Interdisciplinary Research in Education <p>A publication of the Research Management Cell, Central Department of Education, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> Research Management Cell, Central Department of Education, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal en-US Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2676-1483 Editorial Vol.4(1) <p>No abstract available.</p> Binod Prasad Dhakal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-20 2019-09-20 4 1 10.3126/ire.v4i1.25704 Identity Construction in Mathematics Learning: A Phenomenological Study of Girl Students <p>This phenomenological study examined how girl students struggle in constructing their identity in mathematics learning. The concept given by Cobb and Hodge (2003) was used as a theoretical basis to explain the identity construction of girls. In addition, the process of identity construction is critically examined through a feminist perspective. Three girl students studying mathematics in Master’s level were involved in in-depth interview. The data collected through interview were first transcribed, which was followed by thematic network analysis to make meaning from the information. The key finding was that students faced difficulties and struggle due to patriarchal system of society, false beliefs about mathematics and mathematics learning, and traditional and meritocratic system of teaching learning system.</p> Krishna Prasad Adhikari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-20 2019-09-20 4 1 1 8 10.3126/ire.v4i1.25705 ICT Integrated Pedagogy in a Multicultural Classroom: Experiences of Mathematics Teacher <p>Multiculturalism in the present context is a global issue in education. It has not yet been materialized into the education system in Nepal. The education system of a country should prepare students to function in today’s multicultural society. In this regards, this paper focuses on the issues of the management of multicultural classes, and the role of ICT-integrated pedagogy to manage such a classroom context. It also discusses the context, and experiences of teachers that can bring the multicultural classroom situation into the right track. For this purpose, I apply narrative inquiry of two mathematics teachers (one male and one female) of University Campus Kirtipur with more than seven-year experience. In-depth interview, related to their experiences and practices in multicultural mathematics classes, was conducted and found that they face problems to teach students in a multicultural classes such as language problem, content problem, and level of understanding. There are two types of multiculturalism in our classes they are critical multiculturalism, and Liberal multiculturalism. The management of multiculturalism is a great challenge for teachers. Although teachers are less familiar with the management of multicultural class, they try to manage such types of diversity by supporting their students personally through ICT-integrated pedagogy. The finding of the study shows that ICT-integrated pedagogy is the best strategy to manage multicultural classes by respecting students’ personal feelings.</p> Lok Nath Bhattarai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-20 2019-09-20 4 1 9 18 10.3126/ire.v4i1.25706 Perceptions of Students and Teachers towards the Semester System of Tribhuvan University <p>This paper intends to analyze perceptions of students and teachers towards the semester system of Tribhuvan University (TU). The result of the study is based on the data collected through survey questionnaire from 40 university teachers and 194 master level students. The perception is discussed in terms of learning environment, resources, use of ICT tools, contents and activities. The findings show that the perception of teachers and students towards curriculum, teaching/learning environment, and regularity of classes and viability of semester system are in positive direction. However, the availability of learning resources and use of ICT tools in day to day teaching/learning are not in satisfactory way in the perception of the participants. Their perceptions also reveal that facilities of extra-curricular activities, play grounds and canteen are inadequate. Similarly, the teachers and students perceive that availability of both human and academic resources is inadequate. The students experience show that there is teacher domination in selection of teaching methods; less use of ICT materials to promote learning; difficulty in completing courses in the stipulated time and not timely declaring exam result. However, this system has encouraged and empowered creativity among students for learning.</p> Abatar Subedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-20 2019-09-20 4 1 19 34 10.3126/ire.v4i1.25707 Exploring the Dimensions of Multicultural Education and its Implication in Teaching Learning <p>This article aims to present the concept and needs of multicultural education in Nepal. This paper is based on extensive review of literature on multicultural education in Nepal. Multicultural education provides equal educational opportunities for all races, nations and groups of different cultures. Cultural values, ethics, norms and practices are focused on multicultural education. It helps to find out the cultural knowledge and skills in the learners and communicate with other ethnic groups. Multicultural curriculum can prepare individuals and groups with diverse backgrounds to live peacefully in a society. Multicultural education promotes the strength and value of cultural diversity. Moreover, it also ensures human rights and respect to one another and the acceptance of alternative life styles of people, and the promotion of social justice.</p> Dawa Sherpa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-20 2019-09-20 4 1 35 42 10.3126/ire.v4i1.25708 Practice of Early Childhood Development Curriculum Preparation <p>This article aimed to explore early childhood development (ECD) curriculum preparation practices. To accomplish the objective, I have collected qualitative information from ECD center through unstructured interview and discussion with the participant. This study revealed that the respondent has just Montessori basic training on pronunciation and curriculum preparation. Curriculum development center is prepares ECDC curriculums as based on the Wheeler curriculum process. However, private ECDCs prepare curriculum themselves in line with the curriculum development center. Private ECDCs have not compulsory to follow the government’s curriculum. Curriculum of Curriculum Development Center focus on children’s all round developments. But there is lack of spiritual development. Facilitators always start to teach/learn through the objects of the environment. Children learn more words from their mother and parents at home. Facilitators teach children by arranging the words from simple to complex. They teach correct pronunciation, structure of words and then concept.</p> Surya Prasad Adhikari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-20 2019-09-20 4 1 43 52 10.3126/ire.v4i1.25709 A Comparative Analysis of Institutional and Non-institutional Direct Private Cost in Higher Education of Nepal <p>This study is followed the descriptive and analytical research design under quantitative inquiry approach as its aims to analyze and compare institutional and non-institutional direct private cost. Furthermore, it tries to find out the size of institutional and non-institutional direct private cost at bachelor level of Nepal. For these purposes, researcher has selected a community based college from Kathmandu valley purposively using simple random sampling. The findings of the study reveal that per student average college related institutional unit cost was Rs 24730. 57, university related institutional cost was Rs 5982.23 and total annual institutional unit cost was Rs 30712.80. Likewise, it was found that a student has expensed Rs 46411.63 as non-institutional direct private cost in a year. Total annual average direct private cost of education (institutional plus non-institutional) was Rs 77124.43 at bachelor level of community based college in the capital city of Nepal.</p> Min Raj Paudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-20 2019-09-20 4 1 53 66 10.3126/ire.v4i1.25710 Role of ICTs in Promoting Learner Independence and Motivation in English Language Classes <p>This article builds up on an action research which was carried out mainly with two major purposes: to investigate learner perceptions and attitudes in the use of ICTs in English language classes; and to examine the role of ICTs in promoting the learner independence and motivation. The population of the study consisted of all the students from the Department of English Education, Central Department of Education, Kirtipur. The area was purposively selected; we have been teaching in the same place for seven years. The participants were 37 students who were also purposively selected. Among them, only 15 students were invited to a focused group discussion (FGD). However, all the students participated in the intervention for the whole semester. The intervention was implemented during the instruction. The major ICT tools adopted for the study were: web sites, e-mails and multimedia. We administered three progress tests to assess their progress in terms of independence and motivation. The findings of this research show that the learners are well motivated and positive in the use of ICTs in language teaching.</p> Khem Raj Joshi Guru Prasad Poudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 4 1 67 76 10.3126/ire.v4i1.25741 प्रारम्भिक तहमा मातृभाषामा शिक्षाप्रति सरोकारवालाहरुको बुझाइ Prarambhik Tahama Matribhjashamaa Shikshyaprati Sarokarwalaharuko Bujhai <p>प्रस्तुत अध्ययनको उद्देश्य प्रारम्भिक तहमा मातृभाषामा शिक्षाप्रति सरोकारवालाहरूको बुझाइ पत्ता लगाउनु हो । यो अध्ययन स्थानीय मातृभाषा शिक्षाको माध्यम हुनुपर्छ भन्ने अभिमत<br>सङ्कलनमा आधारित भएर गरिएको छ । गुणात्मक ढाँचामा गरिएको यो अध्ययन व्याख्यात्मक प्रकृतिको छ । असंभावनात्मक नमुना छनौट विधिद्वारा छानिएका सरोकारवालाहरुसँगको अन्तर्वार्ताबाट र विद्यालयका शैक्षिक गतिविधिको अवलोकनबाट सूचना सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । यसमा स्थानीय मातृभाषाका रूपमा नेवारी भाषालाई लिइएको छ । नेवारी भाषालाई माध्यम भाषाका रूपमा र विषयका रूपमा पढाइने गरेका दुईओटा विद्यालयमा आधारित भएर सामग्री सङ्कलन गरिएको छ ।<br>बहुभाषिक मिश्रित समाजमा रहेको विद्यालयमा एउटा स्थानीय भाषालाई माध्यम र विषयका रूपमा शिक्षण गर्दा अन्य मातृभाषी विद्यार्थीको अवस्था के हुन्छ, उनीहरूका लागि कस्तो सोच बनाइएको छ भन्ने कुराको खोजी गरिएको छ । अध्ययनबाट एक वा द्विभाषिक कक्षाका लागि मातृभाषामा शिक्षा दिन सकिए पनि बहुभाषिक कक्षामा स्थानीय मातृभाषामा शिक्षा दिँदा स्थानीयहरूमा आफ्नो पहिचानवादी सोच हावी भएको र नीति निर्माण तहमा रहेकाहरूले स्थानीय मातृभाषालाई जोड दिँदा अल्पसङ्ख्यामा रहेका अन्य मातृभाषीहरुले आफ्नो मातृभाषामा शिक्षा पाउनुका सट्टा आफूले नजानेको थप भाषा पढ्न बाध्य हुनुपर्ने अवस्था देखिएको छ ।</p> गीता Geeta खनाल Khanal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 4 1 77 86 10.3126/ire.v4i1.25737 कक्षा दशमा अध्ययनरत विद्यार्थीको भाषा सम्पादन सक्षमताको परीक्षण Kakshya dashma Adhyanrat Biddhyarthiko Bhasha Sampadan Sakshyamatako Parikshan <p>प्रस्तुत लेख कक्षा दशमा अध्ययनरत विद्यार्थीको भाषा सम्पादन सक्षमताको परीक्षणसँग सम्बन्धित छ । यस अध्ययनमा काठमाडौँ जिल्लाको कक्षा १० मा अध्ययनरत ४० जना विद्यार्थीलाई नमुनाको रूपमा लिइएको छ । लैङ्गिकता, भाषिक पृष्ठभूमि र विद्यालय प्रकृतिलाई आधार बनाई तथ्याङ्कशास्त्रीय विधिद्वारा व्याख्या विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्षमा पुगिएको छ । विद्यार्थीको सक्षमतालाई विषयवस्तुको सङ्गठन, भाषा र व्याकरण, शब्दचयन र पुनरावृत्ति, प्रस्तुतीकरण, प्रारूप र शैली तथा स्पष्टताका आधारमा अङ्कन गरी परीक्षण गरिएको छ । समग्रमा विद्यार्थीको भाषा सम्पादन सक्षमता ५०.६२ प्रतिशत रहेको छ । छात्रा, पहिलोभाषी र संस्थागत विद्यालयका विद्यार्थीको भाषा सम्पादन राम्रो रहेको देखिन्छ । स्पष्टता, विषयवस्तुको सङ्गठन र भाषा तथा व्याकरणमा&nbsp;विद्यार्थीको सक्षमता पनि मध्यम स्तरको देखिए पनि शब्दचयन र पुनरावृत्ति (४१.८७%) तथा प्रस्तुतीकरण, प्रारूप र शैलीमा भने कमजोर देखिएको छ । यसर्थ विद्यार्थीले लेख्य सामग्रीको पुनः परिष्कार, पुनः परिमार्जन र सम्पादन गर्न सक्ने सीपको विकास गर्न आवश्यक रहेको तथ्य पुष्टि हुन्छ । यस अध्ययनले भाषा सम्पादन सक्षमताप्रति चासो राख्ने सम्पूर्ण सरोकारवालालाई सहयोग पुग्ने विश्वास लिइएको छ ।</p> उमेश Umesh काफ्ले Kafle ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 4 1 87 98 10.3126/ire.v4i1.25738 लैङ्गिक दृष्टिमा सलिजो उपन्यासको भाषा laingik Drishtima Sajilo Upanyasko Bhasha <p>लैङ्गिक समालोचनाको प्रमुख पक्ष लैङ्गिकताको भाषाका विविध सन्दर्भहरूको परिचय दिई ‘सलिजो’ उपन्यासमा प्रयुक्त भाषाको लैङ्गिक दृष्टिले विश्लेषण गर्नु यस लेखको प्रमुख उद्देश्य हो । प्रस्तुत लेखमा लैङ्गिकताको भाषाका विविध स्वरूपहरूलाई उदाहरणसहित प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । त्यस्तै, ‘सलिजो’ उपन्यासमा प्रयोग गरिएको भाषाको लैङ्गिक दृष्टिले मूल्याङ्कन गरिएको छ । पुस्तकालयीय अध्ययन प्रक्रियाबाट सामग्री सङ्कलन गरी सलिजो उपन्यासलाई प्राथमिक स्रोत तथा विभिन्न सैद्धान्तिक ग्रन्थलाई द्वितीयक स्रोत सामग्रीका रूपमा लिइएको यस लेखमा विश्लेषणात्मक विधिको उपयोग गरिएको छ । ‘सलिजो’ उपन्यासबाट लैङ्गिकताको भाषाका सन्दर्भसँग सम्बन्धित तथ्याङ्कहरूको टिपोट गरी विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस उपन्यासमासमलिङ्गी तथा तेस्रो लिङ्गीहरूका आपसी सम्बन्धसूचक भाषिक प्रयोग सन्तुलित र संवेदनशील रहेको छ । उपन्यासमा रहेको भाषा लैङ्गिक दृष्टिले मूल्याङ्कन गर्दा उपयुक्त छ ।</p> राजेन्द्र Rajendra खनाल Khanal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 4 1 99 110 10.3126/ire.v4i1.25739