Interdisciplinary Research in Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire <p>A publication of the Research Management Cell, Central Department of Education, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> Research Management Cell, Central Department of Education, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal en-US Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2676-1483 Editorial Vol.5(1-2) https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34723 <p>Not available.</p> Sushan Acharya Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-04 2021-02-04 5 1-2 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34723 Impact of Perceived Behavioral Control on E-learning Adoption https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34728 <p>E-learning adoption (AEL) is a contextual phenomenon. Therefore, this research attempted to identify the association of adoption constructs and perceived behavioral control (PBC) on AEL in Sri Lankan private international schools’ context. The sample consisted of students of three leading international school chains. Respondents were selected on multi-level cluster sampling method as per provinces/districts and major cities in which these schools are in operation. Overall, 450 questionnaires were distributed and 271 completed and returned questionnaires (60%) were considered for the final data analysis. A deductive methodology and quantitative method had been followed in the research. PBC factors were identified by conducting PCA. TAM, extended by using the PBC. The empirical evidence supported the positive relationship of adoption variable and PBC variable towards AEL by correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. The presence of differences in AEL between the students engaged in aesthetic subjects and science subject categories were also supported by the contrast test of ANOVA. ANCOVA revealed that the covariate; age was not significantly related to the student’s AEL while the Hayes’s process for moderation analysis has confirmed the relationship between PBC and AEL is being moderated by student’s age.</p> D.A. Gayan Nayanajith K. A. Damunupola Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-04 2021-02-04 5 1-2 1 14 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34728 Difficulties and Misconceptions of Students in Learning Limit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34731 <p>The purpose of this study is to explore the difficulties and misconceptions of secondary level students in learning limit of the function. In this study, which used mix-method design, regarding difficulties and misconceptions, a concept test was used on 200 grade XII students of Kathmandu Metropolitan City of Nepal, and interviews were conducted on 12 purposively selected students from 200 students. The data obtained from the test was categorized as the category of the responses and interpreted using a percentage score. In addition to that, the data obtained from the interview was analyzed and interpreted by using a general qualitative approach. The finding of the study revealed that student’s difficulties in solving a limit problem have aroused because of the lack of conceptual clarity on the limit of the function. Similarly, the student has misconception on indeterminate and infinite, limiting and functional value of the function, and symbolic representation of infinity.</p> Krishna Prasad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-04 2021-02-04 5 1-2 15 26 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34731 Students’ Perception on ICT Integrated Mathematics Classes https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34732 <p>This paper presents a model for the perception of students relating the ICT integrated pedagogy into practice. The objective of this paper is to analyze the perception of students towards the practice of ICT integrated pedagogy in diverse Mathematics classes. Eighty Mathematics students who were selected randomly from the Department of Mathematics Education, TU, Kathmandu, were the participants. The opinionnaire form was used as a major tool. As the design was quantitative, data was analyzed using percentile, weighted mean, and chi-square test.</p> <p>The findings of the study revealed that there is a positive perception of students on the implementation, process and output of ICT integrated pedagogy. The students reflected that ICT integrated pedagogy has a positive impact to improve their achievement in mathematics. The perception of students shows there is a pedagogical shift from the conventional teaching approach to ICT integrated pedagogy. However, teachers try to use ICT integrated pedagogy in the classroom but some of them have little knowledge and misconception about the use of ICT integrated pedagogy regarding time and resource constraints to practice itin Mathematics classes.</p> Lok Nath Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-04 2021-02-04 5 1-2 27 38 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34732 Challenges of Teacher Autonomy for Professional Competence https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34733 <p>Teacher autonomy is essential for their professional competence. Unless they are accountable at their profession, there will not be any positive output in the domain of teaching and learning.&nbsp; The main objectives of this study were to explore the teachers' perceptions on the impact of teacher autonomy in enhancing their professional competences, to identify how far the level of teacher autonomy affects the professional competences of the teachers, and to investigate the existing practices of teacher autonomy at Tribhuvan University. The phenomenological research design was adopted to accomplish this study. Ten English teachers at least 2 from each of 5constituent colleges of Tribhuvan University were selected as a sample using purposive non-random sampling procedure to collect data. Semi-structured in-depth interview and classroom observations were administered as tools to elicit data to address the objectives of this study. The findings were obsolete of teaching and learning activities and classroom management due to the lack of online digital books and articles in the library, lack of blended between online Moodle and face to face mode of pedagogy, lack of technological pedagogical and content knowledge, no teacher autonomy in curriculum designing, and no grants for travelling and lack of daily allowances to teachers to attend the conference, seminar, and workshop at home and abroad.</p> Purna Bahadur Kadel Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-04 2021-02-04 5 1-2 39 46 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34733 Understanding Primary Curriculum from Philosophical Perspectives https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34734 <p>This paper is an attempt to understand philosophy / ideology hidden behind the present primary education curriculum of Nepal. The study was based on analysis of written curriculum published by Government of Nepal, Curriculum Development Center, Sanothimi. I applied the conceptual content analysis approach for the purpose of this study. My literature review consisted of general philosophies namely idealism, naturalism, realism, pragmatism and existentialism&nbsp;&nbsp; and also educational philosophies such as perennialism, essentialism, progressivism and reconstructionism. Although the study focused on four elements, namely objectives, contents, teaching learning activities and evaluation process of curriculum, I made a brief analysis of aim, and contents of primary level as a whole. The current primary education curriculum is the mix of more than on philosophies emphasizing traditional ones, perennialism, and essentialism. I found negligible importance is given to critical components of learning therefore this component should be given more importance.</p> Kiran Ram Ranjitkar Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-04 2021-02-04 5 1-2 47 56 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34734 Content Delivery Modes for Students with Visual Impairments in Integrated Schools of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34735 <p>The purpose of this study is to explore the instructional approaches that have been using by teachers working in integrated schools for years to optimize the access of visually impaired students to general education curriculum. This study was guided by constructivist paradigm followed by case study design. Altogether eleven teachers were selected from three integrated schools located in Kathmandu Valley by using purposive sampling method. Qualitative data were gathered by using semi-structured interview, classroom observation, and document analysis to get deeper understanding on the studied phenomenon. And then garnered information were edited, transcribed, coded, and thematized to draw meaningful results and conclusions. A number of instructional techniques such as providing materials into accessible format, placing students with low vision near to chalkboard, ability based grouping, pairing blind and sighted students together, etc. were applied by targeting the distinct learning needs of students with visual impairments. But most of these instructional techniques were not used on routine basis because of poorly trained teachers, limited instructional materials, and high students-teacher ratio. Therefore, proper training, sufficient instructional materials, and manageable size of the classroom should be arranged to optimize the access of visually impaired students to general education curriculum.</p> Dhruba Prasad Niure Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-04 2021-02-04 5 1-2 57 68 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34735 Relationship between Policy and Practices of Decision Making in Public Schools https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34736 <p>This study is critically analyzed the relationship between policy and practices of decision making in public schools of Nepal. I tried to explore the relationship between policy and practicesin two districts of Kathmandu valley by using qualitative data using power and decentralization theoryand different decision-making models.&nbsp; I understood that parents, head teacher, and teachers apply decentralization cum power theory in decision making practices in schools. I also found that these authorities mainly take decisions in physical resource management, teacher recruitment, and program extension.&nbsp; I also came to understand that <em>mixed- model</em> approach is blended between head teacher, teacher and community control model. At the practicing level, I found gap in the use of power in various aspects of decision making.&nbsp; I also found that these gaps were observed because of practicing of head teacher control model. The study implies that decision making process at the school level needs a new model that must be more contextual and participatory for the effective school management.</p> Rabindra Shiwakoti Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-04 2021-02-04 5 1-2 69 78 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34736 Comparative Study on Physical Fitness between Indigenous and Non-indigenous Students https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34737 <p>Physical fitness is essential for all. This is comparative cum cross-sectional study dealing with the physical fitness of students. It was conducted in the secondary schools of Lamjung district with the objective to compare the physical fitness between indigenous and non- indigenous students. Altogether 150 secondary level male students were selected as the respondents consisting 75 for each group. Five schools were selected using purposive sampling method whereas, the respondent students were selected using purposive cum random sampling method. American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (AAHPER) Youth Physical Fitness Test was used to compare the physical fitness of indigenous and non-indigenous students. The test battery included six test items i.e. pull-ups, sit-ups, standing broad jump, shuttle run, 50-yard dash and 600-yard run-walk. For the comparison of fitness score, mean, SD, CV and Z-test were applied. Fitness status was found better among indigenous students in comparison to non-indigenous students.</p> Shailandra Chiluwal Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-04 2021-02-04 5 1-2 79 88 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34737 Lived Experience of Online Teaching During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Implications for Curriculum and Teaching https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34738 <p>As the COVID-19 pandemic has affected all sphere of human life and the schools across the country are closed due to the risk of spreading the virus, online teaching has become a major alternative pedagogical strategy among the private schools in particular. This article reports a study that explores how private school teachers perceive and adopt technological learning, how they transfer their technological knowledge and skills into the online classroom and how they self-assess their practices. This is done through a phenomenological study focusing on the meaning the participants make from their lived experience on ‘technological learning and application’ in the face of the pandemic. The study found that dealing with uncertainty and fear of the COVID-19 and the additional pressure for doing online teaching amidst the crisis evoked frustration and anguish among the teachers. Despite a number of challenges and crisis, teachers, however, learn to deal with the technological challenges and manage to run the class through virtual mode. Nevertheless, they assess the online delivery is not effective due to the various constraints. The study suggests for ensuring the access of ICT resources and facilities to both teachers and students, sufficient training to the both groups and digitalize curricular materials for the effective implementation of virtual learning.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Peshal Khanal Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-04 2021-02-04 5 1-2 89 102 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34738 English Language Teacher Professional Development During COVID-19 in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34739 <p>COVID-19 pandemic has brought a big pedagogical shift in education across the board. In this context, teachers expected to be adaptable in the new situation in by familiarizing themselves to the emerging technology-driven pedagogy. This article explores how 102 English language teachers in Nepal prepared themselves to respond to COVID-19 by attending various professional development events organized between April and September 2020 by different professional forums and organizations. The results show that English teachers in Nepal attended three kinds of events that include training programs to learn technology, events to learn about the online resources for English language teaching and professional development events to enhance their professional skills. Participation in these events made English teachers digitally confident to run the classes online and increased awareness of the integration of online resources in English language teaching.</p> Ganga Ram Gautam Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-04 2021-02-04 5 1-2 103 112 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34739 एउटा विचारको यात्रापथ कथामा समाख्यानशास्त्र https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34740 <p>आयामेली चिन्तक तथा प्रयोक्ता इन्द्रबहादुर राईद्वारा रचित ‘एउटा विचारको यात्रापथ’ कथालाई यस आलेखमा समाख्यानशास्त्रका आख्यान र अन्तर्आख्यानका आधारमा अध्ययन गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत कथाको समाख्याता ‘म’ पात्र रहेको, आख्यान र अन्तर्आख्यानका अधिकांश कार्ययोजनामा उसैको सहभागिता देखिएको, फेरीवालप्रतिको टिप्पणी र मूल्याङ्कनबाट उसको वैचारिकतामा परिवर्तन आएको र त्यसबाट आदर्शलाई पच्छ्याएर प्राकृतिकताको खोजीमा लाग्नुपर्ने दृष्टिकोणको संवाहक स्वयं समाख्याता नै भएकाले प्रस्तुत कथाको समाख्यान स्वकथनात्मक, खुला, उच्च, निकटवर्ती, पाठकमैत्री एवम् अरूका धारणाबाट भन्दा पनि स्वानुभवका आधारमा जीवनलाई हेर्ने दृष्टिकोणमा आधारित देखिन्छ ।</p> केशव पोखरेल Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-04 2021-02-04 5 1-2 113 124 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34740 विधातात्त्विक केन्द्रीयतामा ‘गोधूलि संसार’ निबन्धको विश्लेषण https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34742 <p>आयामेली चिन्तक तथा प्रयोक्ता इन्द्रबहादुर राईद्वारा रचित ‘एउटा विचारको यात्रापथ’ कथालाई यस आलेखमा समाख्यानशास्त्रका आख्यान र अन्तर्आख्यानका आधारमा अध्ययन गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत कथाको समाख्याता ‘म’ पात्र रहेको, आख्यान र अन्तर्आख्यानका अधिकांश कार्ययोजनामा उसैको सहभागिता देखिएको, फेरीवालप्रतिको टिप्पणी र मूल्याङ्कनबाट उसको वैचारिकतामा परिवर्तन आएको र त्यसबाट आदर्शलाई पच्छ्याएर प्राकृतिकताको खोजीमा लाग्नुपर्ने दृष्टिकोणको संवाहक स्वयं समाख्याता नै भएकाले प्रस्तुत कथाको समाख्यान स्वकथनात्मक, खुला, उच्च, निकटवर्ती, पाठकमैत्री एवम् अरूका धारणाबाट भन्दा पनि स्वानुभवका आधारमा जीवनलाई हेर्ने दृष्टिकोणमा आधारित देखिन्छ ।</p> नेत्रप्रसाद न्यौपाने Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-04 2021-02-04 5 1-2 125 132 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34742 'छाउपडी' उपन्यासका नारी पात्रमा प्रतिनिधित्व, पहिचान र प्रतिरोध https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34744 <p>छाउपडी उपन्यासमा प्रयुक्त पात्रहरूको कार्यात्मक भूमिकाका आधारमा प्रतिनिधित्व, पहिचान र प्रतिरोधको स्थिति स्पष्ट रूपमा देख्न सकिन्छ । प्रस्तुत उपन्यासमा जातीय, लैङ्गिक, क्षेत्रीय, वर्गीय तथा संस्कार र सांस्कृतिकतालाई प्रतिनिधित्व र पहिचान गर्ने मूल आधार मानिएको छ । उपन्यासमा सीमान्तकृत वर्गमा नारी र पुरुषहरू रहे पनि यस लेखमा नारी पात्रहरूको मात्र प्रतिनिधित्व, पहिचान र प्रतिरोधको स्थितिको खोजी गरिएको छ । उपन्यासका पात्रहरूको सामाजिक आर्थिक हैसियत र तिनको जीवनशैली, आचार, व्यवहारले पनि तिनीहरूले भिन्न भिन्न वर्गीय पात्रका रूपमा विविध ढङ्गले प्रतिनिधित्व गरेका छन् । उपन्यासका सीमान्तीय पात्रहरूले सामन्तवादी सांस्कृतिक उत्पीडनको अवस्थामा पुगेका श्रमिक नारीहरूको प्रतिनिधित्व गरेका छन् । ज्ञान र शक्ति विहिनताले शक्तिको परिधिमा पुर्याइएका, नारी अस्मिता र अस्तित्व पहिचान निर्माणमा सचेत हुँदाहुँदै पनि आफ्नो स्वपहिचान र आत्मपहिचानलाई जोगाउन नसकेका नारी पात्रहरू आएका छन् । सीमान्त वर्गका नारी पात्रहरूले आफ्नो स्वपहिचान र आत्मपहिचानलाई जोगाउन सङ्घर्ष गर्दागर्दै पनि प्रतिरोधमा सफल नदेखिएको सन्दर्भ उपन्यासमा चित्रित भएको छ । यसमा सामाजिक अवस्था र लैङ्गिक उत्पीडनका कारण सीमान्तीकृत वर्गमा रहेका नारी पात्रको प्रतिनिधित्व, पहिचान र प्रतिरोधको अध्ययन गरिएको छ ।</p> शालिकराम पौड्याल Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-05 2021-02-05 5 1-2 133 144 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34744 कक्षा दशको नेपाली भाषा पाठ्यपुस्तकमा बोलाइ सिपको अभ्यास https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34745 <p>भाषा पाठ्यपुस्तकमा राखिएका नमुना अभ्यासले विद्यार्थीहरूको भाषिक सिप विकासमा महत्वपुर्ण भूमिका निर्वाह गर्दछ । २०७४ मा प्रकाशित कक्षा दशको नेपाली पाठ्यपुस्तकमा उपयोग गरिएका बोलाइ सिपअन्तर्गतका अभ्यासहरूको पहिचान गर्नु यस अध्ययनको मुख्य उद्देश्य हो । यस अध्ययनका लागि पुस्तकालयबाट भाषा पाठ्यक्रम, पाठ्यपुस्तक र परीक्षणसम्बन्धी पुस्तकहरू सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । परीक्षणसम्बन्धी पुस्तकबाट बोलाइ सिपसम्बद्ध मान्यताहरूको समीक्षात्मक टिप्पणीबाट विश्लेष्य सूचकहरू निर्धारण गरी अभ्यासको अध्ययन गरिएको छ । बोलाइ सिपसम्बद्ध अभ्यासहरू २२.७८ प्रतिशत रहेको देखिन्छ । समग्रमा उच्चारण, शब्दार्थ र वाक्यमा प्रयोग, छलफल, विचार÷तर्क, कुराकानी, संवाद, अभिनय, मौखिक प्रश्नोत्तर आदि क्षेत्रसँग सम्बद्ध अभ्यासहरू राखिएको छ । प्रत्येक पाठमा उच्चारण,शब्दार्थ र वाक्यमा प्रयोग तथा छलफलसम्बन्धी प्रश्नहरूको प्रयोग बढी गरिएको छ । पाठगत अभ्यासको आधारमा हेर्दा चित्रवर्णन, शाब्दिक निबन्ध, मौखिक प्रश्नोत्तर आदि पक्षका अभ्यासहरू अत्यन्त कम रहेका छन् । बोलाइ सिपको प्रभावकारी विकासका लागि अन्तर्वार्ता, भूमिका निर्वाह, मौखिक रचना, वादविवाद र विषयअनुकूलका कुराकानी सम्बद्ध अभ्यास थप्नुपर्ने देखिन्छ । यस अध्ययनले शिक्षण सिकाइका क्रममा भाषा शिक्षकलाई बोलाइ सिपसम्बन्धित अभ्यासको पहिचान गरी समानुपातिक रुपले कक्षा कार्यकलाप अगाडि बढाउन सहयोगी हुनेछ । यस लेखले भाषा शिक्षणसम्बन्धी चासो राख्ने पाठ्यक्रम निर्माता, पाठ्यपुस्तक लेखक, भाषा शिक्षक र विद्यार्थीमा सहयोग पु¥याउने छ ।</p> उमेश काफ्ले Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-05 2021-02-05 5 1-2 145 158 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34745 'ओक्कल दोक्कल पिपलपात' कवितासङ्ग्रहमा प्रतीकविधान https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34746 <p>‘ओक्कल दोक्कल पिपलपात’ कवितासङ्ग्रहमा उपयोग गरिएका प्रतीक पहिचान गरी तिनको विश्लेषण गर्नु यस लेखको प्रमुख उद्देश्य हो । प्रस्तुत लेख वर्णनात्मक विधिमा आधारित छ । पुस्तकालीय अध्ययन प्रक्रियाबाट सामग्री सङ्कलन गरी कतिमा प्रयुक्त प्रतीकको पहिचान एवम् विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । प्रतीकका विविध पक्षमध्ये प्राणीजन्य, स्थानजन्य, वस्तुजन्य तथा परिवेशजन्य प्रतीक पहिचान गरी सोहीअनुसार विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । कवितासङ्ग्रहमा रहेका समग्र प्रतीकमध्ये ९५ ओटा प्रतीक पहिचान गरिएको छ । सङ्कलित प्रतीकमध्ये २५ ओटा प्राणीजन्य, १२ ओटा स्थानजन्य, ३४ ओटा वस्तुजन्य तथा २४ ओटा परिवेशजन्य प्रतीकका रूपमा निरूपण गरिएको छ । सबैभन्दा बढी वस्तुजन्य प्रतीक उपयोगमा आएकाले स्रस्टा उक्त प्रतीकमा विशेष केन्द्रित रहेको देखिन्छ । स्वतन्त्र शब्द मात्र पनि प्रतीक हुने भए पनि यस कवितासङ्ग्रहमा पदावलीकै रूपमा मात्र प्रतीकको प्रयोग भएको देखिन्छ । समस्या तथा चुनौती प्रस्तुत गर्नका लागि स्थानजन्य प्रतीकको बढी उपयोग गरिएको छ भने विसङ्गति तथा अन्याय एवम् गतिहीनता प्रस्तुत गर्न वस्तुजन्य प्रतीकको अधिक प्रयोग गरिएको छ । त्यस्तै, स्वतन्त्रता, काल्पनिकता तथा खुसी प्रस्तुत गर्नका निम्ति परिवेशजन्य प्रतीकको उपयोग गरिएको छ । सुख तथा दुःखका सन्दर्भहरूमा प्राणीजन्य प्रतीकको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । कवितासङ्ग्रहमा रहेका विभिन्न प्रतीकमध्ये अधिकांश पर्यावरणसँग सम्बद्ध छन् । प्रतीक चयनको स्रोत मूलतः पर्यावरण भएको निष्कर्ष यस अध्ययनबाट प्राप्त भएको छ । तसर्थ विश्लेषित कृतिमा प्रयुक्त प्रतीकका माध्यमबाट पर्यावरणीय सन्दर्भ र साहित्यबिच अभेद्य सम्बन्ध रहेको समेत प्रस्ट हुन्छ ।</p> राजेन्द्र खनाल Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-05 2021-02-05 5 1-2 159 168 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34746 शिक्षकको पेसागत विकासको अवधारणा र यसका सम्बद्ध पक्ष https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/34747 <p>शिक्षकको पेसागत विकास भनेको शिक्षकलाई पेसाप्रति कर्तव्यनिष्ठ, अद्यावधिक र कार्यकुशल बनाउने प्रव्रिmया हो । शिक्षण सिकाइको सम्पूर्ण नेतृत्व शिक्षककै हातमा रहेको हुन्छ । शिक्षककै पूर्वतयारी र सक्षमताले शिक्षण सिकाइका कार्यहरू प्रभावकारी र परिणाममुखी हुन सक्छन् । पेसागत रूपमा सिर्जनशील, दक्ष, उत्प्रेरित र समसामयिक परिवर्तनसँग परिचित शिक्षकले सिकारुलाई मात्र होइन, विद्यालय, समाज, समुदाय र राष्ट्रलाई नै मार्गदर्शन गर्न सक्छ । तसर्थ सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक र शैक्षिक परिवर्तनको नेतृत्व गर्ने शिक्षकको पेसागत विकास हुनु अत्यावश्यक छ । तर वर्तमान सन्दर्भमा शिक्षकका पेसागत विकास कार्य सन्तोषजनक रूपमा भएका छैनन् नै, यसको सैद्धान्तिक अवधारणाका बारेमा पनि अस्पष्टताहरू रहेका देखिन्छन् । यसै सन्दर्भमा शिक्षकको पेसागत विकासको अवधारणा र यसका सम्बद्ध पक्ष शीर्षकको लेख तयार गरिएको छ । गुणात्मक ढाँचामा संरचित गरिएको यस लेखमा पुस्तकालय पद्धतिबाट तथ्याङ्क सङ्कलन गरी शिक्षकको पेसागत विकाससँग सम्बन्धित सैद्धान्तिक पक्षको चर्चा, त्यसको आवश्यकता, उपादेयता, तालिमसँगको सम्बन्ध, पेसागत विकासका विविध पक्ष तथा तिनको कार्यान्वयन र मूल्याङ्कनका उपायहरूलाई प्रस्ट्याउँदै निष्कर्षमा पुगिएको छ ।</p> शिव प्रसाद तिमल्सेना Copyright (c) 2021 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2021-02-05 2021-02-05 5 1-2 169 186 10.3126/ire.v5i1-2.34747