Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr <p>A journal published by Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences, Prithu Technical College, <span style="color: #000000;">Lamahi Municipality Ward-3, Bangaun, Deukhuri Dang, Nepal</span>.</p> <p>Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources was included on <a href="https://doaj.org/toc/2661-6289" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> on 7th March 2019.</p> Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Prithu Technical College en-US Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources 2661-6270 Returns to Potato Research Investment in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26002 <p>Agricultural research plays a significant role in increment in productivity and contributes to food security. Very few studies on the impact of public research spending on different sectors and commodities in Nepal has been documented. This study was designed to estimate the adoption lags of improved potato varieties and benefits generated by potato improvement research in Nepal. More specifically, the study answers two basic questions: (i) whether investment in potato research is justifiable? and (ii) how long is it taking to replace old improved varieties? We took public annual potato research investments of Nepal from the Fiscal year 2001 to 2017 from Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC). The household survey was carried out to estimate the potato varieties coverage in Nepal in 2017. Other secondary data were sourced from the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Agricultural and Livestock Development, FAO stat, Nepal Rastra Bank and NARC to complement the analysis. We have used a simple economic framework to estimate the benefits generated from agricultural research. The estimated benefit and cost streams were used to calculate Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) and Net Present Value (NPV). &nbsp;Results showed that the majority of the potato researchers had done research related to crop husbandry (seed production and crop managements); while the limited number of researchers had specialized in breeding activities. The annual growth rate of potato productivity was 214.49 kg per annum per ha which had increased at the rate of 1.76 percent per annum compound growth rate. The results revealed that the average weighted age of improved potato varieties was 21.83 years and each NPR. investment on potato research has given 508 NPR. and NPR. 13760 million NPV at a 12 percent discount factor during the last 17 years. Similarly, the contribution of potato research to GDP and AGDP was found 0.323% and 0.989% respectively. Therefore, future investment and focus should be concentrated on potato research and scaling up activities, and reducing variety adoption lag to obtain additional benefits from potato research investment.</p> Krishna P. Timsina Samaya Gaire Yuga N. Ghimire Hema K. Poudel Deepa Devkota Sanjiv Subedi Surya P. Adhikari ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-23 2019-10-23 2 1 1 13 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26002 On-farm Conservation Approaches for Agricultural Biodiversity in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26012 <p>Agricultural biodiversity is the basis for agricultural research and development. This paper is based on the survey across the country along with the field implementation and action research on different conservation approaches over the years and locations. Management of agricultural biodiversity is being initiated in Nepal through ex-situ, on-farm, in-situ and breeding strategies by National Agriculture Genetic Resources Center (National Genebank) from 2010. National Genebank has implemented on-farm conservation across the country. Different approaches are community seed bank, community field genebank, household seed bank, household field genebank, village level field genebank and school field genebank. In addition to these, landrace enhancement program and recognition of agro-biodiversity rich farmers have also contributed on conserving APGRs. Identification of agro-biodiversity rich farmers have been initiated in collaboration with different governmental and non-governmental organizations across the country. Strong network among these farmers is supposed to establish for effectively managing APGRs on-farm. Agro-biodiversity conserved by such farmers is called household genebank, which consist of seed storage (household seed bank) and household field genebank. There are more than 100 CSBs in the country and some of them are conserving local genetic resources. Eight community field genebanks have been functionalized for conserving recalcitrant seeds and vegetatively propagated crop species. Village level field genebank has been established by NGO in Makwanpur district to conserve banana and taro. In this approach, different households grow different landraces, maintaining maximum diversity within a village. In some areas, school field genebank has been established by growing local APGRs in school areas. This helps to conserve APGRs, educate the students, earn the income and make environment beautiful. Genebank also encourages farmers to reintroduce the landraces from the National Genebank. Accessioning these APGRs and training to farmers and farming communities are necessary to effectively and efficiently conserving and utilizing APGRs on-farm.</p> Bal Krishna Joshi Deepak Upadhya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-24 2019-10-24 2 1 14 35 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26012 Screening of local, improved and hybrid rice genotypes against leaf blast disease (Pyricularia oryzae) at Banke district, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26013 <p>Rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em>) is the major cereal crop of Nepal which is being faced by the devastating rice blast disease caused by <em>Pyricularia oryzae</em> Cavara. An experiment was conducted to screen rice genotypes against leaf blast disease under disease conducive upland nursery at Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Khajura, Banke, Nepal during July to November, 2016. A total of 101 rice genotypes (comprising of local, improved and hybrid) including resistant and susceptible check were screened in a randomized complete block design with two replications. Disease scoring was done beginning from the 20<sup>th</sup> days of sowing by using the disease rating scale 0-9. Amongst the tested 101 rice genotypes, 28 genotypes were found resistant, 15 genotypes were moderately resistant, 16 genotypes were moderately susceptible, 39 genotypes were susceptible and 3 genotypes were highly susceptible to leaf blast. The information revealed from this study could be helpful for rice leaf blast disease management and utilizing these resistant and moderately resistant genotypes for further resistance breeding program.</p> Basistha Acharya Sunder Man Shrestha Hira Kaji Manandhar Bedanand Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-24 2019-10-24 2 1 36 52 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26013 Response of rice to different organic and inorganic nutrient sources at Parwanipur, Bara district of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26041 <p>In order to reach an optimum and sustainable production, growers must know the fertilizing nutrient sources and their application rates. The present study aimed to determine the effect of different organic and inorganic source of fertilizers on growth and performance of rice. A field experiment was conducted at Regional Agriculture Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal during summer season of 2013. Rice variety ‘Hardinath 1’ was used in these experiments. Treatments included a combination of organic and inorganic nutrients at eight rates (control, recommended dose of NPK, ½ NPK+FYM 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, ½ NPK+20 cm crop residue, ½ NPK+Chicken manure 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, ½ NPK+Vermicompost 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, FYM 10 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>and FYM 20 t ha<sup>-1</sup>).The experiments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. Treatments produced significant results for plant height, number of tillers per square meter, panicle length and grain yield but thousands grains weight was insignificant. Result showed that application of half of recommended N: P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>: K<sub>2</sub>O from the inorganic fertilizer sources along with soil incorporation of 20 cm crop residue produced significantly higher value for plant height, number of tillers per square meter, panicle length and Grain yield. Treatments did not produce significant effect on after harvest soil properties: pH, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content.</p> Sabina Devkota Sharan Panthi Jiban Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-24 2019-10-24 2 1 53 59 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26041 Diversity and occurrence of major diseases of vegetables and fruit crops during spring season at Aanbukhaireni rural municipality of Tanahun district, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26043 <p>A survey has been conducted to assess the diversity and occurrence of major vegetables and fruits cultivated in Aanbukhaireni rural municipality of Tanahun district, Nepal during spring season of 2019.The surveyed areas were Satrasayaphant, Baradiphant and Dumridanda villages of ward no 1, Yeklephant, Markichowk and Pateni villages of ward no2 , Gaadapani village of ward no 3, Saakhar village of ward no 4 and Ghummaune village of ward no. 5. The surveyed area consists of upper tropical and sub tropical climate. The total no of farmers field selected for the survey was 34, 32, 24, 17 and 21 from ward no 1,2,3,4 and 5 respectively.The major vegetables cultivated during survey period in the surveyed area were bean, bitter-gourd, brinjal, chilli, cowpea, cucumber, okra, pumpkin, sponge-gourd, tomato, snake-gourd and bottle-gourd. Similarly, the fruits found in the region were banana, papaya,&nbsp; grapes, mango, litchi, peach, guava, lemon, mandarin orange etc. The major diseases of vegetables noticed were early blight, late blight, cercospora leaf spot, powdery mildew, downey mildew, fruit rot, bacterial wilt, bacterial spot, leaf curl and mosaic. In case of fruits, sigatoka leaf spot, &nbsp;panama wilt, black rot, algal leaf spot, canker, root rot, foot rot, sooty mold, red rust, anthracnose, rust, mosaic, alternaria leaf spot, downey mildew and leaf curl were the major diseases. The higher disease incidence (70%) and severity (48%) in vegetables were recorded in ward no 2 where as the lower incidence (45.2%) and severity (37.71%) were found in ward no 4. Similarly, the higher fruit disease incidence (70.24%) and severity (51.27%) in ward no 1 followed by ward no 2 with disease incidence and severity of 66.79% and 45.14% respectively. The reasons for those results are low educational level, lack of best bet technology, no proper irrigation and fertilizer, unavailability of pesticides for controlling the diseases. This study will be useful to identify the major diseases of vegetables and fruits of terai and inner terai region of Nepal and applying control measure, looking for the best possible solutions.</p> Subash Subedi Sheela Koirala Saraswati Neupane ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-24 2019-10-24 2 1 60 74 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26043 Contribution of biogas use on forest conservation https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26044 <p>Biogas is an eco-friendly alternative energy source which can greatly contribute to reducing greenhouse gases as they have the possibility of reducing the need to use fossil fuels. A study was conducted at Kumroj village of Khairhani municipality, of Chitwan district of Nepal to assess the sources of energy, dependency of local people on biogas, amount of fire wood substituted by biogas and people’s perception towards biogas use and forest conservation. Stratified random sampling method was used for sampling design. Direst field observation, households questionnaire survey (n=44), key informant interview, and focus group discussions were used for data collection. This study showed that the main source of energy was firewood for cooking, preparation of animal feed, preparation of alcohol and water heating but now these days the dependency on firewood decreased after use of biogas. About 63.6% of the household were using biogas as an alternative source of energy. The need of biogas was always higher during winter while production of gas was lower in compare to summer season. According to gas users, it reduced the fuel wood consumption, improved the kitchen environment, saved time in fuel wood collection and cooking, and also reduced the health problems. The average reduction in fuel-wood consumption was 42.8% after the installation of biogas. All the respondents were agreed that condition of forest was improving. The reason behind this was the use of biogas which reduces the pressure on the fuel-wood collection and ultimately helps in forest conservation.</p> Ishu Shrestha Pramod Ghimire Balram Bhatta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-24 2019-10-24 2 1 75 84 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26044 Adoption of improved wheat varieties in eastern and western Terai of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26047 <p>The research was conducted from March to May 2019 for assessment on adoption of improved wheat varieties in two major wheat growing districts of Nepal, Sunsari, and Kailali; one representing eastern and another western Terai. A pre-tested interview schedule was used to collect the primary information; in addition, two Key Informant Surveys were performed. Furthermore, relevant literatures were reviewed for secondary information. The simple random method of sampling was used within the selected areas that were identified in consultation with Agriculture Knowledge Centre and agricultural officials of the local government. Altogether, 194 samples were taken for the purpose of the study, omitting the outliers and incomplete responses. Descriptive statistics, probit regression, and indexing were used for data analysis. Probit econometric model revealed that membership dummy (1% level), age (1% level) number of family members involved in agriculture (1% level), subsidy dummy (5% level), number of schooling years (5%) and loan dummy (10% level) significantly determined the adoption of improved wheat varieties developed after NARC establishment. Furthermore, indexing identified- lack of availability of quality improved seeds (I= 0.80) as the major problem associated with the wheat production followed by poor availability of fertilizers (0.77), labour shortage (0.57), lack of proper irrigation (0.46) and lack of agricultural machines (0.39). The government agricultural institutions should assure access to quality seeds and fertilizers to the farmers; in addition, subsidy on irrigation and agricultural machines allied with agricultural loan to the educated youths could be the point of attraction&nbsp; for wheat cultivation which leads to increased wheat productivity.</p> Sanjiv Subedi Yuga N. Ghimire Surya P. Adhikari Deepa Devkota Hema K. Poudel Bidya Kiran Sapkota ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 85 94 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26047 Distribution, effect and utilization of Mikania micrantha on livelihood: Case study of Janakauli buffer zone community forest of Chitwan National Park https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26049 <p>Forest of lowlands is heavily impacted by invasive plants species, particularly <em>Mikania micrantha</em> which is also considered as one of the most invasion species. So, it became essential to understand effects of <em>Mikania</em> to user and indigenous vegetation; however the studies were confined to appraising the distribution, effect and utilization of <em>Mikania micrantha </em>on the livelihood of buffer zone of the Chitwan National Park. Vegetation survey, key informant interview, focus group discussion, direct observation and stratification were conducted. GPS points were recorded and the distribution map of <em>Mikania</em> was made by using ArcView GIS 10.1 and has been found throughout the Community Forest. Regression analysis showed that the number of plant regeneration of native tree species decreases by 0.530 unit with every 1 unit increment in <em>Mikania</em> crown cover. The study used a questionnaire survey to 118 households in the CNP of Nepal. The results indicate that the invasion of<em> M. micrantha</em> have negative effects on the community livelihood in the study area. Basic forest products such as fodder and fuel wood have become scarce as a result of reduction in the native plants. Only 6.78% of the users utilize <em>Mikania</em> for household purpose like briquettes fuel, fodder, medicine and manure. The losses of other plant species have severe effect to biodiversity so control measure with utilization should be taken as the most needed action. Regular assessment and monitoring of <em>Mikania </em>effect is necessary to understand the problem and its impact on biodiversity of lowland forest of Nepal.</p> Sami Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 95 108 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26049 Nutritive values of fodders at different seasons and altitudes in Gandaki River Basin of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26051 <p>This study aimed to assess the seasonal and ecological variation of chemical and nutritional values of locally preferred fodders in Gandaki River Basin (GRB) areas. The study was conducted in four altitudinal gradients viz. &lt;400m, 400-800m, 800-1200m and 1200–1600m altitude above sea level in different looping seasons: rainy, spring and winter seasons. The most important five species of fodder trees <em>Artocarpus lakoocha</em>, <em>Ficus roxburghii</em>, <em>Thysanolaena maxima</em>, <em>Ficus semicordata</em> and <em>Bauhinia purpurea</em> were selected based on farmers’ preferences in nutritional values. Fodder samples comprised young leaves, old leaves and young twigs that were taken in July, September and December. It was revealed that nutritive value is not very much influenced by altitude but it is strongly influenced by lopping seasons. Among <em>Thysanolaena maxima</em>, <em>Artocarpus lakoocha</em>, <em>Ficus roxburghii</em> and <em>Bauhinia purpurea</em> the cellulose contents were significantly different (p&lt;0.001) with seasons but there was no significant variation with altitudes. Similarly, Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF) contents in <em>Thysanolaena maxima</em>, <em>Ficus</em><em> roxburghii</em> and <em>Bauhinia purpurea</em> were found significantly different with seasons. <em>Ficus roxburghii</em> fodder tree was found significantly different in Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), ADF, Cellulose and Potassium content with seasons. Similarly, fodder tree <em>Bauhinia purpurea </em>was found significant on Dry matter (DM), Crude fibre (CF), NDF, ADF, cellulose, tannin and potassium with seasons. The study hinted how careful planning of species selection and prudent decision in scheduling looping and feeding fodder trees can help improve animal metabolism, health, growth and productivity.</p> Manoj Kumar Shah Bir Bahadur Tamang Bishnu Dhakal Pashupati Chaudhary Snehi Shrestha Netra Chhetri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 109 126 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26051 Effects of different concentrations of sucrose and citric acid on vase life of rose https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26053 <p>Vase life is the most important parameter to determine the quality of cut flower, however, due to highly perishable nature is always challenging to vase life. An experiment was conducted at Horticulture Lab, Prithu Technical College, Dangon 2018 in order to find out best concentration of sucrose and citric solution that enhances and prolongs the better flower quality and longevity. Experiment was laid out in completely randomize design (CRD) with nine treatments and three replication. Rose sticks were harvested at flower bud stage and two sticks were kept in each vase solution. 2% sucrose with 15 ppm citric acid solution found longest vase life and this combination has the potential to be used as a commercial cut flower preservative solution to delay flower senescence, enhance post-harvest quality and prolong the vase life of cut rose flowers.</p> Pragya Aryal Anjila Adhikari Rukmangat Pathak Rameshwor Pudasaini ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 127 134 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26053 Herbage mass and chemical composition of the heterogeneous grasslands affected by harvesting time in Subtropical terrain Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26055 <p>A study was carried out to evaluate the productivity and chemical composition of heterogeneous grasslands at Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU) livestock farm. The four grassland ecotypes were chosen as upland north, upland south, lowland south and lowland north. The dominating herbage species and cover abundance by the botanical groups were studied on day before the harvesting. Later, the herbage dry matter productivity was estimated by quadrat cutting during May and June, 2017. Chemical analysis was done by using the proximate method for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF) and ether extract (EE) content. Research results showed that the AFU grassland dominated by perennial grasses and sedges followed by the forbs. The mean coverage of grasses and sedges was about 55%, whilst that of forbs was about 29% and the least was for legumes (about 4%). The cumulative herbage mass was about 1.53 t/ ha on the DM basis, whilst the highest DM was found in the upland-south (1.74 t/ha) and the least was in the upland-north (1.334 t/ha). The proximate analysis further revealed that the site had no effect on CF content, whilst the CP was significant only at the second harvest for the lowland north (8.34%).&nbsp; Data revealed that the herbage composition might depend upon the soil moisture availability and geographical aspect. The dominance of perennial grasses at AFU grasslands revealed the yield stability, but needs the improvement through inoculation with leguminous forages for improved feed quality.</p> Prabin Pandey Tej Narayan Bhusal Thaneshwar Pandey Surya Prasad Sharma Badrika Devkota Barsila Shanker Raj Barsila ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 135 144 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26055 Effects of varieties and planting geometries on growth and yield of rain-fed rice in Dailekh, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26059 <p>A study was conducted at outreach sites of Horticulture Research Station, Dailekh with the objective of understanding effects of variety selection and spacing under rain-fed condition, during two rainy seasons of 2016 and 2017. Experiment was conducted in two factorial Randomized Complete Block Design where the research sites were replication itself. First factor was variety, including Khumal-10 and farmer’s variety. The second factor was spacings at (20x20) cm, (20x15) cm, (15x15) cm, and farmer’s practice. Effect of Khumal-10 was significantly superior in each of the parameters studied, except days to heading and maturity. Khumal-10, alone contributed 21.6% more yield compared to the farmer’s variety and also had the tallest plant (127.5 cm) and longest panicle (23.4 cm). Similarly, transplantation at spacing of (15x15) cm was significantly outstanding with 28.6% more grain yield, unlike in transplantation with farmer’s practice. Furthermore, integrated management of rice with Khumal-10 transplanted at spacing of (15x15) cm is recommended for Dailekh condition, since it resulted significantly promising grain yield of 5.5 t/ha, which is 71.9% more in comparison to grain yield from farmer’s variety transplanted in farmers´ practice.&nbsp; Also, the economic benefit was highest with 75.8% more B:C ratio in case of improved variety Khumal-10 transplanted at (15x15) cm spacing.</p> Kiran Pariyar Pradip Sapkota Salina Panta Sashiram Sharma Tika Bahadur Karki ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 145 156 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26059 Economics of chhari and marketable-size carps in Bara, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26061 <p>A study was conducted to analyze the economics of production of chhari and marketable-size carps in Bara, Nepal. All total 90 farmers; 45 chhari producing and 45 marketable-size carps producing farmers were selected randomly and surveyed through pre-tested semi-structured interview based schedule on the month of March, 2019. Data was entered and analyzed using STATA 12.1 and SPSS 25. Findings of the study revealed that the total cost of fish production per hectare of pond area was 971927 NRs/year. Chhari production was profitable in the study area as compared to marketable-size carps with a Benefit Cost Ratio of 1.97 and 1.67 respectively. Production function analysis including six explanatory variables, showed significant effect of feed, labour (p&lt;0.01), maintenance, fuel and electricity (p&lt;0.05) and lime, fertilizer and medicine costs (p&lt;0.1) but seed cost was insignificant. The return to scale was found to be 0.906 and at II stage of Production. According to estimated allocative efficiency indices, it is suggested to reduce seed; and lime, fertilizer cum medicine cost by 159% and 72% respectively, and increase the maintenance; feed; fuel cum electricity; and labour cost by about 95%, 33%, 95%, and 50% respectively for chhari producers. Similarly for marketable-size carp producers, it is suggested to decrease fuel and electricity cost by 176% and increase maintenance; seed; feed; lime, fertilizer and medicine; and labour cost by 95%, 86%, 13%, 29%, and 30% respectively. Thus, fishery enterprise is in the stage of higher potentiality to increase the production in the study area.</p> Prabin Adhikari Dilip Kumar Jha Mousami Poudel Suraj Gurung Mahesh Chandra Acharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 157 170 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26061 Effect of by-pass protein supplements on milk production of dairy cattle https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26062 <p>Bypass protein stimulates the voluntary feed intake, increase quality milk production and thereby improves the economic status of dairy cows farming. This study was conducted to assess the effect of supplementation of bypass protein on lactation performance of dairy cattle. The experiment was conducted by using 2 factorial completely randomized designs. Milk yield of individual animal was recorded daily and milk composition was recorded at fortnight interval. Results revealed that the average daily milk yield of cows fed with Heat treated soyabean cake-T1 (4.29 L) was greater than cows fed with formalin treated soyabean cake-T2 (3.56 L) followed by control group-T3 (2.62 L). . The fortnight average milk protein and fat percentages were 2.91, 2.94 and 3.18% and 5.52, 5.55 and 4.47% for T0, T1 and T2 groups respectively. The weekly average milk SNF and milk density were 8.12, 8.37 and 8.64 % and 25.67, 27.80 and 27.10%, for group T<sub>0</sub>, T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>2</sub> respectively. Experiment revealed that by-pass protein supplementation to lactating animals is one of the option for improving the milk production and milk composition and suggested that further study should be conducted to precise the optimum level of bypass protein supplementation and to quantify the experimental period.</p> Puja Thapa Thaneshwar Pandey Rabin Acharya Bhargab Dhital ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 171 179 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26062 Effect of scion varieties and wrapping materials on success of tongue grafting in Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) in Dolakha, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26065 <p>This study was conducted at Boch, Bhimeshwor-8, Dolakha, Nepal from January to May, 2019 to study the effect of scion variety and wrapping materials on growth performance of kiwi seedling rootstock. The field experiment was carried out in Factorial Randomized Complete Block Design using four replications. The treatments consisted of four scion varieties (Monty, Bruno, Hayward, Allison) grafted onto one year old kiwi seedling (<em>Actinidia deliciosa) </em>and two types of wrapping material (Grafting tape and Polyethylene plastic). The measured traits included sprout length, diameter, number of leaves, and number of sprouted bud per graft, graft success, mortality and survival percentage of grafts. The success rate of kiwi grafting was significantly affected by the scion variety and the wrapping materials. Allison variety showed the minimum days (61.72 days) to first sprouting and the maximum length of sprouts, diameter, number of leaves and number of sprouted bud per graft at the final observation. Monty variety showed the lowest growth performance. The maximum graft success (96.87%) and survival percentage of grafts (93.75%) was observed in Allison variety statistically at par with Bruno and Hayward and the lowest graft success(73.44%) and survivability(64.21%) was observed in Monty due to high mortality of the sprouted grafts. Grafting tape was superior to polyethylene plastic in terms of days to first sprouting (64.08 days), number of sprouted buds per grafts, number of leaves, graft success (92.18%) and survival of the grafts (87.01%) at the final observation. Interactive effect was found non-significant. In a nutshell, Allison is the best scion variety for grafting under the climatic condition of Dolakha and the grafting tape was the suitable tying material.</p> Divya Pandey Bishal Shrestha Madan Sapkota Sarita Banjade ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 180 192 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26065 Agronomic management and climate change scenario simulations on productivity of rice, maize and wheat in central Nepal using DSSAT ver 4.5 crop model https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26068 <p>Average productivity of 3.50 t/ha of rice, 2.50 t/ha of maize and 2.45 t/ha of wheat in Nepal have been very less than their potential productivity&nbsp; for which précised agronomic management and changing climatic scenarios have been reported the most challenging factors at present. Cropping system Model (CSM)-Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)- Rice, Maize and Wheat, embedded under Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer (DSSAT) ver. 4.5 was evaluated from a datasets of farmers’ field experimentations of the central Nepal (Terai-Nawalpur and mid-hill-Kaski districts), and showed high sensitivity of model over change in different agronomic management and climate change scenarios. Model calibration was done by using maximum attainable yield treatments for all tested cultivars while validation was accomplished by using the remaining treatments for predicting growth, phenology and yield of all crop cultivars and results were found perfectly matched with the observed results. Further, the different agronomic management options and climate change scenarios as advocated by IPCC for 2020, 2050 and 2080 from base line of 1995 was studied to simulate the growth and yield performance of diverse crop cultivars. The hybrids and short duration cultivars of all three cereals were found more affected due to climate change than the local and long duration crop cultivars. The model simulation results obtained on rice, maize and wheat using DSSAT ver 4.5 model highlighted that there is utmost importance to develop new climate ready crop cultivars to feed the future generation over different climate change scenarios as suggested by IPCC, 2007 and the simulation results should be extrapolated to the major domains of similar agro-ecozones in Nepal. It is suggested that CSM- CERES- model would be reliable and valid approach for getting strategic decision support system especially with regards to the climate change adaptation measures in Nepal.</p> Lal Prasad Amgain Bishal Dhakal Umesh Shrestha Srijana Marasini ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 193 214 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26068 Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26074 <p>Genetic variability in a crop population is important for successful plant breeding. Eight cucumber (<em>Cucumis sativus</em> L.) genotypes namely Green Long, Simran, Bhaktapur Local, Saihni-2, Ninja-179, Garima, Farmer’s variety and &nbsp;wild genotype were evaluated at Lamahi Municipality, Dang district of Nepal to estimate the magnitude of their genetic variability and heritability. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes for growth and yield traits. The estimates of genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were highest for weight of fruit whereas traits namely fruit length, fruit diameter and days to maturity had medium value for both GCV and PCV. Broad sense heritability estimates &nbsp;ranged from 0.74 for fruit diameter to 0.98 for days to germination. Fruit yield showed high significant positive correlation with fruit diameter (r= 0.649) and negative significant correlation (r= -0.538) with days to flowering. Traits namely weight per fruit, days of germination, no. of flower and days to flowering can be used effectively in selection process of crop improvement program as they had high GCV, PCV and heritability along with high genetic advance as percentage of mean.</p> Sampurna Bartaula Anil Adhikari Urbashi Panthi Prabesh Karki Kiran Timalsena ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 215 222 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26074 Effect of Digestate on growth and production of rice under rice – wheat cropping system https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26076 <p>Field experiments were conducted during rainy seasons of 2017 and 2018 at National Wheat Research Program (NWRP), Bhairahawa to identify the suitable age and appropriate dose of digestate/biogas slurry regarding yield maximization of rice (<em>cv.</em> Ram dhan). The experiment compared the effect of different age [5 days (fresh), 90 days (3 months) and 180 days (6 months)] and dose (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) of digestate/biogas slurry on rice yield. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD) with three replications. Grain yield of rice was significantly higher (4.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) with the application of biogas slurry of 5 days than 90 days (4.3 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) age, in 2017 A. D. Similarly, yield was significantly higher (4.6 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) with the application of biogas slurry 5 days than of 90 days (4.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) age, in 2018.&nbsp; Yield due to the application of biogas slurry of 5 days was equal to the yield resulted from the use of biogas slurry of 180 days in 2017 and 2018.&nbsp; The pooled analysis showed that the yield with the application of biogas slurry of 5 days age was significantly higher (4.6 t ha-<sup>1</sup>) than the yield due to the application of biogas slurry of 90 (4. 4 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and 180 days (4.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) age. The yield of rice has been found increasing significantly as the dose of biogas slurry was incremented from 0 t ha<sup>-1&nbsp; </sup>&nbsp;to 15 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>in 2017, 2018 and in pooled analysis. The yield of rice was significantly higher (4.6 t ha<sup>-1</sup>)&nbsp; &nbsp;in 2018 than in 2017 (4.4 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), in pooled analysis. Thus, the use of biogas slurry of the age of 5 days with the dose of 15 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>produced the&nbsp; higher grain yield of rice.&nbsp;</p> Bisheshwor Prasad Pandey Khem Raj Pant Mathura Yadav Narayan Khatri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 223 237 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26076 Diversity and abundance of insect pest of low land rice field in Lamahi, Dang district of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26081 <p>A study on diversity and abundance of insects in rice field was conducted at farmer field of Lamahi, Dang during July to October in 2019. Insects were collected using sweep net and light trap. Overall, 414 insect specimen representing 11 families and 8 orders were collected during the period. Grasshopper (23.98%) with including all species was the most abundance insect found in rice field as it followed by brown plant hopper (16.62%). Among the eight insect orders captured Orthoptera (29.16%) was the most abundance insect order followed by Homoptera (16.62%). As the diversity of insect pest in this area may responsible economic losses was found which will be useful to adapt appropriate management practices to keep them at normal area. The presence of natural enemies should conserve to enhance the natural biological control of insect pests.</p> Anjali Gyawali Bandana Regmi Rameshwor Pudasaini Namuna Acharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 238 243 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26081 Technical efficiency of potato production in mid western terai region of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26082 <p>A study was done in 2018 to estimate the technical efficiency of potato production in mid western terai region of Nepal.30 households each from Dang, Banke and Bardiya districts were interviewed. Maximum likelihood estimate of the parameter showed the mean technical efficiency of 0.79 which indicated a high scope of increasing the production with the improvement of production technology. The coefficient for the parameter seed, Urea, DAP, MOP and labour were positive contributing for the production of potato. The parameter Compost, pesticides, herbicides and hour of tractor use were negative. The use of these input could be improved for increasing the production of potato. The farm specific variables Education, contact with the extension agent and farm size showed negative coefficient which causes less inefficiency of the farmers in production of potato while the coefficient for Age was estimated to be positive.</p> Jeevan Lamichhane Basistha Acharya Tara Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 244 251 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26082 Economic analysis of fish production using different feed types practiced in Dhanusha district, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26084 <p>A study on the economic analysis of fish production using different feed types practiced in Dhanusha district was conducted in 2018. Out of 600 fish farmers, sixty fish farmers(10%) from the Fish Superzone region i.e. Janakpur sub-metropolitan city, Bideh municipality, Sahidnagar municipality, Kamala municipality, Hanspur municipality, Janaknandani rural municipality and Aaurahi&nbsp; rural municipality, selected using simple random sampling, were surveyed using semi-structured questionnaire. The study revealed that locally formulated mash feed was commonly used feed type in which rice bran and mustard oil cake (RB+MOC) was the principle feed ingredient. 55% of the farmers used rice bran and mustard oil cake (RB+MOC), 20% used rice bran, mustard oil cake and soybean (RB+MOC+SOB), 10% used rice bran, mustard oil cake and fish meal (RB+MOC+FM) and 15% farmers mineral and vitamin (RB+MOC+MIN/VIT) in their feed formulation. The productivity of the fish production in feed type RB+MOC+SOB (3.41±1.02) was significantly higher than other feed type.&nbsp; The total variable cost per ha (5.23±2.11) was found significantly(p&lt;0.05) higher in feed type RB+MOC+SOB. Similarly, gross margin (4.44±2.74) received by farmers of feed type RB+MOC+SOB was also significantly high(p&lt;0.05). The Benefit: Cost (B:C) ratio of the study area was found to be 1.69, high being of feed type RB+MOC+SOB(1.84) compared to others. The feed type RB+MOC+SOB is seen as a economically profitable one in the study area because of the high productivity, profit and B:C ratio. High feed cost was the major problem followed by the unavailability of feed. Fish farming can be a profitable business in Dhanusha with large opportunity to increase the fish production with increasing protein sources in the feed used. Farmers should be provided sufficient information, trainings and be encouraged to incorporate the protein rich sources like soybean and fish meal in the feed prepared to increase the productivity and ultimately return.</p> Pritee Subedi Narayan Prasad Pandit Naresh Kumar Mahato Mahesh Karki Anupam Uprety ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 252 264 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26084 Role of seed priming in improving seed germination and seedling growth of maize (Zea mays L.) under rain fed condition https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26088 <p>Seed priming enhances early seed emergence and proper crop stand establishment which enables the crop to capture more soil moisture, nutrients, and solar radiation. An on-farm experiment was conducted in Okhaldhunga, Nepal to study the effect of six different priming treatments (50 millimoles common salt solution, 200 millimoles urea solution, 1 percent MOP solution, 2.5 times diluted urine, water, and control) on germination and growth of two maize varieties, Manakamana-3 and Nutan-IL60. The experiment was set up in factorial randomized complete block design with three replications. Various germination traits: germination percent, seedling vigour, germination index, mean germination time, and seedling growth traits: shoot length, root length, and dry root weight, were studied. Nitrogen-based (Urea and Urine) priming resulted the most desirable change for the studied traits. Nitrogen-based priming also had significant positive effect on stress tolerance related traits like root length and dry root weight.</p> Avinash Shrestha Shreena Pradhan Jenny Shrestha Mahesh Subedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 265 273 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26088 Effects of potassium levels on growth and productivity of potato varieties in inner terai of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26090 <p>Potassium is an essential nutrient for potato due to its direct effects on the growth, yield and quality of potato tubers. This study was carried out at Lamahi, Dang Nepal during winter season of 2018. Two potato variety (Local and Cardinal) and five levels of potassium (30, 40, 60, 80 and 100 kg K<sub>2</sub>O/ha) were evaluated in two factorial randomized block design with three replications. The application of potassium at 100 kg/ha produced significantly highest plant canopy, stem diameter and leaf length for the both varieties. The highest tuber number per plant (10.3 for Local and 17.6 for cardinal) and tuber weight (19.7 g for Local and 49 g for Cardinal) were obtained with the application of 100 kg K<sub>2</sub>O/ha. The highest gross margin was found with this level of potassium. Therefore, farmers should apply 100 kg K<sub>2</sub>O to potato to achieve maximum production and benefit.&nbsp;</p> Urbashi Panthi Sampurna Bartaula Anil Adhikari Kiran Timalsena Sagar Khanal Susan Subedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 274 281 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26090 Effects of planting configuration and row spacing on growth and production of potato under mulched condition in Dadeldhura, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26092 <p>An experiment was conducted at the research site of Dadeldhura, Nepal in 2019 to identify optimum plant spacing for potato under mulched condition. Three levels of inter row spacing; 60 cm with single row per bed (1RB), 45 cm with double row per bed (2RB) and 30 cm with triple row per bed (3RB) and intra row spacing (20, 30 and 40 cm) were laid out in factorial randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that there was significant difference (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) for all parameters except on days to 50% germination, 90% flowering, 50% maturity and on main stem number and graded large sized tuber number and it's weight. Growth parameters namely canopy, leaf number and leaf area were significantly higher (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) in 60 cm (1RB) ×30 cm spacing. Plant height and leaf area index was significantly higher (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) in 60 cm (1RB) × 20 cm and 30(3RB) ×20 cm spacing respectively. Total number of tubers m<sup>-2 </sup>, weight of tubers&nbsp; m<sup>-2</sup>, weight of marketable tubers m<sup>-2</sup>, harvest index, number of small sized tuber m<sup>-2</sup> ,weight of small sized tubers m<sup>-2</sup> and weight of medium sized tubers m<sup>-2 </sup>were found to be 56.24%,39.79%, 47.98%,4.41%,90.56%, 113.23% and 70.15% significantly higher (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05)&nbsp; in 30 cm (3RB) compared to 60 cm on (1RB) inter row spacing respectively and 59.72%, 61.15%, 58.30%, 4.41%, 114.90%, 137.31%, 55.39% higher in 20cm compared to 40 cm intra row spacing. Interaction effect was significant (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) &nbsp;in marketable tuber number and medium sized tuber number in which the average highest number of marketable tubers (134.44) and medium sized tubers (121.08) was found in 30(3RB) ×20 cm spacing which was 165.95% and 235.03% significantly higher compared to &nbsp;60×40 cm spacing respectively. So, this study showed that 30(3RB) ×20 cm spacing would be best spacing combination under mulched condition.</p> Roshan Dhakal Binod Joshi Santosh Bharati Shiva Chandra Dhakal Khem Raj Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 282 300 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26092 Colibacillosis in poultry: A review https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26094 <p>Avian colibacillosis is caused by a group of pathogens designated avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). Despite being known for over a century, avian colibacillosis remains one of the major endemic diseases afflicting the poultry industry worldwide. Autologous bacterins provide limited serotype-specific protection, yet multiple serogroups are associated with disease, especially O1, O2 and O78 among many others. This article provides the vital information on the epidemiology, diagnosis, control and treatment strategy for avian colibacillosis. A better understanding of the information addressed in this review article will assist the poultry researchers and the poultry industry in continuing to make progress in reducing and eliminating avian colibacillosis from the poultry flocks.</p> Yuvraj Panth ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 301 311 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26094 Participatory on-farm evaluation of wheat genotypes https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26096 <p>In wheat development programs, the evaluation and identification of superior genotypes&nbsp; is the first and leading step in a crop improvement program. Coordinated Farmer’s Field Trial (CFFT) was conducted during the three successive wheat growing season of 2010/11, 2011/12 and 2012/13. In CFFT six different wheat genotypes were planted in different outreach sites of research stations of Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) at varying geographical regions. CFFT was conducted according to standard recommended practices of wheat at farmers’ field with different sets of genotypes for Terai and hill. In CFFT for Terai Tar and Lower valley (TTL) under timely sown irrigated (TSI) condition wheat genotype NL 1073 produced the grain yield of 3695 kg/ha and under the timely sown rainfed (TSR) that was 2738 kg/ha in 2010/11. In 2011/12, wheat genotype NL 1073 had the highest recorded grain yield of 3691 kg/ha in mid western region which was followed by check variety Vijay in CFFT-TTL in 2011/12 in the same region. Similarly in 2012/13, check variety Vijay showed the highest grain yield of 3818 kg/ha and 3044 kg/ha followed by NL 1094 (2938 kg/ha and 3468 kg/ha) in TSR and TSI environments, respectively. In CFFT for Mid and High Hill (MHH) WK 1204 had the highest grain yield of 3967 kg/ha in TSI which was followed by NL 1008 with the yield of 3890 in 2010/11. In 2011/12 the highest mean grain yield was observed in WK 1204 (4242 kg/ha) followed by BL 3872 (3922 kg/ha). Similarly, in 2012/13 NL 1008 was the best genotypes on the basis of grain yield (3297 kg/ha) followed by NL 1055 (3131 kg/ha) under CFFT-MHH.</p> Deepak Pandey Hemant Kumar Chaudhari Shesh Raman Upadhyay Nutan Raj Gautam Bhakti Ram Ghimire Jiban Shrestha Dhruba Bahadur Thapa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 312 321 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26096 Performance evaluation of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes in Dolakha, Nepal: from yielding perspective https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26098 <p>Lack of suitable barley varieties that exhibit high yielding is the major factor among several production constraints contributing to low productivity of barley in Nepal. The present study was done to evaluate and recommend the best performing barley genotypes. This study was conducted at research field of Hill Crops Research Program (HCRP), Dolakha, Nepal under National observation nursery (NON), initial evaluation trial (IET), coordinated varietal trials (CVT) and farmer's field trials (FFT) during winter seasons from 2017 to 2018. The results of these trials showed that in NON, genotypes namely B86023-1K2-OK3 (6.16 t/ha), Xveola-28/MATICO"S"10 (4.41 t/ha) and ACC#2079 (4.41 t/ha) produced higher grain yield over Farmer’s variety (3.57 t/ha). The pooled analysis over years of IET revealed that genotypes namely LG-51/Xveola-2-77-0-3-1-1-OK (2.12 t/ha) and B86099-2-1-OK (2.06t/ha) produced higher grain yield over standard check variety (Solu Uwa) (1.85 t/ha) and Farmer’s variety (1.95 t/ha). Similarly results of combined analysis over years of CVT showed that the genotypes namely B90K-007-0-2-2-0-OK (2.14 t/ha) and ICB90-0196-OAP-2K-OK (1.97 t/ha) produced higher grain yield over standard check variety (Solu Uwa) (1.12 t/ha) and Farmer’s variety (1.66 t/ha). In farmer's field trials (FFTs) the genotypes namely Muktinath ( Coll#112-14 (2.64 t/ha)), NB-1003-37/903 (2.23 t/ha) and Xveola-45 (2.04 t/ha) produced higher grain yield which was at par to standard check variety (Soluuwa) (1.58 t/ha) and Farmer’s variety (1.85 kg/ha). It is suggested that the superior genotypes derived from CFFT could be released and then recommended to farmers for general cultivation in Dolakha and similar other environments of Nepal.</p> Manoj Kandel Narayan Bahadur Dhami Jiban Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 332 337 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26098 Life cycle study of maize stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe) under laboratory condition at National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/janr/article/view/26099 <p>Maize stem borer<em> (Chilo partellus </em>swinhoe) is one of the major threatening global pests of maize and considered as the national top priority entomological research problem in Nepal. The Life cycle of maize stem borer was studied under laboratory condition at National Maize Research Program (NMRP), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during 2018. Development of stem borer undergoes following stages like egg, larvae, pupa and adult. Eggs and different instars of maize stem borer larvae were collected from maize fields were put with host materials (maize leaf and stem) to become different instars of larva, pupae and finally turned to adults. Eggs were harvested from adults and kept on blotting paper which was kept inside petriplates and reared for adults. Their life span in each stage (egg, larva and pupa) and the fecundity of adults recorded. Daily room temperature and relative humidity (RH) in laboratory conditions were recorded. The Egg incubation period ranged from 4-7 days and hatched generally in the early morning (6-8 AM). The complete larvae period ranged from 29 to 36 days while pupal period was ranged from 7 to 12 days. The average male pupal length was found 13 mm and female was 16 mm long. The fecundity of <em>C. partellus</em> Swinhoe was recorded 150-160 eggs per female. The Oviposition period was&nbsp; 4 days and adult male survived for 4-7 days while female for 4-9 days. The average life cycle of <em>C. partellus </em>completed in (44-48) days during summer whereas (60-64) days during winter at average room temperature of (26-27<sup>° </sup>C) and RH of (70-80%). These results have important implications to know the survival and development of pest including effective pest management strategy.</p> Saraswati Neupane Subash Subedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 2 1 338 346 10.3126/janr.v2i1.26099