Interdisciplinary Research in Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire <p>A publication of the Research Management Cell, Central Department of Education, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> en-US peshal.khanal@tucded.edu.np (Dr. Peshal Khanal) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Mon, 05 Sep 2022 10:44:31 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 कक्षा दशको नेपाली पाठ्यपुस्तकमा समाविष्ट व्याकरणका अभ्यास https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47491 <p>कक्षा दशको नेपाली पाठ्यपुस्तकमा भएका व्याकरणका अभ्यासहरूको अध्ययन गर्ने उद्देश्यले तयार गरिएको यो लेख गुणात्मक अनुसन्धानको पुस्तकालयीय अध्ययनमा आधारित छ । कक्षा दशको नेपाली पाठ्यपुस्तकलाई अध्ययनको मूल सामग्री मानी सोही पुस्तकबाट तथ्यहरू सङ्कलन गरी वर्णन विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । व्याकरणका प्रत्येकपाठ्यवस्तुलाई तालिकीकरण गरी वर्णनात्मक एवम् व्याख्यानात्मक तरिकाले विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । सोहीअनुसार कक्षा दशको नेपाली पाठ्यपुस्तकमा धातु, शब्दवर्ग, लेख्यचिन्ह, काल–पक्ष, मूल–व्युत्पन्न शब्द, उपसर्ग–प्रत्यय, द्वित्व, समास, वर्णविन्यास, वाक्यका प्रकार, पदसङ्गति, वाक्य संश्लेषण–विश्लेषण, कारक–विभक्ति र वाच्यसम्बन्धी व्याकरणका अभ्यासहरूराखिएका छन् ।मूल र व्युत्पन्न, वर्णविन्यास, स्वर वर्ण र अक्षर संरचना, वाच्यसम्बन्धी व्याकरणका अभ्यासलाई सम्बन्धित पाठसँग जोडिएको छ भनेधातु, लेख्यचिन्ह, पदसङ्गति, भाव, वाक्य संश्लेषण र विश्लेषण, कारक र विभक्ति, लघुतावाची, समूहवाची र सिङ्गो शब्दका अभ्यासलाई सम्बन्धित पाठसँग जोडिएको छैन । व्याकरणका अधिकांश पाठ्यांशलाई मूल पाठसँग नजोड्नु शैक्षणिक दृष्टिले पाठ्यपुस्तकको कमजोरी मानिन्छ ।</p> बुद्धराज खनिया Copyright (c) 2022 Interdisciplinary Research in Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47491 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 समसामयिक नेपाली उपन्यासको शिक्षण प्रक्रिया https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47494 <p>प्रस्तुत अध्ययनमा नयनराज पाण्डेको ‘उलार’ (२०५५) उपन्यासलाई नमुना पाठका रूपमा लिई समसामयिक नेपाली उपन्यासको शिक्षणका प्रक्रियाको विश्लेषण गरेर त्यसको एउटा प्रतिमान तयार परिएको छ । स्नातक तहमा गरिने समसामयिक नेपाली उपन्यासको शिक्षण प्रक्रियामा अवलम्बन गर्न सकिने प्रभावकारी ढाँचा दिई त्यस क्रममा वास्तविक जीवनसँग तिनको अन्तरसम्बन्ध अनुकूलन गरेर शिक्षकले विद्यार्थीलाई गराउनुपर्ने क्रियाकलापको खोजी गर्दै तिनको मूल्याङ्कन प्रक्रियाको रूपरेखा प्रस्तुतयस लेखको उद्देश्य हो । यसमा उपन्यासको शिक्षणको विधागत, विषयवस्तुगत र शैलीगत मान्यतालाई सैद्धान्तिक पर्याधारका रूपमा लिई सोद्देश्यमूलक नमुना छनोट पद्धतिबाट ‘उलार’ उपन्यासको प्रतिनिधित्व गराएर पाठगत तथ्याङ्क सङ्कलन तथा विमर्श गरिएको छ । त्यसका निम्ति उपन्यासको गहन पठन, शाश्वत सारवस्तुसँग उपन्यासको सम्बन्ध स्थापना, मार्गदर्शक प्रश्नहरूको विकास, उपन्यासको विनिर्माण र पूरक संसाधनहरूको छनोटका सन्दर्भलाई सैद्धान्तिक ढाँचाका रूपमा उपयोग गरी सम्पन्न गरिएको छ र त्यसको मूल्याङ्कन प्रक्रियाको रेखाङ्नसमेत गरिएको छ ।समसामयिक नेपाली उपन्यासको शिक्षण गर्दा शिक्षणसिकाइ क्रियाकलापमा आलोचनात्मक ज्ञानको महत्त्वका साथै विद्यार्थीलाई सांसारिक यथार्थ, भाषिक व्यवहार र उपन्यासको प्रस्तुतिका कल्पनात्मक आधारहरूलाई सैद्धान्तिक रूपले उपयोग गर्न सक्ने बनाउनु नै शिक्षण र मूल्याङ्कनको प्रयोजन हो भन्ने निष्कर्ष यसमा निकालिएको छ ।</p> नेत्र एटम Copyright (c) 2022 Interdisciplinary Research in Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47494 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 सामाजिक उत्तरदायित्व बोध गराउने नेपाली बालउपन्यास https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47496 <p>बालबालिकाहरूमा सामाजिक सम्बन्धको विकास गराउँदै सामाजिक उत्तरदायित्व बोध गराउने हेतुलाई प्राधान्य दिई सिर्जना गरिएको नेपाली बालउपन्यासको विश्लेषण गर्नु नेपाली समालोचनाको अपेक्षित अध्ययन हो । नेपाली बालउपन्यासमा यस प्रकृतिको विश्लेषण भएको नपाएकाले तथ्यपरक विश्लेषणसहित यो लेख तयार पारिएको हो । सामाजिक उत्तरदायित्व बोध गराउने नेपाली बालउपन्यासको विश्लेषण गर्नु यस लेखको मुख्य उद्देश्य हो । यस लेखमा पुस्तकालयीय अध्ययन कार्यबाट तथ्य सङ्कलन गरी नेपाली बालउपन्यासलाई प्राथमिक सामग्रीका रूपमा उपयोग गरिएको छ । सामाजिक उत्तरदायित्वसँग सम्बद्ध विविध सैद्धान्तिक पुस्तकहरूलाई द्वितीयक सामग्रीका रूपमा लिइएको यस लेखमा वर्णनात्मक विधिको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । यस लेखमा नेपाली बालउपन्यासमा प्रविष्ट सामाजिक उत्तरदायित्वका विविध सन्दर्भलाई नेपाली समाजका मूल्य तथा व्यवहारका सापेक्षमा अध्ययन गरिएको छ । बालबालिकाहरूलाई आप्mनो परिवार, साथी तथा समाजप्रति उत्तरदायी बनाउने र कर्तव्य निर्वाहतर्पm उन्मुख गराउने व्यवहारको समावेशन नै उपन्यासमा प्रविष्ट सामाजिक उत्तरदायित्वका सन्दर्भ हुन् । नेपाली बालउपन्यासमा सामाजिक उत्तरदायित्वका सन्दर्भले प्रशस्त स्थान पाएको देखिन्छ । मित्रताका सुमधुर सम्बन्ध, समपर्ण एवम् सामाजिक सेवाभावमा बालकालिकालाई सुसूचित गराइएको छ । प्राणीजन्य सहभाव, विवेकसम्मत न्याय, समानता तथा सद्भावका विषयवस्तुलाई पनि उपन्यासमा प्रविष्ट गरी बालबालिकाहरूलाई मानवीय संवेदना तथा अवस्थाअनुसारका भूमिकामा केन्द्रित गरी नेपाली बालउपन्यासमा सामाजिक कर्तव्य तथा उत्तरदायित्वका पर्याप्त सन्दर्भहरू प्रस्तुत गरिएका छन् । सामाजिक उत्तरदायित्वलाई प्राधान्य दिइएका प्रमख नेपाली बालउपन्यासहरू ‘बालक, बिरुवा र पृथ्वीमाता’, ‘एक दिनको यात्रा’, ‘मान्छे, भैंसी र मुरी चामलको भात’, ‘मावलीको यात्रा’, सानी’, ‘मुस्ताङको गुफा’, ‘डा. चिम्पु चिन्पाञ्जी’, ‘मेहनती गौरी’ र ‘सुनपरी’, ‘सङ्गमपुरे दाजुबहिनी’, ‘चोर’, ‘रूपाको रूप’, ‘शिविरकी सुन्तली’, ‘यार्चा’, ‘दुर्गा हजुरमाको भूत’, ‘बहुलाएको रुख’, ‘अचम्मकी सन्ध्या’, ‘मीना’, ‘कालो पाटी’, ‘अमर मित्रता’ तथा ‘सुरुङको बाटो’ रहेका छन् । यस्ता बालउपन्यासले बालबालिकाहरूलाई मनोरञ्जन दिनुका साथै सामाजिक भूमिकाप्रति सचेत तुल्याउने अभिप्राय लिएको प्रस्ट हुन्छ ।</p> राजेन्द्र खनाल Copyright (c) 2022 Interdisciplinary Research in Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47496 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Classroom Assessment Practice of Higher Education: A Case of Tribhuvan University https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47497 <p>Classroom assessment is for the improvement of a learner’s diverse ability, teachers teaching strategies as well as improvement of entire educating system of institutions. This qualitative phenomenological study focused on the critical analysis of the classroom assessment practices with reference to 21st century learners’ competencies and assessment techniques.The data were collected from 12 faculty members of Department of Mathematics Education, Central Department of Education, Tribhuvan University. Interview schedule and participant observation were the main tools for data collection. The data were analyzed inductively in reference to the theory of scaffolding based on ZPD (Vygotsky, 1978) based on different purposes of assessment; Assessment of, assessment for and assessment as learning. It was found that among the three purposes of assessment, assessment of learning was the dominant practice which ultimately marginalized the other two. This finding points to the need of assessment as learning and assessment for learning rather than assessment of learning, which is also exclusively focused on 21<sup>st</sup> century learning competencies.</p> <p> </p> Sarala Luitel Copyright (c) 2022 Interdisciplinary Research in Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47497 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Educating Students with Intellectual Disabilities in Nepal: Exploring Realities and Challenges fromTeachers’ Perspectives https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47498 <p>This study aims at exploring the realities and challenges that have been taking place for years while providing educational servicesto students with intellectual disabilities in Nepal. Interpretive-constructivist paradigm accompanied by phenomenological research design was usedto carry out this research. Eight teachers teaching to thestudents with intellectual disabilities were chosen from four special schools (two from each) located within Kathmandu valley by using purposive sampling method, and then all sample teachers were interviewed by using in-depth interview technique to collate credible and authenticinformation required for the study. Study results reveal that a number of attempts such as special education services in a separate setting, distinct structure of curriculum, community-based instruction, etc. had been made to optimize the access of these students to educational program. Nevertheless, thestudents with intellectual disabilitieswere not receiving quality educational services because of various challenges such as inadequate training to teachers, poor expectations from children, insufficient resources, etc. These students, therefore, should be taught in an inclusive educational setting byproviding community-based services based on the severity of their disability.</p> Dhruba Prasad Niure, Madhav Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Interdisciplinary Research in Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47498 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Teachers' Health Behaviors on Students' Health; A Social Cognitive Viewpoint of Role-Modeling https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47499 <p>Teachers as role models teach and set an example through their actions. Students routinely observe and are directly influenced by the teacher's health behavior. Unfortunately, school teachers are vulnerable to many health issues that affect student success. Teachers are often absent, showing examples of poor health. This study sought information on the impact of teachers' health behaviors on student health from a cross-sectional descriptive study of mixed methods in secondary schools of Bagmati Province, Nepal. The total sample size of the students in the quantitative interview was 412 from 46 randomly selected schools in the Rasuwa, Bhaktapur, and Chitwan districts. Another 30 students from different schools were selected for in-depth study. It focused on finding out how students identify teachers as role models. Since the concept of role models appears in Albert Bandura's social learning/cognitive theory, which focuses on cognitive concepts, this study examined student cognition to connect to the role modeling structure of the theory. This theory focuses on how children and adults cognitively process social experiences and how these cognitions affect behavior and development. In the light of this theory, it was explained the effect of teacher health behaviors on student's health. Observable health behaviors of teachers are proved to have positive and negative impacts on students' health.</p> Bhagwan Aryal Copyright (c) 2022 Interdisciplinary Research in Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47499 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of sexual harassment on learning experience among teenager girl students at Lalitpur District https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47500 <p>The study aimed to analyze the effects of sexual harassment on the learning experience on the girl students in Nepal. Concurrent mixed-method was used for study among 371 girl students who were studying at community and institutional schools of the Lalitpur district, Nepal . The sample size for the quantitative study has been calculated at a 95% confidence level with a 5 confidence interval. Five focus group discussions (FGD) and three in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted to collect qualitative data. IBM SPSS 20 was used for quantitative data analysis and a thematic approach was used for qualitative data analysis. Learning motivation, interaction with a teacher, self-learning, and class discussion activities among girl students were found significantly affected by sexual harassment and sexual harassment was found as one of the causal factors behind poor learning activitys and achievement on the girl students in Lalitpur, Nepal.</p> Kalpana Gyawali, Ram Krishna Maharjan Copyright (c) 2022 Interdisciplinary Research in Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47500 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Explosive Legs Power between Tharu and Non-Tharu Madheshi Girls in the Madhesh Pradesh of Nepal: A Comparative Analysis https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47502 <p>The paper deals with the objective, which was to compare and analyze the explosive legs power among the girl students of Tharu ethnic and non-Tharu Madheshi girl students in the Madhesh province of Nepal. Also, hypothesized that there is significant difference in explosive legs power between them. It was based on quantitative with comparative design. Altogether 62 girl students have designated as respondents, 31 girl respondents taken from Tharu ethnic and 31 from non-Tharu Madheshi girls. Respondents were taken through multistage sampling method. The standing broad jump test item of AAHPER youth fitness test applied as tool for this study. The standing broad jump test applied to measure the explosive legs power. While comparing the mean score of non-Tharu Madheshi girls, Tharu ethnic girls were found better in explosive legs power. Likewise, p-value of t-test has applied at 0.01 significant level. It has found significant difference between them in explosive legs power of standing broad jump test. Hence, this research paper is found the significant difference between Tharu ethnic and non-Tharu girl students. Therefore, hypothesis (H<sub>1</sub>) is accepted. In compared on standing broad jump test the non-Tharu girls, Tharu ethnic girls have more participated in intramural-extramural sports tournaments, sporting events as well as physical work.</p> Suresh Jang Shahi Copyright (c) 2022 Interdisciplinary Research in Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47502 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Instructional Leadership of Principals on Students' Achievement in Public Schools in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47503 <p>The purpose of this study is to find out the impact of principals' instructional leadership on students' achievement. School head teachers act as a leader and also a manager that determines students' achievements both directly and indirectly. Instructional leadership can significantly influence the quality of teaching and learning in the schools and consequently students' achievement, by improving the working conditions of the schools Literature shows that transformational leadership and instructional leadership determine the preferred styles of school improvement. This study shows that effective school leadership is the authority to lead the school. There is a growing understanding that leadership is surrounded in various organizational contexts within school communities, not centrally vested in a person or an office. The real challenge facing most schools is no longer how to improve but, more importantly, how to sustain improvement. Sustainability will depend upon the school’s internal capacity to maintain and support developmental work and sustaining improvement requires the leadership capability of the many rather than the few. <strong> </strong></p> Narayan Prasad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Interdisciplinary Research in Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47503 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Motivating Factors of Youth Selecting Labor Migration Rather Than Higher Education: A Systematic Review https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47504 <p>There are many underlying factors those are compelling youths for selecting labor migration rather than continuing their higher education. Hence, to comprehend what factors aredeterring youths towards higher education in the context of Nepal, the studywas carried out. For that, researchers used a systematic review method and overviewed secondary sources likewise book, article, and research reports published in the similar area. Through this review, multiple and multi-dimensional factors i.e., social, cultural, economic, educational, political, environmental, and miscellaneous of youth labor migration were identified. In most cases,youths were compelled for the labor migration, however, in some cases, youth were migrated for pursuing education. Also, youth labor migration was found throughout the globe including Nepal. Finally, it was concluded that youth migration was varied and the context specific especially in the developed, developing, and underdeveloped countries, hence the trend and patterns of youth labor migration was diverse.</p> Santosh K. Mahato, Devi Prasad Paudel, Om Prasad Baral Copyright (c) 2022 Interdisciplinary Research in Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47504 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Survey on Rate of Return on Investment in Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47505 <p>The rate of return to education is the sum of discounted benefits and costs. It shows the relatively profitable sector for a secure investment. The main objective of this study is to review and analyze the volume of the rate of return to education. The literature review, survey design was used, and the materials were collected using purposive sampling. The analysis concludes that the rate of return on education can be analyzed based on the additional year of schooling, sex, levels of education, occupations, geographical regions, countries, and sectors. Different studies conducted in different countries reveal that the size of the rate of return differs according to the categories mentioned above. It means that overall returns to education seem highly heterogeneous. Likewise, most studies show that the private rate of returns for females is higher than that of males; the tertiary level's returns are higher than the other levels, and the urban sector's returns are higher than that of the rural sector.</p> Min Raj Poudel Copyright (c) 2022 Interdisciplinary Research in Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47505 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Teachers' Experiences and Reflection on Social Networking Site: Application of Facebook on Students' Learning https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47506 <p>This paper explores the effect of the use of the social networking site 'Facebook' on students’ learning in public secondary schools in Nepal. It also examines the use of Facebook in teaching and learning to improve students’ academic performance. A mixed-method (QUAN-qual) research design with an opinionnaire survey tool was used to collect the quantitative data, whereas a semi-structured in-depth interview was used to collect qualitative data. One thousand teachers were selected randomly using the Raosoft sample size calculator with a 95% confidence level. The data from both these sources were analysed using SPSS software version 20 and thematically as well as verbatim methods. The study found that 69% of teachers used Facebook for other purposes than teaching and learning in public secondary schools. Also, 86% of teachers use Facebook during school hours which positively affects students’ academic performance. Based on this study, it is recommended that the use of Facebook need to be done only for academic purposes during school hours in the public secondary schools in Nepal.</p> Kamal Prasad Acharya, Milan Acharya Copyright (c) 2022 Interdisciplinary Research in Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47506 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Teachers' Perceptions of Student's Weaknesses While Scoring Answer Sheets https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47507 <p>This paper aims to explore the perceptions of examiners in examining bachelor's level answer sheets. This study was carried out by adopting the hermeneutic phenomenological method under a qualitative research design. The participant of the study were five teachers from the constituent campuses of Tribhuvan University.This study explored whether students mismatched the answer numbers, such as writing the incorrect answer or writing an irrelevant answer. Unpreparedness about curriculum content and writing inappropriate answers with verbal repertoire is a common problems. Most of the answer sheets were found to be lacking in managing the time while writing the answers. Furthermore, students were found poor at structuring answers and wrapping them with appropriate remarks. The study findings can contribute to the test construction, test administration, and refinement of a student's writing with relevant content and demand for the questions.</p> Dawa Sherpa, Khagendra Baraily Copyright (c) 2022 Interdisciplinary Research in Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/47507 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial Vol.7(1) https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/48045 <p>Not available.</p> Ram Prasad Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/48045 Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000