ILAM इलम https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ilam <p> ILAM इलम is published by Tribhuvan University Teachers’ Association(TUTA), Sanothimi Campus Unit, Sanothimi, Bhaktapur, Nepal. It provides a forum for the publication of scholarly articles in awide range of areas such as: Education, Teaching, Training, Health, Sports, Language, and Mathematics.</p> TUTA, Sanothimi Campus en-US ILAM इलम 2362-1176 Geo-linguistic Route for Exploring the Role of English Language in Mitigating Tension between Dalits and Non-Dalits in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ilam/article/view/58545 <p>Social stratification in Nepal is based on the Hindu Chaturvarna system which has obnoxiously kept Dalits at the bottom of the hierarchy creating an inhumane discrimination against them. Such discriminatory practice has intensified the likelihood of tension between Dalits and non-dalits. Thus, this qualitative study exploring the role of English language in mitigating the tension between Dalits and non-dalits was carried out as a narrative inquiry. Analyzing the data collected from six Dalit students studying in Bachelor’s level under different streams in the Kathmandu Valley through semi-structured in-depth interviews concluded that English language can play a positive role to mitigate the tension between Dalits and non-dalits.</p> Babu Ram Bishwokarma Copyright (c) 2023 Babu Ram Bishwokarma 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 19 1 1 13 10.3126/ilam.v19i1.58545 English for Exam or Exchange? Tourism Scholars’ Perception of Business Communication Course https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ilam/article/view/58546 <p>This paper attempts to investigate gaps between the course and real-field needs of communication skills in English in the tourism industry. Tourism scholars’ narrated learning experiences and the application of those learning experiences in the workplace were the research data. The analysis of the data results that the present Business Communication course has a positive role in introducing the international-level content needed in the tourism and hospitality industry. The prescribed books and reference materials are of international standard. However, due to the lack of effective pedagogical activities, no provision of practical examination, and lack of link of communication skills to other components of the program, this course has been taken as a general English course by the tourism scholars as though it claims to be English for tourism and hospitality. Therefore, this course needs in-depth scrutiny and revision to address the demand of tourism and hospitality entrepreneurs.</p> Bishow Raj Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 Bishow Raj Joshi 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 19 1 14 31 10.3126/ilam.v19i1.58546 Menstruation Hygiene Practice Among Adolescent Girls https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ilam/article/view/58547 <p>This study was based on menstrual hygiene practises among adolescent girls studying at Yubak Secondary School, Paknajol Ward No. 16, Kathmandu. Unhealthy menstrual hygiene is linked to significant morbidity and mortality due to reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and cervical cancer. This study was based on a descriptive research design. Open-ended and closed-ended questionnaires were used for data collection. The study was among 120 adolescent girls studying in grades 8, 9, and 10. Among them, 21% used to change pads daily, 33% used to change pads twice a day, 33% used to change pads when it got wet, and 13% used to change pads when they felt essential. Regarding the provision of a separate toilet for girls, 96% of adolescent girls said that there was a separate toilet for them. Regarding challenges faced by girls during menstruation at home and school, 38% were facing personal challenges, 38% were facing familial challenges, 8% were facing problems due to superstition, and 16% were found to be affected by sociocultural factors.</p> Ishwor Prasad Neupane Copyright (c) 2023 Ishwor Prasad Neupane 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 19 1 32 38 10.3126/ilam.v19i1.58547 A General study of Cesaro sequence spaces with Matrix transformations https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ilam/article/view/58548 <p>&nbsp;In this paper, the researcher utilize the non-absolute type of Cesaro sequence space to transform the Cesaro sequence spaces and establish the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of an infinite matrix in the spaces <em>ℓ<sub>∞</sub></em> and <em>C</em>, respectively. When the sequences <em>x∈X</em> satisfy the condition that the series Σ<sup>∞</sup><sub>k=1</sub> <em>X</em><sub>k</sub> converges, the sequence space <em>H</em> becomes a non-absolute Banach space that fulfills the fundamental requirements for transforming the Cesaro sequence space <em>X</em><sub>p</sub> into the corresponding spaces of ℓ<sub>∞</sub> and all convergent sequences. As a consequence of the matrix transformation, some theorems are derived.</p> Jagat Krishna Pokharel Copyright (c) 2023 Jagat Krishna Pokharel 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 19 1 39 48 10.3126/ilam.v19i1.58548 Effects of Sexual Harassment on Learning Activities and Coping Strategies among University Girl Students https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ilam/article/view/58550 <p>The aim of this research was to explore the impact of sexual harassment on the academic activities of female students at Tribhuvan University and their strategies for dealing with harassers. The study employed a qualitative approach, using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews to gather data. The researchers organised the students' narratives to analyse the findings. The study revealed that various learning activities were negatively affected by sexual harassment among female students. These included difficulties in memorization, incomplete assignments, problems with presentations, a reluctance to ask questions or participate in group discussions, a sense of disorientation, disturbances, fear, and a loss of motivation. The coping mechanisms employed by the victims included avoiding the harasser, reprimanding them, confiding in friends and siblings, and lodging verbal complaints with the school principal and administrative authorities. However, due to limited trust in the institution, the lengthy legal process, and the fear of being accused themselves, legal action against the harassers was not commonly pursued.</p> Kalpana Gyawali Sarasawati Karki Copyright (c) 2023 Kalpana Gyawali, Sarasawati Karki 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 19 1 48 59 10.3126/ilam.v19i1.58550 Exploring Teacher’s Practices of Blended ICT in University Mathematics Classroom: A Multicultural Perceptive https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ilam/article/view/58595 <p>&nbsp;The purpose of this study is to explore teachers' perspectives and practises of blending information, communication, and Technology (ICT) in mathematics classes at the university level. In addition, this study aims to explore the empowering ways to use blending ICT in teaching mathematics. This study has been conducted using a phenomenological design through an in-depth interview. For in-depth interviews, three mathematics teachers were selected who are teaching graduate level through online modes to explore their experience and practices of blending ICT in their teaching. The data have been analysed by transcribing, coding, categorising, and thematizing. Based on the information provided by the key respondents, various significant findings were obtained: teachers and students are found to be motivated to use ICT tools in the teaching process; ICT can be used as resource tools from many perspectives. The study also explored many physical and psychological problems associated with blending ICT tools in teaching mathematics. There are two ways in which the use of blended ICT in mathematics teaching can be improved: raising ICT awareness and ensuring access to ICT among students and teachers.</p> Laxmi G.C. Copyright (c) 2023 Laxmi G.C. 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 19 1 60 69 10.3126/ilam.v19i1.58595 Health and Sanitation Condition of Pregnant Women: A Case of Arghakhanchi District https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ilam/article/view/58596 <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">This paper aims to explore the situation of sanitation and changing the behaviour of married Nepalese women of reproductive age (15-49). A concurrent mixed-method (qual-quan) research design was employed in this research under the pragmatism worldview. The data are collected through a questionnaire survey, in-depth interviews, and a transect walk. Arghakhanchi district was selected purposively in this study. Diffusion of innovation theory was applied to understand the factors influencing sanitation and hygiene behavior change. The key research participants were the pregnant women of reproductive age (15-45) in the study. A thematic framework was used to analyze qualitative data, while bivariate analysis was performed to show the association between the background variables of sanitation and the health condition of pregnant women. It was found that most of the women used soap and water for hand washing before each meal and after the toilet. There is the provision of soap at hand washing stations and toilets among the study population. However, sufficient hand washing and toilet facilities were not available and 23% of the women reported being scratchy with the use of soap and water regularly.</span></p> Milan Acharya Megnath Bastola Copyright (c) 2023 Milan Acharya, Megnath Bastola 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 19 1 70 82 10.3126/ilam.v19i1.58596 Special Education Teachers' Knowledge on Inclusive Education Provision in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ilam/article/view/58597 <p>The study aimed to explore the knowledge and awareness of the teachers of special schools regarding the inclusive education policy of Nepal. The study was guided by a qualitative paradigm followed by a descriptive design. Five special schools from Kathmandu Valley were taken as sample schools, of which two were chosen from Kathmandu, two from Bhaktapur and one from Lalitpur districts by the convenience sampling method. Similarly, 15 teachers (three teachers from each school) were selected purposefully. The semi-structured interview protocol was administered to the teachers for collating in-depth information. Teachers were found to lack knowledge of inclusive education policy. Their acquaintance and familiarity with components of the inclusive education policy, such as limited knowledge of disability and structural provision, was found lacking, whereas they were quite familiar with the disabled-friendly environment and the educational rights of students with disabilities. Their knowledge of functional assessment was very poor compared to other components of the policy. Similarly, teachers lack knowledge and understanding of inclusive school culture, as mentioned in the inclusive education policy of Nepal.</p> Nam Raj Neupane Dhruba Prasad Niure Copyright (c) 2023 Nam Raj Neupane, Dhruba Prasad Niure 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 19 1 83 98 10.3126/ilam.v19i1.58597 Application of Training Skills in Nepali Classrooms https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ilam/article/view/58598 <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">This study aims to explore the application of training skills in Nepali classrooms. The study is conducted through secondary resources, such as websites, document analysis, and evaluating interrelated publications, articles, and journals, to examine one's own insight and sensory experience. Many problems and issues arise when transferring teacher training into classroom practice, including the lack of teachers, inefficient strategies and approaches to training, obsolete curricula, poor supervision services, insufficient empirical research, profit-driven education, etc. Applying teacher training skills in the classroom in Nepal appears to be especially unsuccessful, according to studies with a fifty percent success rate. However, a survey of the literature on teacher training in Nepal that is currently available reveals that not much has been accomplished in this area during the past few decades. This study focuses on theoretical applications, the current situation of teacher preparation, and integrating that knowledge, skill, and attitude into classroom activities.</span></p> Narayan Prasad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 Narayan Prasad Adhikari 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 19 1 99 112 10.3126/ilam.v19i1.58598 Evolving a Model of Critical Pedagogy to Deconstruct the Hegemonic Culture of the Conventional Teacher Centered Social Studies Classroom https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ilam/article/view/58599 <p>Hegemony is a dominant ideology widely used in the educational field. But its adherents do not seem to be aware of its influence. When I encountered this ideology, I became excited and went back to the experiences I gained while studying social studies at the school level and the experiences I gained while teaching social studies at the school level. I carried out this study by incorporating my own experiences and the experiences of three renowned professors of social studies who have experienced hegemonic culture in their conventional teacher centered classroom. Art-based critical auto-ethnographic research methodology has been adopted in this study. In this research, I identified six different aspects of cultural hegemony that negatively impacted my social studies experiences, namely: traditional teaching methods; curriculum content; teacher domination; competitive assessment; perfectionism; poor classroom environment. Another important aspect of this study is that I have also identified the fundamental aspects of critical pedagogy that I experienced while studying and teaching at school, namely transformative teachers, encouraging students to have a critical voice, using new forms of knowledge, and emphasizing ethics as central. The result of this academic self-study is a far-reaching strategy for transforming the teaching of social studies. This strategy is divided into three steps i.e. before the implementation of the lesson, implementation of the lesson, and reflection. The second step of this strategy is the implementation phase. The implemented step can be divided in five sections such as structured overview and group formation, community contact and critical analysis, open dialogue for active engagement, confronting power and exposing hegemony, and evaluation of the whole process. This vision can be adapted and implemented by innovative teachers who want to enliven their social studies classrooms with more relevant, meaningful and stimulating learning experiences.</p> Rajendra Kumar Shah Copyright (c) 2023 Rajendra Kumar Shah 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 19 1 113 132 10.3126/ilam.v19i1.58599 Job Satisfaction among Community School Teachers in Kathmandu District https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ilam/article/view/58600 <p>The purpose of the study was to find out the job satisfaction of teachers in Kathmandu district. This research was conducted among the population of teachers working in public secondary schools of Kathmandu district, focusing on job satisfaction. This study was based on a cross sectional survey method. To measure the teachers' job satisfaction, the researcher employed the questionnaire developed by him. The reliability and validity of the tool was ensured by the test retest method. The teachers who had been teaching Mathematics, English, Science, Computer and Social Subjects were not found satisfied. Except Nepali and mixed subject teachers, majority of all subject teachers were found neither satisfied nor dissatisfied whereas the majority of Science and Computer teachers' was seen in a satisfied category.</p> Samjhana Basnyat Copyright (c) 2023 Samjhana Basnyat 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 19 1 133 140 10.3126/ilam.v19i1.58600 Impact of Globalization in the School Education Policy of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ilam/article/view/58601 <p>The impact of globalization on the education policy of Nepal started six decades ago, but formally, it can be realized after the restoration of democracy. In this context, this study focuses on analyzing how the principles of globalization influence the school education policy of Nepal. It is drawing upon theories of globalization in education like the theory of trees and the theory of birdcages. The purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample population, and information was also collected through open-ended interviews with real stakeholders. This study argues that most educational policies, after the restoration of democracy, have seemed directly influenced by the principles of globalization regarding school financing, curriculum, and school governance and management. Nepal has remaining dichotomous accounts of globalization through education policy, especially how we tailor between global value and local value. To improve the education system with the assumption of globalization in education, it is required to conduct a practical study about the conditions under which we adapt the norms and culture of globalization into the education systems of developing countries like Nepal.</p> Shiva Aryal Copyright (c) 2023 Shiva Aryal 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 19 1 141 156 10.3126/ilam.v19i1.58601 Health and Fitness of Buddhists in the Kathmandu Valley https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ilam/article/view/58602 <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">This study, entitled "Health and Fitness of Buddhists in the Kathmandu Valley," was carried out to identify the techniques for achieving good health and physical fitness in Buddhists. The necessary information was taken from the eleven monasteries and Bihar in the Kathmandu Valley. The major sources of data were primary and secondary. This study was based on an explanatory research design. Buddhism strongly believes that human characteristics like greed, anger, and ignorance are the three most serious psychological diseases. Buddha also presented his teachings on avoiding all evil, killing and harming living beings, cultivating good and cleansing one's mind. It is very important to achieve good health and physical fitness. Through meditation and walking meditation, the body achieves a greater state of balance, physical conditions improve, fighting against diseases is regulated, and breathing is regulated. Our minds become focused, clear, and organized. Unnecessary desires and improper thoughts are eliminated. Therefore, the researcher has concluded that Buddhist rules and the code of conduct are the best ways to achieve good physical, mental, and spiritual health and fitness.</span></p> Suresh Jung Shahi Madhav Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Suresh Jung Shahi, Madhav Kumar Shrestha 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 19 1 157 167 10.3126/ilam.v19i1.58602