Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources 2020-01-12T01:32:16+00:00 Jiban Shrestha Open Journal Systems <p>A journal published by Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences, Prithu Technical College, <span style="color: #000000;">Lamahi Municipality Ward-3, Bangaun, Deukhuri Dang, Nepal</span>.</p> <p>Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources was included on <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> on 7th March 2019.</p> Entrepreneurial behavior of large cardamom growers: A case study in Lamjung district of Nepal 2020-01-12T01:32:16+00:00 Srijana Shrestha Bishnu Pandey Narayan Raj Joshi Jiban Shrestha Krishna Prasad Timsina <p>Study on entrepreneurial behavior of large cardamom growers in Lamjung District, Nepal was conducted from December 2017 to June 2018 in Marshyangdi Rural Municipality of Lamjung district. The Rural Municipality was selected purposely for the study due to the recent establishment of Cardamom Zone under the Prime Minister Agriculture Modernization Project in the Municipality focusing on large cardamom development. Altogether 80 large cardamom growers were selected randomly from 454 large cardamom growers of the study site. Data were collected through household surveys, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, personal observations, and other secondary sources. Results showed that a greater proportion of large cardamom growers were found to have medium level of innovativeness (45%), decision-making ability (51.2%), information-seeking ability (48.8%), risk orientation (46.2%), leadership ability (43.8%), achievement motivation (46.2%) and low management orientation (56.3%) which contributed to the overall medium entrepreneurial behavior (47.5%) of large cardamom growers in the study area. About 35 percent of farmers were belonging to the low entrepreneurial behavior and only a few numbers of farmers (17.5%) were under the high entrepreneurial behavior category. The high number of farmers with low and medium entrepreneurial behavior and a low number of farmers with high entrepreneurial behavior has resulted in poor commercialization of large cardamom in the study area. Educational status, landholding, extension participation, economic motivation, experience in large cardamom farming, and area of large cardamom cultivation were found to have a significant correlation with the entrepreneurial behavior of large cardamom farmers while age had a negative and significant effect. There is still scope to increase the number of large cardamom farmers with high entrepreneur behavior for commercializing large cardamom in the study area but programs should be designed and implemented accordingly.</p> 2020-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Decision to use herbicide in wheat production by the farm households in Nepal: A probit regression analysis 2020-01-11T08:49:19+00:00 Surya P. Adhikari Yuga N. Ghimire Sanjiv Subedi Hema K. Poudel <p>The use of herbicides in wheat production is increasing in Nepal mainly due to labor shortage and higher wage rates, even if available. However, little information is available on what factors determine the use of herbicides. This study explored the major factors that affect the decision to use herbicide by the wheat farmers. The semi-structured interview schedule was administered to 343 farmers from four major wheat-growing districts. The study employed a probit regression model to identify the factors that influenced the decision to use herbicides. Educations, membership, migration, wheat cultivated area, amount of urea use were identified as the significant factors influencing the decision of farmers to use herbicides. Herbicides user farmers produced 220 kg more wheat grain yield from one hectare of land compared to non-users. This study suggests that the wheat yield of Nepal could be increased through adopting better weed management techniques.</p> 2020-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Participatory ranking of fodders in the western hills of Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:21+00:00 Bir Bahadur Tamang Manoj Kumar Shah Bishnu Dhakal Pashupati Chaudhary Netra Chhetri <p>Fodder is an important source of feed of the ruminants in Nepal. In the mid hills of Nepal, farmers generally practice integrated farming system that combines crop cultivation with livestock husbandry and agroforestry. Tree fodders are good sources of protein during the forage and green grass scarcity periods especially in dry season. Local communities possess indigenous knowledge for the selection of grasses and tree fodders at different seasons in mid hills of western Nepal. A study was conducted on the perception of farmers with respect to selection of fodder species in eight clusters in Kaski and Lumjung districts that range 900-2000 meter above sea level and receive average precipitation of 2000- 4500mm per annum. During the fodder preference ranking, farmers prepared the inventory of fodders found around the villages and nearby forests and selected top ten most important fodders in terms of their availability, palatability, fodder yield, milk yield and milk fat yield. In total, 23 top ranking fodders species were selected from the eight clusters. These fodder species were also ranked using pairwise ranking and weighted scoring methods and ranking was done on the basis of merit numbers obtained from weighted scores. The analysis revealed <em>Artocarpus lakoocha</em> as best tree fodder followed by <em>Ficus semicordata, Thysanolena maxima</em> and <em>Ficus calvata.</em> Similarly, the calendar of fodders trees for lopping season and the best feeding time was prepared on the basis of farmers’ local knowledge. This study suggests strategies for promotion of locally preferred tree fodder species and supplementing tree fodder with feed in different seasons depending on their availability and local preferences.</p> 2020-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Socio-economics of wheat production in Kailali and Sunsari districts of Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:22+00:00 Sanjiv Subedi Yuga N. Ghimire Deepa Devkota Meena Kharel Sudeep Gautam Bimala Sharma Bidya Kiran Sapkota <p>For socio-economic assessment on wheat production, research was conducted from March to June, 2019 in two major wheat growing districts of Nepal, Kailai and sunsari. The primary information was collected by face to face interview using the pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule, two Key Informant Surveys were also done.In addition, the secondary information were collected from the review of related literatures. The survey areas were selected by consultating with Agriculture Knowledge Centre and agricultural officials of the local government; sample were selected by using simple random sampling. All total, 194 samples were selected for this study; the outliers and incomplete responses were omitted. The descriptive statistics revealed that Nepal 297 (66.16 %) has the highest area coverage in Sunsari while Gautam (36.50%) has the highest coverage in Kailali. Multiple regression model revealed that wheat cultivated area (p= 0.000), adoption of NARC released varieties (p= 0.000), gender of the household head (p= 0.017), age of the household head (p= 0.040), membership of organization (p= 0.094) and number of family members between age group 15 to 59 years (p= 0.085) have significant effect on wheat production. Furthermore, the unpaired t-test showed that the mean productivity of wheat in Kailali (2.99 Mt./ha) is significantly higher than that of Sunsari (2.81t./ha) at 5% level of significance. To increase the wheat productivity, the concerned government agricultural institutions should: assure access to NARC released improved varieties, make policy to consolidate the fragmented land, encourage the economically active population and the household heads towards wheat production by providing the efficient technical and financial support.</p> 2020-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bung: A traditional practice of potato cultivation in eastern hills of Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:23+00:00 Kalika Prasad Upadhyay Amit Prasad Timilsina <p>Eastern hill region is one of the high potato producing areas of potato in Nepal. There are many traditional potato production systems existing in the region. Among them, 'Bung' and 'Lhose' are very popular systems. There are some under-proven views of naming to this unique cultivation practice. Field observations, key informants' interview, and group discussion were carried out at three sites of Okhaldhunga and Solukhumbu districts in July 2019 to explore the basic information on the bung system. The results of this investigation revealed that the century-old practice utilized marginal sloppy lands of mountains for cultivation of potatoes. Farmers left land fallow for 4-5 years to grow weeds and herbs. Thereafter, they slashed them with a thin layer of soil, stacked them over winter, burned and mixed with the soil making a raised pit. They planted 15-25 potato seed tubers into these pits depending upon the pit size. No additional fertilizer is added to these pits. No intercultural operations are carried out until harvesting. It was explained that the yield of potato from the bung was significantly higher &nbsp;&nbsp;15-20 kg) &nbsp;than that of general local practice called lhose system (5-7 kg) from the area equivalent to Bung . Some interventions such as high yielding varieties, easy-to-handle equipment for bung preparation and introduction of fast-growing non-hazardous weeds, etc. were the demands of the farmers to increase profit from the bung system.</p> 2020-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Factors affecting the productivity of coffee in Gulmi and Arghakhanchi districts of Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:25+00:00 Chandan Bhattarai Dija Bhandari Subash Bhandari Keshav Bhusal Bishal Khatri Arvind Srivastava Bidya Kiran Sapkota <p>Coffee is one of the major potential cash crops with lucrative export value grown in mid-hills of Nepal. Nepalese coffee production has suffered long by low productivity. Research was conducted from February to May, 2019 to analyze the factors affecting the productivity of coffee in Arghakhanchi and Gulmi districts of Nepal. These two districts were, purposively selected for this study taking account of comparative advantage and past studies recommendations for coffee sector. Altogether, 100 coffee growing households 50 from each, Arghakhanchi and Gulmi, were sampled by using multistage sampling technique. A pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect the primary information while secondary information was collected reviewing the relevant publications. Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression model was used to determine the factors affecting the productivity of coffee. The study revealed that the number of active family members involved in coffee production (0.000), adoption of income diversification through intercropping (0.005), training (0.072) and technical assistance (0.021) had positive and significant effect on coffee productivity. Encouraging the household to have coffee production as their primary occupation, providing technical assistance on rational land utilization and intercropping and strengthening the skill and knowledge of farmers through trainings could significantly support in increasing the productivity of coffee.</p> 2020-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Farmers’ perception on the performance of different rice varieties in Kapilvastu district, Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:26+00:00 Sundar Sapkota Sanjib Sapkota <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: #1c1e29;">Rice is the major staple food crop in Nepal. To date, several rice varieties have been developed and released in Nepal. However, rice production is far below in comparison with its production potential. A household survey was conducted in Bangaganga municipality of Kapilvastu district in 2018 to assess farmers’ perception on performance of four different rice varieties (Radha-4, Ramdhan, Gorakhnath, and Sawa). The data were collected from a total of 120 rice farmers (randomly selected) using the interview schedule and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Likert scale, and indexing technique. Statistical analysis showed that the Ramdhan variety had the highest yield (4.95 t/ha), whereas Radha-4 had the lowest yield (3.15 t/ha). The most disease and drought-tolerant variety, as perceived by the farmers, was Radha-4. Smut and Khaira were perceived as the primary diseases whereas Brown planthopper and Rice Gundhi bug were the most important insects of all studied rice varieties. The study recommended that the plant breeders should focus on developing site-specific rice varieties to meet the multiple concerns of the farmers, such as higher yield and stress-tolerant. The farmers should be made aware of varietal selection and crop pest management techniques via training programs, which further helps to reduce the yield gap between farmers’ field and research field.</span></p> 2020-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Multivariate analysis of soybean genotypes 2020-01-11T08:49:27+00:00 Pallavi Kumari Singh Jiban Shrestha Ujjawal Kumar Singh Kushwaha <p>The experiments were conducted using randomized complete block design with three replications at the research field of Agriculture Botany Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal in 2016 and 2017 to evaluate sixteen soybean genotypes using multivariate analysis. The results showed the significant (p &lt;0.05) differences among genotypes for plant height, days to maturity plant and hundred&nbsp; seeds weight and grain yield. Cluster analysis based on these traits, sixteen soybean genotypes were divided the genotypes into four clusters. The soybean genotypes grouped into cluster 1&nbsp; showed the &nbsp;highest value for days to maturity. The genotypes belonged to cluster 2 had the highest values for grain yield and plant height. The principle components analysis showed that PC1 and PC2 having eigen values the highest than unity explained 76.6% of total variability among soybean genotypes attributable to plant height, days to maturity, number of pods/plant, 100 seed weight and grain yield. The genotypes showing wide diversity in cluster and principle component analysis can be used as parents in hybridization programs to maximize the use of genetic diversity and expression of heterosis and develop high yielding soybean varieties.</p> 2020-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pesticides handling practices among potato growers in Kavrepalanchok, Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:28+00:00 Kashi Ram Sapkota Sundar Sapkota Sanjib Sapkota Krishna Katuwal <p>The rate of pesticide application in the agricultural field is surging. Farmers are getting exposed to pesticide hazards from the misuse and unsafe handling of pesticides. The study was conducted among 101 potato growers in Kaverpalanchok district of Nepal in 2018. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, status, and pesticide handling practices among potato growers. Around 94% farmers applied pesticides against early and late blight. Only 5% growers treated seed before potato sowing. About 93 and 73% farmers sprayed pesticides 2-10 times/season into the field and spent 2-6 hours/pesticide spray respectively. More than 2/3<sup>rd</sup> growers did not read the pesticide labels, and nearly 95% growers received information on pesticide applications from agrovet rather than authorized government bodies. Only 13% farmers had received Integrated Pest Management (IPM) training. However, 1/4<sup>th</sup> of them had practiced IPM techniques. The majority of the growers used masks, rubber boots, and long-sleeved clothes during pesticide handling. Nearly 2/3<sup>rd</sup> growers threw pesticide containers anywhere in the environment. Concerned authorities should provide IPM training, skill-building programs on pesticide handling and awareness on waiting period and environmental hazards to avoid pesticide risk.</p> 2020-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Economics of rice production in Pyuthan district of Nepal 2020-01-11T11:44:41+00:00 Sagar Bhusal Rupak Karn Ritesh Kumar Jha Ankit Ojha <p>A research was conducted at Pyuthan district in order to access the profitability of rice production in Pyuthan during the summer season of 2018-2019. Altogether of 70 respondents were selected randomly and surveyed with semi-structured interview schedule. The results revealed that the average land holding was 0.45 hectare, and the average rice cultivation area was 0.34 hectare. On the basis of average rice cultivation area, farmers were categorized as small (39) and large (31). The cost and return was calculated among both the category. t- test was used to compare the mean costs of inputs between small and large farmers. Cost for agronomic operations was found far higher (more than 70%) in both the category in compared to the cost of inputs. Contribution of rice grains and straw to overall return was 72.65% and 27.35% respectively. Benefit Cost ratio was found greater among large farmers. The average B:C ratio was 1.51, which was fairly higher than 1.14 in Dang district indicating the investment of rice production is expected to deliver a positive net return to the farmers of the study area. In a nutshell, rice cultivation is an important enterprise that should be encouraged, considering the fact that it is a major staple crop.</p> 2020-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Value chain analysis of Large Cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxburg) in Bhojpur, Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:30+00:00 Dharmendra Kalauni Arati Joshi <p>Large Cardamom is a high value spice crop having substantial export potential. The study was conducted on Feb-May, 2019 in Arun rural municipality, Bhojpur municipality and Sadananda municipality with an objective to analyze existing value chain of Large Cardamom in Bhojpur district of Nepal. &nbsp;In total, 150 Large Cardamom growers were selected using purposive sampling technique. In addition to that, 17 traders from the Bhojpur, Khadbari and Birtamod were also selected for the study. Findings showed that farmers were interested in Large Cardamom industry due to good return and high profit margin per unit of commodity. The benefit-cost ratio was found higher in Arun village municipality (1.735), followed by Sadananda municipality (1.467) and Bhojpur municipality (1.263). Increasing disease and pest attack and low seasonal price are the major problem in production and marketing of Large Cardamom respectively. Harvested capsules of Large Cardamom were dried using traditional drier (bhatti) that make the dried capsules prone to quality degradation. Value addition practices such as grading, tail cutting were found poor in farmer level. Producer’s share and marketing efficiency were found highest when farmers sell their product directly to exporter and lowest in domestic market channel. Demand and supply of Large Cardamom in Indian market was most determining factor for price fixation of Nepalese Large Cardamom. Thus from the study it is recommended to improve production process through appropriate mechanization, along with possible efforts in identification of potential international markets and possible ways for direct export to third countries which could help farmers to receive higher price.</p> 2020-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Incidence and predation rate of hornet (Vespa spp.) on European honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) apiary at mid-hill areas of Lalitpur district, Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:32+00:00 Sanjaya Bista Resham B. Thapa Gopal Bahadur K.C. Shree Baba Pradhan Yuga Nath Ghimire Sunil Aryal <p>Predatory hornets are considered as one of the major constraints to beekeeping industry. Therefore, its incidence and predation rate was studied throughout the year at two locations- rural and forest areas of mid-hill in Laliptur district during 2016/017 to 2017/018. Observation was made on the number of hornet and honey bee captured by hornet in three different times of the day for three continuous minutes every fortnightly on five honeybee colonies. During the study period, major hornet species captured around the honeybee apiary at both locations were, <em>Vespa velutina </em>Lepeletier, <em>Vespa basalis </em>Smith, <em>Vespa tropica</em> (Linnaeus) and <em>Vespa mandarina </em>Smith. The hornet incidence varied significantly between the years and locations along with different observation dates. Their incidence and predation rates were low in early spring and summer that gradually increased with the highest peak in October and November in both locations. The maximum predation was on mid-November (62.07%) and early-November (53.49%) at rural and forest locations, respectively during 2016/017. In 2017/018, the highest predation was on early-November (70.27%) at rural area while it was in mid-November (58.62%) in the apiaries near the forest area. The population of hornet was considerably higher at forest areas and their incidence around the honeybee apiaries were negatively correlated with rainfall. Hence, assessment of the temporal and spatial population variations and predation rates along with weather parameters is helpful in to develop sustainable management plans of the hornet in apiary.</p> 2020-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative economics of maize grain and seed production in Okhaldhunga district, Nepal 2020-01-11T14:42:50+00:00 Puspa Raj Dulal Santosh Marahatta Rupak Karn <p>Maize cultivation is the one the major farm activities among Nepalese farmers. Basically, in the rural hills of Nepal like Okhaldhunga, it dominates any other crop production. The study was conducted for comparative assessment of economics, marketing and identification of major problems of maize seed and grain production in the hilly eastern district, Okhaldhunga during June of 2017. The data were obtained through the interview of 66 producers (33 each of maize grain and seed producers) with a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and parametric tests (-test, t-test) were applied. Both the grain and the seed producers were similar in terms of socio-demographic characteristics, marketing accessibilities but the seed producers were significantly benefited from the training, the extension services, credit facilities despite having 0.14 ha lesser landholding than grain producers. The inputs (manures, fertilizers and the seed) contributed 48% and 50% of the total cost incurred for grain and seed production respectively and the pre-sowing and sowing activities contributed more than 77% of cost in both cases. Despite higher cost for seed production (NRs. 24,969 more than grain production), the benefit-cost ratio of seed production was found higher (1.31) than grain production (1.05). Only 24% of the total harvest was processed and marketed as seed and using optimum quantity (66% middle portion of the cob) for seed production could further increase the income by 23.35%, the improved B:C ratio being 1.51 . The major production problems were scarce farm labor followed by lack of infrastructures while low seasonal price followed by low volume of production ranked the first and second most important marketing related problems.</p> 2020-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Allocative efficiency and adoption of improved maize variety: A case of eastern hills of Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:34+00:00 Tilak Katel Bhishma Raj Dahal Sandesh Bhatta <p>Production and &nbsp;profit from maize farming can be substantially increased by allocating resources efficiently and adopting improved maize variety. In this context, a study was undertaken to determine the allocative efficiency and factors affecting adoption of improved maize variety in Eastern hills of Nepal. Random sampling was conducted in eastern part of Khotang district namely, Halesi municipality and Diktel Rupakot Majuwagadi municipality during month of March 2019. Pretested semi-structured questionnaire was administered among 80 randomly selected farmers cultivating maize since last two years. Face to face interview was scheduled to obtain data. Cobb Douglas production function was used to determine allocative efficiency; probit regression model was launched to determine factors affecting adoption of improved maize variety. &nbsp;Significant positive relation of cost of seed, planting, and weeding with income has suggested to increase expenditure on certified maize seed over own farm seed, line sowing over broadcasting, and weeding. The model revealed that increasing all the factors of production by 100% would result in increase in income by 71.83%. Furthermore, cultivating improved maize variety is more profitable than own farm seed. Probit regression model showed that, farmers who have received training, who were member of cooperatives and who have received high schooling were more likely to adopt open-pollinated improved maize variety. Unavailability of inputs (seed, fertilizer, and labor), insect pest attack and adverse climatic conditions were major constraint of maize farming. Therefore, it would be better to suggest maize producers to increase expenditure on seed; make maize field weed free and adopt line sowing method. In addition, providing training, increasing access over inputs and encouraging farmers towards cooperatives could be virtuous for sustainable maize production.</p> 2020-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of open pollinated and hybrid maize varieties in Dhading district of Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:35+00:00 Shivahari Devkota Rupak Karn Ritesh Kumar Jha Dinesh Marasini Shrawan Kumar Sah <p>Five maize varieties namely Rampur composite, Arun-2, Manakamana-3, Rampur Hybrid-4 and Rajkumar were evaluated in randomized complete block design with four replications at farmers field at Nilkantha Municipality-09, Aashikhola, Dhading from February 2018 to June 2018 to identify high yielding maze&nbsp; varieties. Significant variation&nbsp; was observed for grain yield, silking and tasseling, number of kernels per cob and cob length.The largest cob length was found in Rampur composite (19.550 cm) and highest number of kernel row per cob&nbsp; was found in Rajkumar (17.25) and Manakamana-3 (17.25).The highest number of leaves above cob&nbsp; was found in Rampur composite (5.678). The number of days for 50% tasseling and number of days for 50% silking had a highly significant and positive correlation with plot yield. The highest number of days for 50% tasseling (78.50 DAS) and days for 50 % silking (82.50 DAS) was observed in the genotypes Rampur Hybrid-4. Similarly, the number of leaves above the cob , thousand kernel weight and length of the cob &nbsp;had a significant and positive correlation with plot yield. Rampur Hybrid -4 was the highest yielding genotype (7.79 t/ha) for such domain area with a B:C ratio of 1.48.Thus, Rampur Hybrid-4 genotype is recommended for spring season in Dhading.</p> 2020-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Response of different wheat varieties to Bipolaris sorokiniana at seedling stage under laboratory condition 2020-01-11T08:49:36+00:00 Khagendra Kandel Dilli Dhakal Harish Giri Sushil Basnet Utsav Koirala Narayan Dhakal <p>Spot blotch (<em>Bipolaris sorokiniana</em>) is a major disease of wheat in warm, humid wheat-growing regions. The aim of present study was to evaluate the infection symptomology and disease severity to different wheat varieties under laboratory condition. A total of ten wheat genotypes including RR-21 (a susceptible check) and Aditya (a resistant check), were evaluated for seedling stage resistance to spot blotch disease through artificial inoculation under laboratory condition at Gokuleswor, Baitadi during 2018. Based on disease severity and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC), Aditya was found resistant and RR-21 was found susceptible The tested genotypes were categorized on the basis of total AUDPC value, where Banganga, BL4341, BL4407 and local genotype were moderately resistant, BL-4406, NL-1190, NL-297 and NL-971 were found moderately susceptible to spot blot at seedling stage. The susceptible check, RR-21 had the highest disease severity (44%) as well as mean AUDPC value (51.38).</p> 2020-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Growth and yield performance of hybrid tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) lines at Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:38+00:00 Suraj Gurung Prabin Adhikari Kushal Giri Tek Prasad Gotame Surendra Lal Shrestha <p>An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of hybrid tomato lines on growth and yield performance at Regional Agriculture research Station (RARS), Parwanipur, Nepal during end of September, 2018 to April, 2019. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with seven hybrid tomato lines as treatments and three replications. The tested lines included Srijana and Dalila as check varieties and other lines, developed by crossing HRA and HRD lines which showed better performance under late blight conditions. HRA 20× HRD 1 showed significantly higher plant height (110.67 cm) which was statistically at par with genotype HRA 14× HRD 7. The highest number of fruits per plant (69) was recorded from Srijana whereas the lowest number of fruits per plant (37) was recorded from cv. HRA20 × HRD1. The fruit yield of the lines ranged from 50.54 t/ha to 32.2 t/ha with Srijana having the highest yield and HRA 20× HRD 1 as the lowest. Similar results were shown regarding the marketable fruit yield. However, the highest individual fruit weight (34.67g) was recorded in HRA 14× HRD 7 and the least fruit weight was recorded in Srijana (24.22 g). Results showed that the maximum TSS (5.53 <sup>0</sup>Brix) was recorded from Dalila which was similar as Srijana. Hence, the overall performance of Srijana was recorded superior regarding both quantitative and qualitative suggesting Srijana as the recommended variety in the given domain. Here authors concluded that Srijana is still a comparatively better hybrid variety in Nepal.&nbsp;</p> 2020-01-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Seed-borne infestation and management of Alternaria Species in mustard seed at Chitwan district, Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:39+00:00 Prashant Rijal Subash Subedi Chiran Adhikari Sundarman Shrestha Jiban Shrestha <p>Alternaria blight in mustard cause heavy damage to the foliar parts resulting into poor growth and development of plants and thereby reduces seed yield.&nbsp; Inorder to manage <em>Alternaria </em>infestation in mustard seed for yield maximization, an experiment was conducted in the plant protection laboratory in Nepal Polytechnic Institute, Bharatpur, Chitwan in 2018, using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replicates. Five treatments i.e.Uthane M-45 (2g/kg), Neem powder (3 g/kg), Bojho powder (4g/kg), <em>Trichoderma harzianum</em>, (10<sup>7</sup> Conidia/mL) and control (without treatment) were used for seed treatment of local variety of Mustard. Four hundred seeds for each treatment (25 seeds in each petriplate) were plated using triple layers of moistened blotter paper in&nbsp; petriplate and incubated at (27±2<sup>0</sup>C) for 2 days and followed deep freezing for 24 hrs. Data of disease incidence and seed germination were recorded in 3, 7 and 10 days after incubation (DAI). Seedling vigor and seedling weight were also recorded at 5 DAI. The percentage of <em>Alternaria spp</em> incidence on seeds at different DAI showed highly significant with respect to different treatments. Application of Uthane M-45 and <em>T. harzianum</em> significantly reduced the seed-borne infection of <em>Alternaria spp</em>. as compared to control.&nbsp; At 3 DAI Uthane M-45 completely checked the pathogen however, only 4% and 5% disease incidence was observed in 7 DAI and 10 DAI respectively. Bio control agent <em>Trichoderma harzianum</em> was found next best alternative after Uthane M-45 to control disease. Plant extract Bojho powder and Neem powder were found better than control to check the disease. Furthermore, highest germination (76%) was observed in <em>Trichoderma </em>treatment whereas, lowest germination was found in control.</p> 2020-01-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Economics of Rubber Production in Jhapa, Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:40+00:00 Mousami Poudel Prabin Adhikari Suryamani Dhungana Shankar Paudel Kanti Thapa Angila Bidari Ramita Manandhar <p>A study was conducted to examine cost structure and economic feasibility of rubber production in Jhapa district. It also aimed to assess determinants of increment in acreage of rubber cultivation in the study area. A total of sixty two rubber growers were selected by simple random sampling and interviewed with pre-tested semi structured schedule on the month of March, 2019. Study revealed that the total cost of natural rubber production per hectare of rubber orchard was 499774.8 NRs. /year. It was found to be economically viable and cost effective as indicated by satisfactory values of Benefit Cost Ratio (1.5), Net Present Value of NRs. 686547 at a discount rate of 12 percent and Internal Rate of Return 18 percent. Probit model revealed that trainings received, experience of rubber farming, ethnicity and membership in community organizations were significant factors that positively affected farmers’ decision in expanding rubber cultivation area. Received trainings solely could increase probability of acreage increment by 36.9 percent. Thus, it is recommended that extension services like training, farmers’ field school, and farm visits should be intensified for increment of profitability from rubber farming in Jhapa, Nepal.</p> 2020-01-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of row spacings and varieties on grain yield and economics of maize 2020-01-11T08:49:41+00:00 Saurabha Koirala Akash Dhakal Dhiraj Niraula Sampurna Bartaula Urbashi Panthi Mohan Mahato <p>Maize is the second most important crop of Nepal. The yield of the crop is low due to lack of appropriate plant density for the varieties. The field experiment was carried out to study the effect of different row spacings on different maize varieties at Deupur, Lamahi municipality of the dang district in province No. 5, Nepal during the rainy season from June to September, 2018. Four levels of spacings (boardcasting and three row spacings of 45, 60 and 75 cm) and two maize varieties (Rampur Composite and Arun-2) were evaluated using randomized complete block design with three replications. The highest grain yield was found in Rampur Composite and Arun-2 while they were planted with row spacing of 60 cm with plant to plant spacing of 25 cm. The highest grain yield, cob length, cob circumference, number of rows per cob, thousand grain weight&nbsp; were reported when maize was planted in the&nbsp; row spacing 60×25cm. Among the maize varieties, Rampur Composite produced the highest grain yield, cob length, cob circumference, number of rows per cob as compared to Arun-2. This study suggested that maize production can be maximized by cultivating maize varieties with row spacing of 60 cm with plant to plant spacing of 25 cm.</p> 2020-01-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Yarsagumba collection and marketing: A key income source of people in Api Nampa conservation area, Darchula, Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:43+00:00 Renuka Karki Khagendra Kandel Aashish Kunwar Jagdish Bhatta Shambhu Panthi Prakash Kumar Pant <p>Yarsagumba the Himalayan gold rush is the major part of the economy of the himalayan people in the Darchula distict. Our study was conducted in Khandeshwori region of the the Darchula district to quantify the contribution of Yarsagumba on the total household income of the harvester and to reveal the problems releated to its harvesting and selling. Income from Yarshagumba accounted upto 68% in this region. Geo-physical problems were observed most during collection along with significant conflicts and lower productivity. Price variation is the major market problem of those Yarshagumba harvesting peoples. Social factors like family size, adult members and educational factors have significant impact in total collection and income. The highest price obtained was Rs.18408.33, average price was Rs.15308.33 and the lowest price was Rs. 10205. Benefit to cost or expenses (BC) ratio found in research area was 5.13. Having sharp eye vision school children were taken for the collection and have to leave school for time. Although the data is emerging on medicinal use and market of Yarshagumba little systematic research has explored village level harvesting practice and socioeconomic impacts, especially in this region of Nepal.</p> 2020-01-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of different tillage practices and nitrogen level on wheat production under inner terai of Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:44+00:00 Sampurna Bartaula Urbasi Panthi Anil Adhikari Mohan Mahato Darbin Joshi Krishna Aryal <p>A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the plant height, yield and yield attributes of wheat under different tillage practices and nitrogen level at Dang, Nepal during winter season 2018-19. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with two tillage practices viz. zero tillage and conventional tillage as main plot factor and four level of N viz. 50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, 75 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, 100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>and 125 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>as sub plot factor and each replicated thrice.&nbsp; The result revealed that there is no significant relation between tillage practice and plant height of wheat while N level significantly affect the plant height. 125 kg N ha<sup>-1 </sup>recorded the highest plant height (110.7 cm). Zero tillage recorded the highest effective tiller m<sup>-2</sup> (254) and grain yield (3.3 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) whereas spike length, grain spike<sup>-1</sup>, biological yield and harvest index were not significant with tillage practices. Regarding the N level, 125 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> recorded the highest effective spike m<sup>-2</sup> (279), spike length (10.6 cm), grain spike<sup>-1</sup> (48), thousand grain weight (46.3 g), grain yield (3.6 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and biological yield (9.4 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). 50 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> recorded the highest harvest index (42.9%). The interaction between the tillage practice and nitrogen level showed the significant effect on grain yield and harvest index where as other parameters showed non-significant relation. The zero tillage with 125 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> recorded the highest grain yield (3.9 t ha<sup>-1</sup>).</p> 2020-01-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Efficacy of fungicides in management of Downy mildew disease of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under open field conditions, in Dhading district of Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:45+00:00 Shailesh Pandit Hira Kaji Manandhar Krishna Hari Dhakal Sramika Rijal Sandesh Bhandari Sushma Paneru <p>Downy mildew (<em>Pseudoperonospora cubensis</em>) is one of the most important disease of cucumber under open field conditions. Hence, the experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of fungicides in management of downy mildew disease of cucumber (<em>Cucumis sativus</em> L.) under open field in Chauradi-7 Dhading during spring season, 2019. Bhaktapur local variety of cucumber was used for the study. The experiment was laid out in single factor randomized complete block design with four replications. Three different bio-fungicides; <em>Trichoderma viride + Trichoderma harzianum</em>, <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>, <em>Verticillium lecanii</em> and one chemical fungicide; Krilaxyl (metalaxyl 8% + mancozeb 64%) were used as treatments. Normal water spray served as control. It was observed that bio-fungicides had insignificant effect in controlling the downy mildew. Pathological observation such as disease incidence percentage, severity percentage and AUDPC in bio-fungicides treated plots were not significantly different from water-sprayed control plots. Similarly, biometric attributes such as number of fruit, length and diameter of fruit, weight of fruit were also non-significant. Krilaxyl resulted significant effect in controlling downy mildew, providing maximum disease reduction (37.48%-50.72%) with lowest disease incidence (1.25-61.25%) and lowest value of AUDPC (138.7). Krilaxyl treated plots had higher number of fruit (6), longer length of fruit (17.15-18.95), higher diameter of fruit (4.16- 4.45 cm) and higher weight of fruit (677 - 759 g). Hence, chemical fungicide Krilaxyl was found better for the management of downy mildew disease in open field cucumber cultivation. Further, researches on bio-fungicides, especially of native strains are required for best result.</p> 2020-01-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of different combinations of poultry manure and urea on growth, yield and economics of garlic (Allium sativum L.) 2020-01-11T08:49:47+00:00 Hom Prasad Sitaula Roshan Dhakal Chandan Bhattarai Amrit Aryal Dija Bhandari <p>A field experiment was carried out in garlic (<em>Allium sativum</em> L.) in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications and five treatments in horticulture farm of Agriculture and Forestry University, Chitwan, Nepal to find out the efficacy of different combination of poultry manure and Urea as nitrogen fertilizers in its yield and yield attributes. The five treatments used for experiment were designed altering the recommended nitrogen dose through different sources i.e. (T1) 100% Urea, (T2) 7% Urea and 25% poultry manure, (T3) 50% Urea and 50% poultry manure, (T4) 25% Urea and 75% poultry manure and (T5) 100% poultry manure. The data regarding to the plant height, number of cloves, diameter of bulbs and fresh bulb weight were taken. In case of plant height, non-significant result was found between various treatments. The number of cloves was found highest in T5 (24.69±1.30), the diameter of bulb was found highest in T2 (3.93±0.39 cm), fresh bulb weight was found highest in T2 (14.32±0.39 gm) and total bulb yield was found highest in T2 (7.16±0.19 t/ha) which were significant at 5 % level of significance. The total bulb yield was found positively correlated (r=0.53) with diameter of bulb at 1 % level of significance. The benefit cost (B/C) ratio was found highest in T2 (1.54) and lowest in T3 (1.28). So 75% Urea and 25 % Poultry Manure stood one of the best combinations of nitrogen fertilizers providing higher economic yields.</p> 2020-01-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of pesticide use in major vegetables from farmers’ perception and knowledge in Dhading district, Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:48+00:00 Sandesh Bhandari Sushma Paneru Shailesh Pandit Sramika Rijal Hira Kaji Manandhar Bishnu Prasad Ghimire <p>A field study was carried out to assess the pesticide use status in major vegetable crops from farmers’ perception and knowledge in Dhading, Nepal in 2019. Field study was carried with 100 commercial farmer’s using semi-structure questionnaire by face to face interview. This study was analyzed by categorization of farmers into small holder (51) and large holder (49) groups on the basis of mean area of vegetable cultivation (6.48 ropani). The highest amount of pesticides is needed in tomato in both large holders and small holders according to the farmer’s experience. Among the study farmer’s, 41% of them spray the pesticides by making a cocktail or mixed method and 56%&nbsp; follow the waiting period of 3-5 days in both of the cases. A significant positive correlation was found at 5% level of significance between the knowledge and practice pattern of waiting period of the pesticides and negative correlation was found between the Personal Protective equipment score and health hazard score. Headache was the major health hazards faced by the farmers which was higher in small holders (66.7%) as compared to the large holders (46.9%). Mask was the most used PPE by the farmer’s i.e. by 83% in overall. Fourty three percent of the farmer’s throw the pesticide containers in secret place after using of it.The use of PPE was seen lower in small holders as compared to the large holders. This study reveals the necessities of suitable program and policies regarding the knowledge, safe handling and use of pesticide among the farmer’s level.</p> 2020-01-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Production economics and resource use efficiency of tomato under open field condition in Kapilvastu, Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:49+00:00 Manoj Subedi Madhav Pandey Rakesh Kumar Ojha Bibek Acharya <p>A study was conducted in Kapilvastu district with an objective to analyze the production economics and resource use efficiency of tomato production under open field condition. Altogether ninety tomato growers were purposely selected for household survey. Primary data were collected using pre-tested interviews and focus group discussion with tomato farmers and stakeholders. Data was analyzed using SPSS and STATA, and socio-demographic characteristics, Cobb-Douglas production function and resource use efficiency of the tomato farmers was studied. The tomato production in the studied site was found to be a labor-intensive venture as cost incurred for labor was about 39 percent of the total cost with gross margin of NRs. 7255.10 per <em>kattha</em> and net profit of NRs. 5464.1 per <em>kattha</em>. Cobb-Douglas production function analysis showed positive and significant relationship of cost on labor, seed, farm yard manure, inorganic fertilizer and micronutrients and other associated expenses with the gross income. The returns to scale of 1.02 indicated increasing returns to scale whereas resource use efficiency values indicated all input resources were underutilized in tomato production.</p> 2020-01-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance of drought tolerant rice varieties in different altitudes at Duradada, Lamjung, Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:50+00:00 Sandesh Dhakal Bishnu Bilas Adhikari Bishnu Prasad Kandel <p>To evaluate high yielding drought tolerant rice varieties in different altitudes, a field experiment was carried out at Duradanda, Lamjung, Nepal during rainy season of 2016 under rainfed condition. The experiment was laid out in a factorial randomized block design with two replications. The treatments comprised of six different rice varieties viz. Sukhadhan-1, Sukhadhan-2, Sukhadhan-3, Sukhadhan-4, Sukhadhan-5 and Sukhadhan-6 and four altitudes viz. 1000, 1200, 1400 and 1600 masl. The results revealed that rice variety Sukhadhan-2 produced the highest grain yield (2.93 t/ha) followed by Sukhadhan-5 (2.92 t/ha) and Sukhadhan-3 (2.82 t/ha). The highest grain yield of Sukhadhan-2 was due to higher number of effective tillers/m<sup>2</sup> (228), higher number of grains/panicle (83), higher panicle length (21.79 cm) and low sterility percentage (27.91%) as compared to other varieties. Regarding to altitudes, the highest grain yield (3.34 t/ha) was obtained in lower altitude (1000 masl) followed by 1200 masl (2.79 t/ha), 1400 masl (2.68 t/ha and 1600 masl (1.85 t/ha). The lower yield in higher altitude was due to higher sterility percentage, less number of effective tillers per unit area and less number of effective grains per panicle. It seems that the performance of these varieties was good up to 1400 masl.</p> 2020-01-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Advances in fruit breeding in Nepal 2020-01-11T08:49:51+00:00 Tek P Gotame Ishwori P Gautam Surendra L Shrestha Jiban Shrestha Bal Krishna Joshi <p>Nepal has spent about six decades on fruit development and research in different species. Fruit breeding particularly local and exotic germplasm collection started after 1950s and has gained momentum after the formation of commodity programme in 1972 AD. Major researches in the past were focused on indigenous and exotic genotype collection, evaluation, selection, propagation protocol standardization and adoptive trials. Some good ground works have already been done in major fruits such as apple, pear, plum, persimmon, kiwifruit, citrus, litchi, guava, pomegranate, walnut, papaya, banana and mango. The major public institutions involved in fruit breeding are Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) following Agriculture and Forestry University. Some of the private nurseries like Everything Organic Nursery, Kavre and Technology Demonstration Centre of ICIMOD, Lalitpur were also involved in introduction and maintenance of indigenous and exotic fruit species. National Centre for Fruit Development, Kirtipur; Tropical Region Horticulture Centre, Nawalpur; Temperate Horticulture Farm, Satbanj, and Horticulture Farm, Marpha collected many local and exotic fruits and maintained at field gene bank. Horticulture Research Station, Rajikot has introduced 25 spur type apple cultivars and maintained in field gene bank. National Citrus Research Programme, Paripatle has introduced, collected and maintained 130 genotypes including exotic and indigenous landraces of citrus. Two varieties of acid lime ‘Sunkagati-1’ and ‘Sunkagati-2’ have been released and one variety ‘Terhathum Local’ has been registered. ‘Khoku Selection’ of mandarin orange has also been registered. Banana varieties 'Malbhog', 'Willium Hybrid' and 'G9' has been selected by participatory varietal selection and registered. &nbsp;To strengthen fruit breeding in the nation, NARC needs to be restructured with special focus on fruit researches. Establishment of national fruit commodity programs along with establishment of Tropical Fruit Research Station in Province 2 and Temperate Fruit Research Station in Province 5 at national level can streamline NARC's fruit breeding researches.</p> 2020-01-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Community based seed production through IRRI /IAAS projects in western mid hills of Nepal: A review 2020-01-11T08:49:53+00:00 Bishnu Bilas Adhikari <p>A review on the community based seed production through IRRI/IAAS projects was made to know the seed production situation in western mid hills of Nepal. In Nepal, around 90% of seeds are supplied through informal sector where seed replacement rate (SRR) of major staple food crops is around 10%. The formal seed supply systems are characterized by a vertically organized production and distribution of released or registered varieties by public and private organizations using agreed quality control mechanism. Community Based Seed Production (CBSP) is one of the most important community resources from which, small holder farmers can improve their livelihoods which serves as a means to attain food and nutrition security and income generation to the farmers. IRRI/IAAS collaborative projects (IFAD TAG 706, STRASA and CURE) have establish 15 CBSP organizations in Lamjung, Tanahun, Gorkha and Bajhang district since 2006 to 2014 and producing quality seed annually. Project team has developed a unique type of working modality to get success in research, development and technology dissemination. Conduction of PVS trial annually in key sites, regular training to farmers, exposure visit of farmers, monthly meeting with farmers, regular minikit distribution in new sites, award to best seed producers, collaborative work with respective DADOs are some examples. Though CBSPs have faced major challenges like limitation of fund for seed buying, availability of quality source seed in time and place, availability of machines like moisture meter, grading machines, weighing machines, seed storage problems, marketing problems, natural disasters etc. the projects have contributed in release of rice varieties like Ghaiya-2, Sukhadhan series from 1 to 6, Bahuguni, Hardinath-2 and Chiyarang sub-1 as drought tolerant, and Ramdhan, Sunaulo sugandha, Mithila, Swarna sub 1 and Barkhe 1022 as irrigated varieties during project period.</p> 2020-01-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Q-Fever, an undermined zoonotic threat 2020-01-11T08:49:54+00:00 Swochhal Prakash Shrestha Krishna Kaphle Yuvraj Panth Swoyam Prakash Shrestha <p>With upto 75% of all human disease being zoonotic in origin, proper study of the diseases is necessary to prevent any outbreak or human loss. More studies are required for developing countries like Nepal where there are no appropriate provisions for situations after breakouts. One such little known sporadic zoonosis is Q-fever. Q-fever (Coxiellosis) is caused by Gram-negative bacterium <em>Coxiella burnetii</em> that infect cattle and other ruminants with serious concerns for developing reproductive disorders and flu-like symptoms in human. There have been reports of undifferentiated febrile illness of Rickettsial cause in human and seroprevalence of Coxiella antibodies in goats of Chitwan and dairy cattle of Rupandehi for the first time. Low infectious dose and high resistivity to environment makes the disease more potent. Q-fever continues to be unexplored in Nepal despite its identification in neighboring countries like India. Thus, this paper after reviewing related articles from various journals, proceedings and magazines from online sources like Google Scholar, Mendeley, NCBI and PubMed is aimed to evaluate current status of disease, its epidemiology, zoonotic potential and preventive measures that can be adopted to minimize the threat of the disease as much as possible.</p> 2020-01-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Threats of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) incidence in Nepal and it’s integrated management-A review 2020-01-11T08:49:55+00:00 Sudhan Bhusal Enjila Chapagain <p>Fall Armyworm <em>(Spodoptera frugiperda)</em> is in the state of major threat for Nepal especially in maize although it has more than 80 host to continue its life cycle. After its first incidence in Africa in 2016, it has already spread in more than 100 countries within a short period of time. It was seen in India for the first time in 2018. Due to the open border between Nepal and India, there is high probability of incidence of pest in Nepal. The temperature regime of Nepal is highly suitable for the pest establishment. Now is the time to think about the pest which can cause severe damage to the second most produced cereal crop of Nepal i.e. maize. Management of the pest is possible through many biological, chemical and cultural means. Planting of legumes as a trap crop and ploughing field properly before planting the field can be a best possible cultural method of managing the pest. Natural enemies like <em>Telenomus, Trichogramma chilotraeae</em> for controlling the eggs, <em>Bacillus thuringiensis </em>for larvae and <em>Brachymeria</em> <em>ovata</em> for pupa of Fall Armyworm in Maize and Vegetables. Similarly, Neem extracts are found be larvicidal and the oil extracted from the seeds of long pepper are found to be checking Spermatogenesis of the pest. Chemicals like Methomyl, Cyfluthrin, Methyl parathion are used tocontrol the pest. Use of chemicals at the initiation of the pest spread is discouraged as it can hamper the natural enemy present in the surrounding ecology. However, the use of pesticides can be done below the economic threshold level so that the pest does not develop any resistance towards the chemicals.</p> 2020-01-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##