk associated with non-performing loans. Correlation coefficients reveal complex relationships, indicating that increased capital, debt, and non-performing loans may lead to reduced profitability for Nepalese commercial banks. Regression analysis reinforces these findings, highlighting significantly negative correlations between Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE), and spread with capital adequacy determinants, and a positively insignificant relationship between government securities, total investment, and profitability metrics. <br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The study explored capital adequacy determinants (CAR, D-ER, AAR, G-STIR, NPLR) and their impact on bank profitability in Nepal. CAR had no significant effect on ROA, exhibiting a negative correlation. Conversely, D-ER and Advances-to-Assets Ratio positively influenced ROA. G-STIR showed a positive relationship without significance, while NPLR had a significantly negative impact. Non-risk-weighted measures, particularly debt-equity, negatively affected profitability. The study highlighted the limited impact, suggesting a more nuanced capital management approach, emphasizing D-ER and Advances-to-Assets Ratio. Consideration of macroeconomic factors and a balanced capital structure are crucial for commercial banks in Nepal.</p> Sangita Balami, Dhan Raj Chalise Copyright (c) 2023 Sangita Balami, Dhan Raj Chalise https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61771 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Process based Algorithm for Random Number Generation https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61772 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Random number generation plays a crucial role in various scientific, computational, cryptographic applications and stochastic processes. This paper introduces a novel algorithm designed to address the demand for high-quality random numbers with improved statistical properties. The proposed Algorithm uses the elements of hardware-based entropy to generate random numbers for efficiency and unpredictability. <br><strong>Methods</strong>: Pseudo-random numbers are sequences derived from algorithms known as pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs). These generators use an initial value, or seed, to produce sequences that exhibit statistical properties akin to truly random numbers.<br><strong>Results</strong>:For the z-test statistic and the corresponding p-value in the above five samples we found that p-value is not less than α = 0.05, therefore we fail to reject the null hypothesis. <br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Module U behaves as a Random number generation algorithm. Further, we can test the module U for large samples and we can use module U for simulation of different Random processes to verify it’s correctness.</p> Deep Raj Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 Deep Raj Sharma https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ijsirt/article/view/61772 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000