Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources <p>A journal published by Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences, Prithu Technical College, <span style="color: #000000;">Lamahi Municipality Ward-3, Bangaun, Deukhuri Dang, Nepal</span>.</p> <p>Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources was included on <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> on 7th March 2019.</p> Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Prithu Technical College en-US Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources 2661-6270 Risk of publication in worthless journals <p>Implementing research and publishing results is a crucial for a professional development, scientific communication and collaboration of any academicians, scholars, and researchers in science around the world. The timely dissemination of knowledge and scientific information in the global scientific community helps the development of science and worldwide recognition. The researchers working on scientific community cannot appreciate the value of evidence generated without publishing their work in right and quality journals. Therefore, authors should be careful about predatory or fake journals/publishers for communicating their scientific works. The objective of this study is to raise awareness on predatory or fake publishers/journals and of their dishonest publishing practices. In general, the predatory journal publishes without peer review and true editorial board, often publish mediocre or even worthless papers on charging high publication cost, citing fake and non-existing impact factors and mostly focused on private business motives. On the other hand, publishing in a high impact quality journals undoubtedly enhances the future career prospects, communication ability of authors and deliver concise research messages in the scientific field. Researcher of various disciplines and academic experience should aware with the lists of predatory journals/publishers which are available on Beall’s list in internet before publishing any research articles. Therefore, publishing in predatory/fake journals not only spoil or degrade academic reputations but also waste the time, resources and research message too.</p> Jiban Shrestha Subash Subedi Krishna P. Timsina Mahendra P. Tripathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 1 5 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22217 Does program linking with insurance makes agriculture insurance sustainable? <p>Agriculture insurance is most common forms of risk transfer in agriculture. It is often compulsory for borrowers of agricultural loans in low and middle income countries. This study tries to find out the status of compulsory agriculture insurance in Nepal and its sustainability through answering question “are compulsory agriculture insurance programs making agricultural insurance sustainable? Or we have to think differently for its sustainability. Household survey were conducted using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire in eight districts. Altogether 377 insurer farmers (132 crop and 245 livestock farmers) were selected from the list of target population using simple random sampling technique. Similarly, five cases were selected from the study districts. Result shows that Government of Nepal (GoN) has developed both cost of production and value based insurance products based on farmers demand. Basically, premium rate is fixed as five percent to cost of production based and seven percent to value based insurance for most of crops and livestock. Different governments programs such as youth self-employment program, youth focused program, spring rice promotion program and other grant/subsidy programs under different mega projects of GoN have started to link agriculture insurance with their programs. Insurance has been made mandatory to get such any subsidy support from the government for promoting agriculture insurance simultaneously. However, this study found that this strategy did not adequately work. But if they feel the enterprises is risky and realize the importance of agriculture insurance and can get higher returns from the enterprises, they were willing to participate in agriculture insurance. Most of farmers who participated in government grant program have limited understanding of crop insurance so that they have discontinued insurance after the end of grant/subsidy program. Therefore, it is necessary to revisit the existing provision of grant linked insurance and need to focus more on creating awareness on importance of agriculture insurance for its sustainability.</p> Krishna P. Timsina Yuga N. Ghimire Ghanshyam Kandel Deepa Devkota ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 6 20 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22218 Economics of fish production at Chitwan district, Nepal <p>A study was conducted in 2016 to analyze the economics of fish production at Chitwan District of Nepal. Three study sites: East, West and South part of Chitwan were selected purposively. A total of 90 households, 30 from each study site were selected randomly and were interviewed by using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Secondary data needed for the study were obtained from DADO, MOAD, NARC and other related organizations working on fisheries and aquaculture sector. Descriptive statistics and extended Cobb Douglas production function was used to accomplish the study objectives for which MS-Excel and SPSS 16 were used<em>. </em>The B/C ratio is obtained dividing the gross return by total variable cost incurred. The total cost of production per ha of the pond area was Rs. 743798 per year with 79 and 21 percent variable and fixed cost components, respectively. Feed cost (28 %) was largest cost item followed by cost for labour (25 %), fingerlings (10 %), maintenance (6 %), manure cum fertilizers (5 %), fuel cum energy (3 %) and limestone and others (2%). The average gross return and net profit realized per ha were Rs. 1223934 and Rs. 480135 respectively. The cost, return and profit were calculated to be highest for east Chitwan with highest B/C ratio followed by west Chitwan and south Chitwan. The B/C ratio for the district was found to be 1.63. The return to scale was found to be decreasing with value of 0.654 indicating that 1 percent increment in all the inputs included in the function will increase income by 0.654 percent. Production function analysis, including five variables, showed significant effect of human labour, fingerlings and fuel cum energy cost but feed and manure cum fertilizers cost were insignificant.</p> Tara Sharma Shiva Chandra Dhakal Rishi Ram Kattel Kamal Gharti Jeevan Lamichhane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 21 31 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22219 Assessment of soil quality for different land uses in the Chure region of Central Nepal <p>Soil quality is the capacity of soil to sustain biological productivity and environmental quality. Assessment of soil quality in different land use systems is essential as inappropriate land use management can degrade and deteriorate its function and stability. In this regard this study was carried out to evaluate soil quality of different land use types in Chure region of central Nepal. Soil quality index (SQI) was determined on the basis of the soil physiochemical parameters. Soil properties like soil pH, organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), available potassium (AK), and available phosphorous (AP) were significantly affected by land uses types. Forest soil had the highest soil quality index (0.82) followed by bari (0.66), khet (0.64), and degraded land (0.40). Of the soil properties studied, total nitrogen and soil organic matter had the determining role in making significant impacts in the SQI among the different land uses. Hence, the results of this study can be important tool for planner, policy makers, and scientific community to frame appropriate land use management strategy<em>.</em></p> Pramod Ghimire Balram Bhatta Basudev Pokhrel Ishu Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 32 42 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22220 Effects of planting time on growth, development and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) <p>Planting date plays important role in the growth, development and yield of maize. Optimum planting date has becomes a prime importance for higher crop production. The plant establishment as well as pest and disease incidence are affected by planting dates. Crop varieties respond differently to planting dates. Early or late planting dates on maize causes an array of morpho-anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes in plants, which affect plant growth and development and such changes may lead to a drastic reduction in yield. Maize growth and development involves numerous biochemical reactions which are sensitive to variance in weather parameters as affected by planting dates. Delayed planting dates affect traits namely anthesis silking interval, photosynthesis, physiological maturity and dry matter production due to reduction in cumulative interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Late planting dates cause higher non-structural carbohydrate concentration in stems at mid-grain filling stages due to low temperature exposure of crop limiting kernel growth and photosynthesis. The adverse effects of delayed planting dates can be mitigated by forecasting optimum planting dates through crop modeling experiments. This article summarizes various effects of planting dates on maize growth, development and yield parameters. This information may be useful for maize growers and researchers.</p> Jiban Shrestha Manoj Kandel Amit Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 43 50 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22221 Verification of disease management technology on lentil against Stemphylium blight at farmer’s field in Nepal <p>Technologies generated from lentil (<em>Lens culinaris </em>Medik) stemphylium blight (<em>Stemphylium botryosum </em>Walr) management experiments were verified at farmers field of 5 districts viz., Chitawan, Rautahat, Dang, Parsa and Banke during two winter seasons of 2013-2014 and 2014- 2015. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement of treatments and replicated 4 times. The plot size was 340 m<sup>2</sup> (1 Kattha) with 25 cm row to row spacing. There were altogether 3 factors of the experiment i.e. year (2013-2014 and 2014-2015), location (5 districts) and package of practice (improved and farmers practice). The higher crop yield (1142.50 kg/ha) with lower disease index (34.95%) and higher benefit cost ratio of 2.42 were recorded in the farmers field of Banke district following seed rate (30 kg/ha), 8 hour primed improved variety (Black lentil), fertilizer doze of (20:40:20 NPK kg/ha<sup>+</sup> 1 kg/ha B basal doze) and subsequent 3 sprays of Dithane M-45 @ 2.5 g/l of water at 10 days interval.</p> Subash Subedi Sarswati Neupane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 51 61 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22222 Effect of climate change in paddy production and adaptation strategies in Tharu communities of Dang district, Nepal <p>A study on effects of climate change on rice (<em>Oryza sativa) </em>production in <em>Tharu </em>communities of Dang district of Nepal was conducted in 2018A.D to investigate the perception and major adaptation strategies followed by <em>Tharu </em>farmers. The study areas were selected purposively. Cross-sectional data was collected using a household survey of 120 households by applying simple random sampling technique with lottery method for sample selection. Primary data were collected using semi-structured and pretested interview schedule, focus group discussion and key informants interview whereas monthly and annual time series data on temperature and precipitation over 21years (1996-2016) were collected from Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Kathmandu as secondary data. Descriptive statistics and trend analysis were used to analyze the data. The ratio of male and female was found to be equal with higher literacy rate at study area than district. Most of the farmers depended on agriculture only for their livelihood where there was large variation in land distribution. Farmers had better access to FM/radio for agricultural extension information sources. The study resulted that <em>Tharu </em>farmers of Dang perceived all parameters of climate. Temperature and rainfall were the most changing component of climate perceived by farmers. The trend analysis of temperature data of Dang over 21 years showed that maximum, minimum and average temperature were increasing at the rate of 0.031°C, 0.021°C and 0.072°C per year respectively which supports the farmers perception whereas trend of rainfall was decreased with 7.56mm per year. The yearly maximum rainfall amount was increased by 1.15mm. The production of local indigenous rice varieties were decreasing while hybrid and improved rice varieties were increasing. The district rice production trend was increasing which support the farmer’s perception. The study revealed that there were climate change effects on paddy production and using various adaptation strategies to cope in Dang district.</p> Pradip Raj Poudel Narayan Raj Joshi Shanta Pokhrel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 62 75 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22223 Profitability of large cardamom enterprise in Nepal?: Evidence from financial analysis <p>Large Cardamom is major exportable commodities prioritized by Ministry of Commerce and Supply in Nepal. However, no study has been reported for its financial analysis in the country. In this context, this study was designed and conducted in Ilam, Panchthar, and Taplejung to assess the profitability and financial viability of cardamom production. Primary data needed for the study were collected using structured survey schedule with 30 randomly selected cardamom growers from each selected district in May-July 2017. Primary information mainly compose information on investment cost, operating cost and revenue. Three Focus Group Discussions were also carried out in each district for triangulation of collected information. The secondary data were used for the Compound Annual Growth Analysis and financial analysis. The economic yield starts from the fourth year and remains similar up to 20 years. But, it was found from the study that with the proper management of the crop cultivation packages, about 10% yield starts from third year which have not been reported yet. The financial analysis result showed that, the Return on Investment was found about 160% with payback period of 4.09 years. Similarly, Net Present Value was assessed at NRs. 3,545,771 at 12% discount rate. Likewise, the Internal Rate of Return Benefit-Cost Ratio of cardamom production was 82.6% and 3.06, respectively. The sensitivity analysis with 20% increase in the cost of production and 20% decrease in the sold price rate also found profitable and viable enterprises as its Return on Investment is 34%, PBP is 5.64 years, NPV equals NRs. 2,154,393, IRR 57.6% and BCR found 2.06. Hence, the study recommends that this enterprise is very profitable and viable and farmer could invest confidently even its rate fluctuates very often.</p> Keshav Prasad Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 76 89 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22224 A glimpse on post-graduate thesis researches of Agronomy Department of IAAS and prioritized future research directions <p>To appraise the major research outputs of agronomic crops and cropping systems and to direct the future research priorities of Agronomy Department of post-graduate (PG) program of Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences (IAAS), a rigorous review was accomplished on about two decadal (2000-2018) student’s thesis research works. The review revealed that the agronomic researches at IAAS from 2000 to 2012 were concentrated mostly in on-station farm of Rampur, Chitwan and found their focus on 11 food grain crops with five major themes <em>viz. </em>varietal evaluation, crop management, soil nutrient and weeds management, and crop simulation modeling. With the shifting of IAAS PG program from Rampur to Kirtipur in 2013, the major agronomic researches were found to be concentrated in on-farm stations due to transitional movement of IAAS to Agriculture and Forestry University, Nepal. A total of 115 agronomic studies were conducted on various crops, of which 92 were on cereals, 8 on legumes, oilseed and minor cereals including potato. There were records of 10 studies on rice-wheat and 3 studies on maize-based systems. The huge gaps between the potential and farmers' field yield and between the potential and research station yields for rice, maize and wheat crops suggested a great scope to raise yields of cereals by improved agronomical researches on varieties evaluation, crop and nutrient management and weed management. Simulation modeling study predicted that the varieties of rice and maize adopted at present could sustain the yields only for recent few years and needed for introduction of new climate resilient varieties, then after. Innovative and new researches on eco-region suited on-farm trails with variety identification, improved crop husbandry and soil nutrient management, improved weed and water management and on agro-meteorology, conservation agriculture, climate change adaptation and crop simulation modeling are advised as future research frontiers to uplift the productivity and reduce yield gaps of major food crops and to strengthen the academics of post-graduate research in near future.</p> Lal Prasad Amgain Sudeep Marasini Buddha BK ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 90 113 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22225 Impacts of climate change on rice production and strategies for adaptation in Chitwan, Nepal <p>This study was conducted to understand perception of farmers about climate change; how it affects rice production and what are the local adaptation strategies adopted by farmers to maintain rice yield in Chitwan district of Nepal. A total of 90 rainy season rice farming household were surveyed with semi-structured interview schedule. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS and MS Excel. Majority of the respondents (91.20%) perceived deviation in weather parameters in last 10 years. Most of the farmers had perceived drought as the major impact of climate change and nursery stage of rice to be highly prone to climate impact. Higher proportion of farmers had experienced delay in transplanting and harvesting time of paddy in last 10 years. Many farmers had already replaced local varieties by either improved or hybrid rice variety resilient to climate change. Increased insects infestation and weed menace along with outbreak of new types were found to be major production problem perceived by farmers at study area. Most of the respondents (50%) were expecting technical supports followed by infrastructure development (20.6%) from different organizations. Climate resilient projects and programs designed in bottom up approach to enhance understanding of impacts of climate change will help farmers to cope climate risk on rice production.</p> Sachin Gahatraj Ritesh Kumar Jha Om Prakash Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 114 121 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22226 Assessment of present status and action plan development of vegetable seed enterprise in Rukum, Nepal <p>Vegetable seed enterprise is a highly potential sub-sector for the economic growth of rural farmers in Nepal. Rukum has been known as the most important district for vegetable seed production since long time because of favorable agro-climatic condition. However, Rukums' sub-sector is facing several limitations including organized production and marketing, technology adoption and entrepreneurship development. This study has been carried out to assess the vegetable seed sub-sector of Rukum and propose action plans accordingly for the sustainable seed enterprise development. The study conducted stakeholder workshop and field survey; consulted district line agencies, seed producers and cooperatives, agro-vets and seed companies, and reviewed previous works. The study found that there were many individual farmers, farmers' groups and cooperatives being involved in vegetable seed production in the district. The role of private sector is emerging rapidly with higher share in the seed marketing. The public sector is still a major player for conducting research; and provision of source seeds, quality assurance and other support services. Strategic efforts and action plans are needed to push the existing traditional seed sub-sector towards commercial venture. Technology adoption for quality seed production, processing and marketing; transformation of the classical seed sub-sector into a competitive and sustainable enterprise; organized and demand led seed production programs; and coordination and participatory approaches among stakeholders in seed value chain activities are highly recommended.</p> Amar Bahadur Pun Damodar Poudyal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 122 132 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22227 Study on nutrient supply in relation to feeding system of buffalo in Chitwan, Nepal <p>Livestock farming in Nepal, especially buffalo farming alone contributes a major share in livelihoods of farmers. Stall feeding of buffalo is common in Chitwan with occasional grazing. This raises questions about status of nutrients supplied to maintain productivity as feed resources varied in forest and crop land according to the season. A study was carried out in Chitwan from April 2015 to March 2016 to find out the status of nutrient supply in relation to the feeding system of buffalo. Total fifteen farms were selected from three villages, the amount of feedstuff fed to the animals was measured every month and the nutrient contents of the feed were analyzed. The mean concentrations of DM, CP, TDN, Ca and P were 641g/kg, 75.0 g/kg, 462 g/kg, 4.9 g/kg and 4.2 g/kg. A significant difference of CP contents among the villages was observed (72.0 g/kg, 70.7 g/kg and 81.2 g/kg (P&lt;0.01), and the highest content of CP, TDN, Ca and P were found in July (P&lt;0.05)). The study showed variation in nutrient supplied, irrespective of the status and condition of buffalo in the farms which need to be considered to maintain productivity of the animals.</p> Manoj Kumar Shah Yusuke Tabata Hajime Kumagai Yoshiaki Hayashi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 133 141 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22228 Fruit characterization of different avocado (Persea americana Mill.) genotypes in eastern mid-hills of Nepal <p>The total of thirteen different avocado (<em>Persea americana </em>Mill.) genotypes were collected for evaluating the fruit characteristics in the laboratory of Agricultural Research Station, Pakhribas during November 2017. The fully matured fruits from the farmer's field at Patle, Dhankuta were collected. The criteria for selecting the genotypes were fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, seed weight, pulp weight, pulp to fruit ratio and the seed weight percentage. The result suggests the potentiality of the genotypes PAKAV002 and PAKAV010 in most of the evaluated characters as compared to the tested genotypes. The genotypes PAKAV008 and PAKAV007 were disliked as they have 32.59% and 28.39% of seed weight to the total fruit weight. The genotypes PAKAV002 and PAKAV010 had the average fruit weight ranging (307.1 g and 346.8 g), maximum of pulp to fruit ratio 62.34% and 56.97%. Similarly, genotypes PAKAV010 (11.425%), PAKAV013 (11.96%) and PAKAV002 (14.47%) had low seed weight to the total fruit weight which is regarded important factor for avocado selection and evaluation. This result shows that the genotypes PAKAV002 and PAKAV010 should be further evaluated for fruit characteristics and the quality.</p> Krishna Poudel Manoj Kumar Shah Jawahar Lal Mandal Jiban Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 142 148 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22229 Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and correlation among yield and yield components of rice (Oryza sativa L.) <p>This study was conducted during summer 2015 at Regional Agriculture Research Station, Dipayal, Doti, Nepal to estimate the genotypic and phenotypic variability, heritability, genetic advance and correlation on grain yield and yield associated traits using 26 advance genotypes of lowland irrigated rice. Analysis of variance revealed the existence of significant difference for days to flowering, maturity, plant height, panicle length, thousand grain weight and grain yield. High heritability was estimated for days to flowering (0.88), maturity (0.79), thousand grain weight (0.48) and plant height (0.43) suggesting these traits are under high genetic control. High phenotypic variation was observed for grain yield (24.87%), number of grains/panicle (22.45%), number of panicles/m<sup>2</sup> (20.95%) and straw yield (20.75%) while grain yield had medium (12.02%) and remaining traits showed low genotypic coefficient of variation (&lt;10%). High phenotypic coefficient of variation estimated as compared to genotypic coefficient of variation showed environmental influence on the expression of traits. Grain yield (11.98) and days to flowering (10.32) showed medium and remaining traits sowed low genotypic advance as percent of mean. High to low heritability with moderate to low genotypic advance as percent of mean suggested these traits were governed by non additive gene thus direct selection is not beneficial. Further improvements on yield potentiality and yield traits on these genotypes are suggested by creating variation and selection. Panicle length (r = 0.230), days to flowering (r = 0.247), effective tillers (r = 0.488) and straw yield (r = 0.846) manifested significant positive association with grain yield indicating that yield can be increased if selection applied in favor of those yield components.</p> Bhim Nath Adhikari Bishnu Prasad Joshi Jiban Shrestha Naba Raj Bhatta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 149 160 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22230 Effect of different freezing methods on drip, texture, microstructure in fresh cheese (paneer) <p>Paneer is acid heat milk coagulated soft cheese popular in South East Asia. The shelf life is a major limitation for its utilization; even when kept under refrigeration. Similarly, the texture becomes flaky and fluffy after thawing. Freezing rate effects on the growth of ice crystals as well as microstructure damage that is responsible for the change in the textural quality of the Paneer. In this study, the effect of two-dimensional freezing by static air observed before and after freezing. Effect of freezing on panner were subject to analyses under slow freezing at -30°C, rapid freezing at -80 °C and supercooling freezing conditions. The quality evaluation carried out by means of drip loss, textural analysis, and microscopic observation. By using this technique, it was possible to decide the supercooling freezing is significantly best method for preserve the paneer to keep required hardness, low drip and small cracks and rupture in a microstructure in compare to another method.</p> Rajib Lochan Poudyal Manabu Watanabe Toru Suzuki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 161 167 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22231 Effect of different spacing and mulching on growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Chitwan, Nepal <p>Okra (<em>Abelmoschus esculentus </em>L.) is one of the most important vegetable crop of Nepal. Its yield and growth parameters are affected by different cultural practices. This study was conducted at Olericulture Farm of Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during April 29 to July 9 of 2018. The field experiment was carried out in split plot design using three replications. The treatments consisted of three intra row spacing (30, 45 and 60 cm) and four different mulching materials (Silver plastic, <em>Panicum repens, Lantana camara </em>and bare soil). The objective of this experiment was to assess the effects of various intra-row spacings and mulching materials on growth and yield of okra. The effect of mulching materials on okra yield was found significant. The okra yield was highest (8104 kg/ha) under silver plastic mulch followed by control (5161kg/ha), <em>Panicum repens </em>(3901kg/ha) and <em>Lantana camera </em>(3701kg/ha), respectively. Silver plastic mulch enhanced the growth parameters like canopy length, plant height, leaf number, leaf length, girth and yield of okra. The spacings provided non significant effect on okra yield, however the yield of okra was highest (7295 kg/ha) under 30×30 cm spacing followed by 45×30 cm (4660 kg/ha) and 60 cm × 30 cm spacing (3703 kg/ha), respectively. Combination of silver plastic mulch along with 30 cm × 30 cm spacing provided the highest okra yield. This study suggests that farmers of the Chitwan should grow okra at spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm and under silver plastic mulch to produce higher yield.</p> Ritesh Kumar Jha Ram Babu Neupane Abishkar Khatiwada Shailesh Pandit Bhishma Raj Dahal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 168 178 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22232 Effect of intercropping on the incidence of Jassid (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ish.) and Whitefly (Bemesia tabaci Guen.) in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) <p>Okra is one of the most important summer vegetables in South Asian countries including Nepal. However, the damage by insects like Jassid (<em>Amrasca biguttula </em>Ish.) and whitefly (<em>Bemisia tabaci </em>Guen) has resulted in significant reduction of its production. An experiment was conducted based on intercropping taking okra (<em>Abelmoschus exculentus </em>L. Moench) as the main crop in Arghau, Lekhnath-27, Kaski, Nepal from March 4 to May 24, 2018. The intercrops used were coriander (<em>Corriander sativum), </em>carrot (<em>Daucas carota)</em>, fennel (<em>Foeniculum vulgare</em>) and parsley (<em>Petroselinum crispum)</em>. The population of jassid and whitefly was recorded from three leaves representing the different strata (bottom, middle and top) of the vegetative parts; and related yield parameters were also observed to correlate with the level of population incidence of these pests. Least numbers of jassids (5.50±0.29, 6.94±0.43, 8.00±0.41 and 3.69±0.76) were observed respectively at 30, 40, 50 and 60 days after sowing (DAS) in okra+ coriander. Likewise, okra + coriander intercropping was effective in inhibiting the population of whitefly (7.50±0.59, 8.56±0.19, 10.25±0.66 and 7.06±0.42) at 30, 40, 50 and 60 days after sowing (DAS) respectively. In contrary, the highest number of jassids and whiteflies were observed in okra + parsley and control (okra only). Both pod length (cm) and yield (t/ha) were the highest (17.92±0.57 and 28.20±0.49 respectively) in okra + coriander and were the lowest (16.42±0.21 and 27.58±0.39 respectively) in okra + carrot. The benefit-cost ratio was in order okra + coriander &gt; okra + carrot &gt; okra + fennel &gt; okra + parsley &gt; control (okra only). Among the different intercrop combinations, the okra + coriander was found most effective that could be suggested as one of the alternative strategies to limit the population of pests; jassid and whitefly in okra.</p> Aasma Sharma Khem Raj Neupane Rajendra Regmi Ram Chandra Neupane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 179 188 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22233 Technical efficiency of hybrid maize production in eastern terai of Nepal: A stochastic frontier approach <p>Maize is the second most important crop after rice in terms of area and production in Nepal. This article analyzes the technical efficiency and its determinants of hybrid maize production in eastern Nepal. Using a randomly selected data from 98 farmers (41 from Morang and 57 from Sunsari) in eastern Nepal, the study employed a stochastic frontier production model to find the production elasticity coefficients of inputs, determinants of efficiency and technical efficiency of hybrid maize farmers. The results showed that maize production responds positively to increase in amount of urea, DAP and the area planted, where as it is negative to seed quantity. The study indicate that farmers are not technically efficient with a mean technical efficiency 79 %. Socioeconomic variable age had a negative and significant while the household size had a positive and significant related to maize output. The younger farmers were observed more technically efficient than older farmers. Larger the members in the household higher the maize production. It is recommended that farmers should increase their fertilizer dose and farm size while they should decrease their seed rate for efficient production.</p> Surya P. Adhikari Krishna P. Timsina Peter R. Brown Yuga N. Ghimire Jeevan Lamichhane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 189 196 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22234 Distribution of the cattle ticks from mid hills to plains of Nepal <p>Ticks cause serious economic losses in livestock production worldwide. A study was conducted in 2017/18 to determine the abundance of tick population on different geographical regions and body parts of cattle. Three study sites were taken from mid hill, inner terai and terai region of Nepal. A total of 45 dairy cattle (15 from each region) were included randomly for the study. Regarding the distribution of ticks in cattle body part, higher number of ticks were recorded on dewlap (38.61%) followed by perineum and udder (25.10%), ear base (15.06%), tail base (9.07%), abdomen (7.34%) and withers (4.83%). Similarly, highest numbers of ticks were recorded in Chitwan (19.46 ticks on an average) cattle followed by Dang (9.13 ticks on an average) and least in Lamjung (5.73 ticks on an average) cattle. This result indicates that higher tick infestation was found in warm, moist, hidden sites with good vascular supply and thin skin in cattle body. Similarly, more tick were recorded in cattle keeping with poor animal husbandry practices.</p> Bigya Dhital Sulav Shrestha Krishna Kaphle Rameshwor Pudasaini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 197 205 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22235 The fodder oat (Avena sativa) mixed legume forages farming: Nutritional and ecological benefits <p>Oat (<em>Avena sativa L</em>.) is one of the most important cultivated winter fodder crops for livestock in Nepal, Yet, its production potential is not fully explored in Nepal for different locations and in combination with legumes. One of the major problems in ruminant feeding in Nepal is the shortage of quality fodder during the winter season where oats-legume mixture would play an important role. Oats are better adapted to different soil types and can perform better on acid soils in comparison to other small cereal grains. Intercropping is a traditional farming technique, which is important in farming systems of developing countries but far less widespread in mechanized systems; however, there is an increased interest in intercropping systems for developing sustainable farming systems mostly for grass-legume polycultures. The review concluded that oats in combination with legumes could be a potential model of intercropping to attain an increased forage dry matter (DM) yield without jeopardizing the quality issue, especially during winter and further, it is required to define the optimum management of these grass-legume species such as oats and vetch and oats and pea in various environments such as choice of grasses and legume species, seed rate, sowing time and fertilizer efficiencies, irrigation requirements and increase in herbage quality is possible if the legumes are dominant in grass-legumes mixture. The advantage of oat-legume mix farming is that it may be produced in a wider range of soil classes, which determines the ecological benefits. However, it further requires a series of experiments to conclude in all aspects.</p> Shanker Raj Barsila ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 206 222 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22236 Effect of heat stress on crossbred dairy cattle in tropical Nepal: Impact on blood parameters <p>Chitwan district of Nepal has been known as the dairy kingdom of the country considering its strategic location and<br>potential to easily provision inputs and produce as well as market quality milk across the country. However, the<br>climate especially during summer has been a challenge to farmers that potentially compromise the daily milk yield<br>of cows. Therefore, sixteen crossbred dairy cattle were placed in a RCBD fashion to assess the impacts of cold water<br>bathing in ameliorating effect of heat stress on their performance and body physiology. Routine assessment of the<br>microclimate within the experimental shed and blood parameters was made. The results from the experiment<br>inferred that frequency of bathing (none, once, twice or thrice a day) did not have any significant impact on<br>Haemoglobin, Haematocrit, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride and Bicarbonate levels in the blood plasma(p&gt;0.05). In<br>addition, the animals did not exhibit any signs of physiological distress clinically either. A detailed study scoping<br>temperature humidity index and over a number of other milk and blood parameters are to be tested across a number<br>of other available breeds too in order for the researchers to come to a meaningful strategy to beat the heat stress.</p> Tulasi Prasad Paudel Buddhi Ram Acharya Dainik Bahadur Karki Bhola Shankar Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 1 1 223 230 10.3126/janr.v1i1.22237