Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources <p>A journal published by Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences, Prithu Technical College, <span style="color: #000000;">Lamahi Municipality Ward-3, Bangaun, Deukhuri Dang, Nepal</span>.</p> <p>Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources was included on <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> on 7th March 2019.</p> Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Prithu Technical College en-US Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources 2661-6270 <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Predatory journals as threats to the academic publishing: a review <p>Academic publishing has been increasing greatly with the spread of open access journals and the shift to online publishing. However, authors must be aware of predatory journals and publishers while submitting their academic works for publication. Publishing in predatory journals is just a waste of efforts, money, and time as it does not add any scientific merits to the authors. The practice of predatory publishing can also damage the reputation of institutions and funding agencies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for awareness among researchers regarding predatory publishing. Local, national and international regulatory bodies should take stern actions against predatory publications while granting research funds and evaluating the researchers’ performance for job promotion and academic degrees.</p> Jiban Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Jiban Shrestha 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 1 10 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33640 Effects of different doses of organic and inorganic fertilizers on cauliflower yield and soil properties <p>The experiment was conducted in research field of Agriculture Research Station at Belachapi, Dhanusha, Nepal from November, 2017 to February, 2018 to evaluate the effects of different doses of organic and inorganic fertilizers on Cauliflower yield parameters and soil properties. In the experiment, there were ten treatments consisting of different combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers. The cauliflower variety ‘Snow mystic’ was grown with these treatments laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The half dose of Organic manure (750 kg/ha) and half dose of farm yard manure (FYM) (20 t/ha) produced the highest curd yield (1019 g) and biomass (2046 g). The highest Nitrogen percent (0.10%), Organic matter percent (1.89%) and Phosphorus content (169.09 mg/kg) were obtained with the application of combined half dose of NPK (105:90:60 kg NPK/ha) and half FYM (20 t FYM/ha). The combined effect of application of Organic manures with inorganic fertilizers (NPK) was found to be better for crop growth and development as well as soil health improvement.</p> Sabina Devkota Kamana Rayamajhi Dil Raj Yadav Jiban Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Sabina Devkota, Kamana Rayamajhi, Dil Raj Yadav, Jiban Shrestha 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 11 20 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33647 Effects of different rates of nitrogen and pinching on yield and yield attributes of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) <p>Proper pinching practice and the optimum rate of nitrogen (N) enhance the production of marigold. An experiment was conducted at a farmer’s field in Gadawa-4, Gangaparaspur, Dang, Nepal from July 2018 to November 2018 to investigate the effects of different rates of nitrogen and pinching on yield and yield attributes of African marigold (cv. Kolkata Local). Two factorial experiment was laid in the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. There were eight treatments, consist of four rates of nitrogen (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha) and two levels of pinching (pinching and non-pinching). The maximum plant height (89.70 cm), the diameter of flower (4.29 cm) and the fresh weight per flower (4.32 g) and early days to 50% flowering (61.58) were obtained at non- pinching. The highest number of flowers (60.66), yield per plant (237.49 g) and yield per hectare (9.89 t/ha) were obtained with pinching. The highest plant height (92.20 cm) was recorded at 150 kg/ha of N but the highest yield per plant (238.18 g) and yield per ha (9.91 t/ha) was obtained at 50 kg/ha of nitrogen application. No significant effect was noted on the days to 50% flowering, number of flowers per plant, fresh weight per flower and diameter of flowers by different rates of nitrogen. The interaction of pinching and different rates of nitrogen showed non- significant effect on yield per plant and yield per ha. But, the combination of pinching and nitrogen rates at 50 kg/ha recorded the maximum yield per plant (249.20 g) and yield per ha (10.36 t/ha). Hence it is suggested to use pinching practice with optimum application of nitrogen @ 50 kg/ha to obtain high yield of marigold.</p> Madan Pandey Shashi Subedi Prakash Khanal Prabin Chaudhary Anil Adhikari Tej Prasad Sharma Jiban Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Madan Pandey, Shashi Subedi, Prakash Khanal, Prabin Chaudhary, Anil Adhikari, Tej Prasad Sharma, Jiban Shrestha 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 21 28 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33650 Testing of bio-rational and synthetic pesticides to manage cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) in cabbage field at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal <p>Cabbage aphid (<em>Brevicoryne brassicae</em> L.) is an important pest of cabbage which reduces the yield and quality of the cabbage head. Farmers haven been using chemical pesticides to manage them but unfortunately these practices are toxic for human health, biodiversity and the environment. The study was conducted to test the efficacy of different bio-rational insecticides along with the chemical insecticide. ‘Green Coronet’ cabbage variety was used and the field experiment was laid out in the experimental farm of Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan during the winter season of 2014. &nbsp;The Experiment was designed in randomized complete block design with having 7 treatments (bio-rational insecticides with chemical and control) &nbsp;and 3 replications. Plot size was 5.76 m<sup>2</sup> (2.4m×2.4m) and spacing of 1 m was maintained between each blocks and plots. Field experiment showed that the highest reduction of cabbage aphid was obtained in Dimethoate (30 EC) treated plot followed by Derisom treated plot. The highest yield of cabbage head was obtained in Dimethoate treated plots (66.47 mt/ha) which was significantly at par with the Derisom (58.79 mt/ ha) treated plots. The yield for other treated plots were 47.60 mt/ha for Margosom, 43.77 mt/ha for <em>Verticillium</em>, 41.63 mt/ ha for Cow urine, 36.77 mt/ ha for Spinosad and control (33.45 mt/ ha) in terms of cabbage head yield. And, at the same time, natural enemies’ population was significantly lower to Dimethoate treated plots compared to bio-rational insecticides. Thus, Derisom (Derris based botanical) might be the best viable alternative in eco-friendly management of cabbage aphid considering cabbage head yield and protection of natural enemies. It was also evident from the research that Margosom (Neem based botanical) was found beneficial not only to conserve natural enemies in the cabbage field but also to minimize cabbage aphid population.</p> Sushil Nyaupane Sundar Tiwari Resham Bahadur Thapa Sita Jaishi Copyright (c) 2021 Sushil Nyaupane, Sundar Tiwari, Resham Bahadur Thapa, Sita Jaishi 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 29 39 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33652 Response of varying levels of phyto-hormones and micro-nutrients on growth and yield of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) in sub-tropical Terai region of India <p>A field study was conducted at Horticultural Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences of Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India during summer season of 2017-2018 to test the sole effect of phyto-hormones and micro-nutrients on growth of brinjal (<em>Solanum melongena,</em> L.). The thirteen treatments having six different concentration of phytohoromnes viz., T<sub>1 </sub>(20 ppm NAA), T<sub>2 </sub>(40 NAA), T<sub>3 </sub>(60 ppm NAA), T<sub>4 </sub>(25 ppm GA<sub>3</sub>), T<sub>5 </sub>(50 ppm GA<sub>3</sub>), T<sub>6 </sub>(75 ppm GA<sub>3</sub>), and six different concentrations of micronutrients viz., T<sub>7 </sub>(Boron 0.1%),T<sub>8 </sub>(Boron 0.2%), T<sub>9 </sub>(Boron 0.3%), T<sub>10 </sub>(Zinc 0.1%), T<sub>11 </sub>(Zinc 0.2%), T<sub>12 </sub>(Zinc 0.3%) and T<sub>13 </sub>(control-water spray) for a “Kashi Uttam” cultivar of brinjal were grown under randomized complete block design (RCBD) having three replications. The results findings indicated that treatment T<sub>4 </sub>(25 ppm GA<sub>3</sub>) had significant effect on growth parameters, mainly plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, crop canopy, number of side roots and main root length. Similarly, yield parameters like number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, fruit yield per plant were found to be significantly superior under treatment T<sub>4 </sub>(25 ppm GA<sub>3</sub>). Number of branches per plant, stem diameter, main root length and fruit weight were found superior under treatment T<sub>1</sub> (20 ppm NAA). Among the different concentrations of micronutrients treatment T<sub>9 </sub>(Boron 0.3%) and T<sub>12</sub> (Zinc 0.3%) were found to be significant over control. It can be concluded that the phyto-hormones and micro-nutrients can be judiciously used for increasing the growth and yield of brinjal.</p> Basant Raj Bhattarai Akhilesh Kumar Pal Lal Prasad Amgain Copyright (c) 2021 Basant Raj Bhattarai, Akhilesh Kumar Pal, Lal Prasad Amgain 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 40 47 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33654 Effect of different levels of nitrogen on growth and yield of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) varieties <p>Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is considered as one of the most important factors affecting growth and grain yield of hybrid maize. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different rates of nitrogen and varieties on growth and yield of hybrid maize in Lamahi Municipality, Dang, Nepal from June to October, 2019. Three levels of hybrid maize varieties (10V10, Rajkumar F1 and NMH-731) and four levels of nitrogen (160, 180, 200 and 220 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) were evaluated using two factorial randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that grain yield and yield attributing traits of hybrid maize varieties increased with the increasing level of nitrogen from 160 to 220 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. The application of nitrogen @ 220 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> produced the highest grain yield (10.07 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), cob length (16.33 cm), no of rows per cob (14.97), no of grains per row (33.37), cob diameter (4.54), thousand grain weight (276.77 g), stover yield (12.91 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), biological yield (23.00 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), harvest index (43.80), gross return (NRs. 208940 ha<sup>-1</sup>), net return (NRs.104488 ha<sup>-1</sup>) and B:C ratio (2.001). The hybrid maize variety 10V10 produced the highest grain yield (9.35 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), net returns (NRs. 91740.66 ha<sup>-1</sup>) and B:C ratio (1.91) accompanied by the highest cob length (16.25 cm), and as number of grains per row (32.35) as compared to other varieties. This study suggested that maize production can be maximized by cultivating hybrid maize variety 10V10 with the use of 220 kg N ha<sup>-1 </sup>in inner Terai region of Nepal.</p> Kripa Adhikari Sudip Bhandari Krishna Aryal Mohan Mahato Jiban Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Kripa Adhikari, Sudip Bhandari, Krishna Aryal, Mohan Mahato, Jiban Shrestha 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 48 62 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33656 Prospect and potentiality of finger millet in Nepal: Nutritional security and trade perspective <p>Millet is an important food crop for ensuring food and nutrition security of smallholder farmers and marginalized communities in the hill and mountain of Nepal. The main objectives of the study were to assess prospects and potentiality of millet by analysing the area, production, productivity, and trade for the year 2009-2019. &nbsp;The study used a combination of exploratory survey and secondary data for assessing the production system, compound growth rate, coefficient of variation (CV), instability index (IIN), and trade specialization index. The results of the study are compiled and the synthesis of the analysis is presented in both tabular and graphic forms. Growth rate analysis showed that the area of millet is declining but the import value, production, and yield were increasing at the rate of 14.62, 0.47, and 0.73 percent per annum respectively. Import and export values and quantity showed higher CV as well as IIN while area, production, and yield showed lower values. The trade specialization index was found as -0.992, which indicates that millet is in the introduction phase. Out of the total millets area, 78% of the area lies in the hill, 19% in the mountain, and only 3% in the terai. The highest area and production can be observed in Bagmati province while the least was observed in province no two. The study implies that there is a need to increase production and productivity to reduce increasing imports and make the country self-reliant in millet production with increased investment in research and development and adequate support from national policies and programs.</p> Samaya Gairhe Devendra Gauchan Krishna Prasad Timsina Copyright (c) 2021 Samaya Gairhe, Devendra Gauchan, Krishna Prasad Timsina 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 63 74 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33657 Evaluation of livestock’s hide and skin marketing in Adamawa State, Nigeria <p>This study evaluated hide and skin marketing in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with the aim of describing the socioeconomic variables of the marketers, determining the marketing efficiency and major socioeconomic factors that influenced participation in the area. Purposive and simple random sampling methods were used in the selection of four large and small ruminant markets, and 120 hide and skin marketers, respectively. Descriptive statistics, Marketing Efficiency (ME) and regression analysis were employed in the analyses of data. Results show that all the marketers were males (100%) and married (66.67%) within middle-aged group. A larger proportion (40.00%) had secondary school education and fairly experienced in the business. The most popular (51.67%) channel of hide and skin marketing was producer-rural collector-urban collector-wholesaler-tanneries, with a very efficient marketing (178.52%). Further, the level of education and marketing experience of marketers and the average purchasing price of hide and skin were found to heavily influence the marketing output in the area. The major challenges experienced were insufficiency of capital (88.33%), multiple taxations on transit (71.66%) and quality deterioration (63.33%). It is recommended that institutions that intend to improve on hide and skin marketing in the State and areas with similar economic terrains should resolve the aspect of inadequacy of funds, minimise tax on products, and employ efficient extension services to tackle spoilage. &nbsp;</p> Muhammad R. Ja’afar-Furo Kemuel Calvin A’ishatu Abdullahi Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad R. Ja’afar-Furo, Kemuel Calvin, A’ishatu Abdullahi 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 75 85 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33672 Effect of seed treatment using Mancozeb and Ridomil fungicides on Rhizobium strain performance, nodulation and yield of soybean (Glycine max L.) <p>The viability of commercial <em>Rhizobium</em> strains (SB-14 and SB-12) were inoculated and fungicides (Mancozeb and Ridomil) were used as seed dressed on soybean seed to investigate their effect on nodulation, plant growth and seed yield of soybean. Application of <em>Rhizobial</em> inoculants alone gave the highest nodulation and shoot dry weight performance as well as seed yield of soybean on both sites. SB-12 inoculant had significantly shown to be more effective than SB-14 inoculant in increasing nodulation and thus produced higher plant growth and seed yield. <em>Rhizobial</em> survival on the seeds was severely affected by both fungicides, resulting in decreased nodulation, plant growth and seed yield for both inoculants. However, Ridomil fungicide gave the lowest nodulation and seed yield when applied with either SB-12 or SB-14 Rhizobial strains. The strains differed in their sensitivity to Mancozeb fungicide that with strain SB-12 showed a slight effect or no effect on survival of rhizobium, nodulation and yield of soybean. Seed-dressing of mancozeb and ridomil resulted in reduction of seed yield by 882.8 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 1154.7 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively with SB-12 strain. The present results indicate that inoculated <em>Rhizobium</em> inoculants differ in their capacity to develop resistance to the two dressed fungicides. Seed treatment with Mancozeb in combination with SB-12 strain slightly affected the survival of the inoculated strain. Consequently, mancozeb fungicide may be compatable with survival of the inoculated SB-12 Rhizobia. The results also indicate that the suppressive effects of seed-applied fungicides on <em>Rhizobium</em> strains survival and nodulation development depend on specific strain and fungicide. Soybean seeds inoculated with SB-12 may not need management with fungicides or lower concentration of Mancozeb that could be compatible with SB-12 to suppress soil-borne pathogens for both Assosa and Begi sites, western Ethiopia.</p> Zerihun Getachew Lejalem Abeble Copyright (c) 2021 Zerihun Getachew, Lejalem Abeble 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 86 97 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33674 Effects of different mulches and net house on crucifer aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) population, growth and yield of broadleaf mustard (Brassica juncea) <p>Crucifer aphid, <em>Brevicoryne brassicae</em>, is a key pest of broadleaf mustard and other crucifers. An alternative integrated management approaches are recommended to keep the pest below economic threshold level. A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of mulching and net house on aphid population, growth and yield of broadleaf mustard. Experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design with four replications from September to December 2016 at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. Five treatments used in experiment was untreated control, black plastic mulch only, reflective plastic mulch only, black plastic mulch plus imidacloprid 70 WSG @ 0.13gm/liter, and net house plus black plastic mulch. The results showed that the lowest population of crucifer aphid was recorded inside the net house with black plastic mulch and black plastic mulch with imidaclorpid 70 WSG @ 0.13g/L spray. Reflective plastic mulch was superior as compared to black plastic mulch and control to reduce the aphid population. Similarly, the highest yield (26.86t/ha) was obtained inside the net house with black plastic mulch followed by black plastic mulch with imidacloprid spray (25.99 t/ha). But the benefit-cost ratio was the highest (4.09) in black plastic mulch with imidacloprid spray followed by reflective plastic mulch (3.42), black plastic mulch (3.32), and net house with black plastic mulch (3.10). Benefit-cost ratio was lower in net house with black plastic mulch but products are safe from toxins and potentially profitable in long run. Considering its ecological cost, the use of pest exclusion net is recommended as a viable option for controlling insect pests of broadleaf mustard.</p> Rajendra Regmi Sanjay Poudel Arjun Kumar Shrestha Resham Bahadur Thapa Sundar Tiwari Copyright (c) 2021 Rajendra Regmi, Sanjay Poudel, Arjun Kumar Shrestha, Resham Bahadur Thapa, Sundar Tiwari 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 98 110 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33677 Farmers’ perception on status of livestock insurance in Surkhet district, Nepal <p>Livestock is an important sector for sustained livelihoods of Nepalese people, particularly for small holder farmers. However, occurrence of any disease or disaster may get livestock as the source of sufferings.&nbsp; Livestock insurance can come up as an effective tool for risk management in livestock sector.&nbsp; This study covers the current status and perception of the farmers on livestock insurance. A total of 45 livestock farmers were selected purposively from three municipalities (15 from each municipality) in Surkhet district as Birendranagar Municipality (Birendranagar, Saldada), Bheriganga Municipality (Maintada) and Lekbeshi Municipality (Lekfarsa, Dasarathpur and Satakhani). Data was collected by face-to-face interview with farmers (45), focus group discussions (2) and key informant survey (4). Mortality, high cost of animal, production loss and price risk were the major risks encountered in the farm. Utilization of their saving and loan reimbursement was preferred by the farmers for capital management. Adoption of insurance among livestock owners was found motivated mainly by cooperatives, friends and family. Among twenty insurance companies offering insurance policies in Surkhet district, Everest Insurance Company Limited was popular. Only few farmers were found having complete awareness on livestock insurance. Majority of farmers agreed on insurance as an effective tool for risk management whereas only 64.44% of total respondent farmers were insuring their livestock, out of which 37.93 % had renewed their insurance package. Goats were mostly insured. This study indicates that better coverage, further process simplification, and perspicuity of livestock insurance scheme including awareness raising are essential for livestock insurance to approach higher level of insurance adopters.</p> Brinda Nepali Copyright (c) 2021 Brinda Nepali 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 111 123 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33679 Determinants of gross income from carp production in Bara district, Nepal <p>A study was conducted from March to June 2020 to analyze the determinants of gross income from carp production in the Bara district of Nepal. Altogether, 90 carp producers, 45 each from Simraungadh and Pachrauta municipality in equal basis were sampled by using cluster sampling technique. Primary information was collected through a pre-tested semi-structured interview-based schedule while secondary information was collected reviewing the relevant publications. Data was entered in SPSS 25 and analyzed using STATA 12.1. The results &nbsp;revealed that the cost of labor, cost of feed, assistances and services, and training had significant positive effect on gross income from carp prodcuiton. Furthermore, lack of quality inputs was identified as the most severe production problems whereas Dhalta to be given was recognized as the most severe marketing problems. Thus, encouraging the carp producer to manage the cost of labor and cost of feed deliberately, rationally providing the assistance and services and strengthening the skills and knowledge of producer through training could significantly increase gross income from carp production.</p> Subash Bhandari Dilip Kumar Jha Amrit Shrestha Bina Sapkota Chandan Bhattarai Swodesh Rijal Subodh Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2021 Subash Bhandari, Dilip Kumar Jha, Amrit Shrestha, Bina Sapkota, Chandan Bhattarai, Swodesh Rijal, Subodh Pokharel 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 124 133 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33689 Effect of gibberellic acid on growth and flowering attributes of African marigold (Tagetes erecta) in inner terai of Nepal <p>A field experiment was conducted at Bangaun, Lamahi-3, Dang, Nepal to study the effect of GA3 on growth and flowering attributes of African marigold (<em>Tagetes erecta</em>) in Inner Terai of Nepal. The experiment consists of three replications and 8 treatments and laid out in a randomized complete block design- consisting of various concentrations of GA3 viz. 0ppm, 50ppm, 100ppm, 150ppm, 200ppm, 250ppm, 300ppm, and 350ppm. Kolkata local variety of African marigold was tested. The study revealed that among different concentrations of GA3, 300ppm showed the tallest plant height (72.93cm) and the highest basal diameter (1.49cm). Maximum numbers of primary branches (3.11) and the greatest plant spread (32.11cm) were obtained from 250ppm; similarly, maximum numbers of secondary branches (13.80) were recorded in 350ppm. In the case of floral parameters both 100ppm and 350ppm recorded earlier days to 50% flowering (44.00 days each), days for 100% flowering was recorded almost similar in every treatment that sticks around 54 and 55 days, maximum diameter (5.370cm) of flowers were obtained from 50ppm, the greatest fresh weight (6.180<em>g</em>) was recorded in 350ppm, 250ppm showed a maximum number of flower per plant (104.13), similarly, a longer duration of flowering (58 days) was recorded in 300ppm. Among all treatments, the 250ppm level of GA3 was found to be most suitable in terms of production perspective.</p> Samjhana Acharya Bijay Ghimire Suraj Gaihre Krishna Aryal Lal Bahadur Chhetri Copyright (c) 2021 Samjhana Acharya, Bijay Ghimire, Suraj Gaihre, Krishna Aryal, Lal Bahadur Chhetri 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 134 147 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33693 Screening of sugarcane genotypes against Top Borer (Scirpophaga exerptalis Walker) infestation <p>Fourty sugarcane genotypes with different period of maturity were evaluated against top borer (<em>Scirpophaga excerptalis</em> Walker) infestation under natural field condition during 2018 and 2019 at National Sugarcane Research Program, Jeetpur, Nepal. The experiment was conducted in alpha-lattice design under natural condition of infestation using Co 0238 as susceptible check. Based on the incidence, 26 genotypes were categorized as less susceptible, eleven genotypes were found moderately susceptible to <em>S. excerptalis</em>. However, among less susceptible genotypes lowest incidence of 3.11 percent was recorded in genotype CoS 8432. Whereas, highest incidence of 25.24 percent was recorded in highly susceptible genotype, CoSe 98255BD 24. Most of the cane genotypes were found low to moderately susceptible, having 5 to 20% incidence of the pest. Whereas, some of the varieties, namely CoH 160 (21.22%), CoSe 95255 BD 24 (25.24%) and BO 150 (22.02%) were found highly susceptible. The mechanism responsible for host plant resistance against top borer is not studied in this experimentation. The study in these aspects is to be conducted to explore the mechanisms of host plant resistance for using these resistant genotypes for breeding purpose.</p> Kapil Paudel Naresh Dangi Anisur Rahman Ansari Rashmi Regmi Copyright (c) 2021 Kapil Paudel, Naresh Dangi, Anisur Rahman Ansari, Rashmi Regmi 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 148 154 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33694 Performance evaluation of potato clones for the central Terai Region of Nepal <p>A series of experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of exotic potato clones including PRP lines at research field of Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal during the winter seasons of 2017 and 2018. Thirty-nine potato clones were evaluated in initial evaluation trial and eleven clones were evaluated in coordinated varietal trial with check varieties Khumal Ujjwal and Kufri Jyoti. From the initial varietal trial in 2017, the highest tuber yield (21.54 mt/ha) was found in CIP389660.9 followed by CIP391046.14 (21.38 mt/ha). In 2018, the highest tuber yield (29.72 mt/ha) was produced in CIP392759.1 followed by CIP393085.5 (26.92 mt/ha) and CIP391046.14 (26.64 mt/ha). In 2018, the tuber yield was the highest (26.12 mt/ha) in PRP 266265.15 followed by CIP 393371.159 (24.79 mt/ha). In coordinated varietal trial carried out in 2017/18, the highest tuber yield was noted in CIP394600.52 (42.65 mt/ha) followed by CIP395443.103 (30.83 mt/ha) and CIP395445.16 (24.43 mt/ha) respectively. Whereas in 2018/19, the highest yield was produced by PRP266265.15 (26.12 mt/ha) followed by CIP393371.159 (24.79 mt/ha) and CIP 396012.266 (22.66 mt/ha) respectively. In RARS, Parwanipur conditions, CIP 394600.52, CIP 395443.103, CIP 395445.16 and CIP 304394.56 along with PRP 266265.15 were found to be superior to standard check variety. These potential genotypes need to be further verified in farmers field in additional districts of central Terai region before notifying in the national seed system. Adoption of these clones as variety may increase the potato production and improve the food, and nutritional security in the central Terai region of Nepal.</p> Tek Prasad Gotame Sujata Poudel Bihani Thapa Janaki Datta Neupane Copyright (c) 2021 Tek Prasad Gotame, Sujata Poudel, Bihani Thapa, Janaki Datta Neupane 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 155 166 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33707 Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of radish <p>Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) is necessary to enhance sustainable yield in an eco-friendly way. A field experiment was conducted in the research field of Midwest Academy and Research Institute College of Live Sciences, Tulsipur, Dang from November 2018 to January 2019 to investigate the effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of radish. Mino Early variety was used in the experiment. The experiment was laid out on Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications and 5 treatments. Nitrogen (N) was supplied through different sources. The treatment combinations were: control (T1), 100% recommended N through chemical fertilizer (T2), 50% recommended N through chemical fertilizer + 50% N through farmyard manure (FYM) (T3), 50% recommended N through chemical fertilizer + 50% N through poultry manure (T4) and 50% recommended N through chemical fertilizer + 50% vermicompost (T5). Significant effect was noted on leaf numbers, root length, root diameter and yield per ha but no significant effect was noted on the germination percentage and plant height. The highest germination percentage&nbsp; (77.00 %), plant height (13.27 cm), root length (16.94 cm), root diameter (3.01 cm), and yield per ha (16.55 t/ha) was recorded at T4 (50% recommended N through chemical fertilizer + 50% N through poultry manure). T5 (50% recommended N through chemical fertilizer + 50% vermicompost) recorded the highest leaf numbers (10.40). In our experiment, T4 (50% recommended N through chemical fertilizer + 50% N through poultry manure) was found to be superior, so in inner terai places like Tulsipur, Dang it is suggested to apply 50% recommended N through chemical fertilizer + 50% N through poultry manure to obtain a high yield of radish.</p> Babi Basnet Anil Aryal Arjun Neupane Bishal K.C. Nuwa Hang Rai Suraj Adhikari Prakash Khanal Manoj Basnet Copyright (c) 2021 Babi Basnet, Anil Aryal, Arjun Neupane, Bishal K.C., Nuwa Hang Rai, Suraj Adhikari, Prakash Khanal, Manoj Basnet 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 167 174 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33712 Determinants of food demand among urban households in Minna Metropolis, Niger State, Nigeria <p>Agricultural products including rice, yam and cowpea play significant roles in the food consumption of urban dwellers. However, increase in crop production cost has continued to threaten urban food price in Nigeria. This study analyzed the determinants of demand for food commodities among urban households in Minna metropolis. Data were collected from 110 household heads of urban residences, which were selected through a three-stage random sampling technique. Data collected for the study were analyzed using multiple regression technique. The results showed that rice, yam and cowpea were price in-elastic. The cross-price elasticities for rice, yam and cowpea were -0.132, 0.028 and 0.005 respectively. The computed own price, cross price and income elasticity of demand for rice were –0.308, -0.132 and 0.018 respectively. For yam, the computed values were -1.262, 0.028 and 0.289 respectively. While for cowpea, these values were -0.530, 0.005 and 0.002 respectively. For the income elasticity, rice and cowpea were proven to be normal goods and yam as a luxury good. The social protection strategies in form of food aids policy should be put into action to minimize the inflationary pressure on food items in the urban areas.</p> Oyeyode Tohib Obalola Likita Tanko Kazeem Oriyomi Aboaba Bello Bunza Abubakar Emmanuel Egbodo Boheje ODUM Babatola Olasunkanmi Agboola Kobe Hussein Ibrahim Rabiu Omeiza Audu Samuel Temitope Danilola Copyright (c) 2021 Oyeyode Tohib Obalola, Likita Tanko, Kazeem Oriyomi Aboaba, Bello Bunza Abubakar, Emmanuel Egbodo Boheje ODUM, Babatola Olasunkanmi Agboola, Kobe Hussein Ibrahim, Rabiu Omeiza Audu, Samuel Temitope Danilola 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 175 185 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33739 Screening of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes for rust-resistance and assessment on prevalence and distribution of the rust diseases in wheat production fields <p>Evaluation of 45 wheat genotypes was performed to quantify genetic responses to inoculation of rust pathogens in aqueous suspension at the early vegetative stage. The study was conducted in field conditions at Plant Pathology Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Lalitpur, Nepal in winter, 2013. Results showed large variations of rust resistance on wheat genotypes. Thirty-six genotypes were susceptible to yellow rust (YR), 18 had high severity, 7 had moderate severity, 6 had low severity, 5 had trace reactions, while 9 were rust-resistant. Old varieties (Lerma-52, Kalayansona, RR-21, NL-30, HD-1982, UP-262, Lumbini, Vinayak, Vaskar, Nepal-297, Nepal-251, BL-1135, Annapurna-4, Achyut, Rohini, and BL-1473) had high severities of YR, but relatively recent cultivars had medium severities. YR was severe (100S) in genotypes HD-1982, Vaskar, Vijay, and Rohini followed by RR-21, NL-30, UP-262, Nepal-297, BL-1135, and Annapurna-4 (90S). The pipeline cultivars: Aditya, NL-971, BL-3503, BL-3623, NL-1008, NL-1064, Becard#1, and Chyakhura-1 had trace to moderate reactions of YR with low severity indices. But varieties Vijay and NL-1055 showed high severity of YR (100S and 80S, respectively). Overall, leaf rust (LR) was minor while stem rust (SR) developed in traces on a single genotype (Annapurna-1). A survey of wheat rusts across 66 production fields revealed the prevalence of YR and LR at high levels, but none on SR. The occurrence of LR was higher than YR; 48.48% <em>vs</em> 36.36% of assessed fields, respectively. YR was a primary concern of rust diseases with most fields under high severity (62.5%) and incidence (54.16%) levels. LR had low incidence and moderate severity levels. A considerable gap exists between an extension of such research outcomes and the producers, who demonstrated little know-how on wheat rusts and varieties. These results may support and enhance varietal selection, breeding programs, and effective management and control strategies against wheat rust diseases.</p> Rajan Shrestha Baidya Nath Mahto Copyright (c) 2021 Rajan Shrestha, Baidya Nath Mahto 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 186 200 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33741 Bridging yield gap of winter maize using improved agronomic management practices <p>Appropriate combinations of inputs determine the productivity of crops. A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different combinations of inputs on the yield of winter maize at National Maize Research Program (NMRP), Rampur, Chitwan. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications comprising of six treatments (T<sub>1</sub>= Hybrid (H) + recommended doses of NPK (RD) + irrigation (I) + high density (HD) (83333 plant ha<sup>-1</sup>) + improved weed management practice (IWMP), T<sub>2</sub>=Open pollinated variety (OPV)+RD+I+HD+IWMP, T<sub>3</sub>=OPV+ farmer’s doses of NPK (FD)+I+HD+IWMP, T<sub>4</sub>= OPV+FD+rainfed (R)+HD+IWMP, T<sub>5</sub>=OPV+ FD+ R+low&nbsp; density (LD) (55555 plant ha<sup>-1</sup>) + IWMP, T<sub>6</sub>=OPV+FD+R+LD+ farmer’s weed management practice (FWMP). The research result revealed significant variation on the grain yield among the different treatments. The highest grain yield (5357 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained when hybrid maize was grown with recommended dose of fertilizer, higher density, irrigation and improved weed management practices. This treatment was followed by replacement of OPV in the above treatment (4410.77 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The decline in yield due to replacement of OPV from hybrid was 17.67 percent. The percent yield decline from full Package of practices (T<sub>1</sub>) were 23.01, 47.81, 36.66 and 35.95 when input combinations OPV+FD+I+ HD+IWMP, OPV + FD+R+HD+IWMP, OPV+FD+R+LD+IWMP and OPV+FD+R+LD+ FWMP respectively were used..The contrast for grain yield between hybrid vs. OPV, RD vs. FD and Irrigated vs. Rainfed were significant. Therefore, present investigation showed hybrid maize, recommended dose of fertilizer and irrigation were the most important inputs for improving maize productivity in winter season in Chitwan like climatic condition.</p> Richa Devkota Prem Pandey Tika Bahadur Karki Santosh Marahatta Shrawan Kumar Sah Copyright (c) 2021 Richa Devkota, Prem Pandey, Tika Bahadur Karki, Santosh Marahatta, Shrawan Kumar Sah 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 201 210 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33772 Avian infectious bronchitis and its management in Nepal: a review <p>Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious disease of poultry with high economic importance. Caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), it is transmitted by direct and indirect contact through aerosol or fecal means. Although IB is considered as respiratory disease, various strains of IBV affect the renal as well as the reproductive system. The economic importance of disease is due to lower egg production, poor hatchability of eggs, and decreased quality of the egg, weight loss, growth retardation, and high condemnation rates in meat-type birds. Although the prevalence of IB is lower in Nepal (&gt;1%), it is ranked second as a disease which claims most livestock unit in the world. There is no specific treatment for IB but live and inactivated vaccines are available for the prevention and control of the virus. The lack of research in the infectious bronchitis virus can cause production losses in poultry sector due to the evolution of resistant virus strain in our country. This review discusses the aspects of avian infectious bronchitis prevalence in Nepal.</p> Chandrakala Rana Birat Bhattarai Khil Bahadur Rana Magar Yuvraj Panth Copyright (c) 2021 Chandrakala Rana, Birat Bhattarai, Khil Bahadur Rana Magar, Yuvraj Panth 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 211 226 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33773 Asian elephants and their status in Nepal: a review <p>Wild Asian elephants (<em>Elephas maximus</em>) are one of the most endangered wildlife species in Nepal. Currently, there are approximately 200 to 250 wild elephants counted in Nepal. Of &nbsp;them, 15-20 are in Jhapa district, 17 are in KoshiTappu Wildlife Reserve, eight in Sindhuli, and 45-50 in Parsa National Park andChitwan National Park. More &nbsp;than 100 elephants are in Bardiya National Parks and adjoining municipalities, and 25-30 are in Suklaphanta National Park and adjoining municipalities.Elephant conservation is challenged by habitat fragmentation, obstruction of migratory routes and human-elephant conflict. The governments of Nepal, law enforcement, NGOs, and local communities have made various initiatives to conserve elephants. In the paper, we have outlined the current status of the elephant population, and its conservative efforts. This study may be a useful tool for the scientific communities and ecologists to protect elephants from extinction.</p> Sami Shrestha Jiban Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Sami Shrestha, Jiban Shrestha 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 227 237 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33828 Economics of production and marketing of wheat in Rupandehi district of Nepal <p>Wheat is the third most important cereal crop of Nepal after rice and maize in terms of area. The study on profitability and marketing of wheat was conducted in the Rupandehi district in 2019. The household survey, focus group discussion, interview with the individual market actors such as input suppliers, producers, collectors, wholesalers, millers, and retailers in selected clusters was carried out. The study showed that the Benefit-Cost Ratio of wheat production (BCR) was 1.87. The marketing margins at three different levels of marketing farm-wholesale, wholesale-retail, and farm-retail were also analyzed. The farm-retail marketing margin was found highest (31.42%) and the farm-wholesale marketing margins were less (15.78%). The producers’ share in consumer price was 68.5% and the total gross margin was 56.36%.&nbsp; This showed if value-added activities are absent in the chain, the shorter chain can provide a higher margin to farmers by bypassing the intermediaries.</p> Meena Kharel Yuga Nath Ghimire Krishna Prasad Timsina Surya Prasad Adhikari Sanjiv Subedi Hema Kumari Poudel Copyright (c) 2021 Meena Kharel, Yuga N. Ghimire, Krishna P. Timsina, Surya P. Adhikari, Sanjiv Subedi, Hema K. Poudel 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 238 245 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33844 Technical efficiency of wheat growing farmers of Nepal <p>Wheat is a major staple food crop of Nepal, so it is necessary to increase its productivity. However, the national average wheat productivity of Nepal is low as compared to other neighboring countries. This study employed a Cobb-Douglas stochastic production frontier model to examine the technical efficiency and its determinants using randomly selected household data from 343 wheat farmers from four districts of Nepal. Maximum likelihood estimation results showed that wheat production responded positively to an increase in the quantity of inorganic fertilizer, whereas it was detrimental to seed rate. Likewise, the study found that farmers were not technically efficient with a mean technical efficiency of 81%. The result showed irrigation, herbicides, sowing time, Farm Yard Manure (FYM), and wheat varieties were statistically significant factors that affect the technical efficiency of wheat farmers. Furthermore, to increase wheat productivity, farmers should use better irrigation, appropriate weed management practices, optimum sowing time, and adoption of recent improved varieties. Findings suggest that the technical efficiency of wheat farmers could be enhanced by practicing optimum use of inputs and improving the inefficiency factors</p> Surya Prasad Adhikari Yuga Nath Ghimire Krishna Prasad Timsina Sanjiv Subedi Meena Kharel Copyright (c) 2021 Surya P. Adhikari, Yuga N. Ghimire, Krishna P. Timsina, Sanjiv Subedi, Meena Kharel 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 246 254 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33857 Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) decline by dieback disease, root pathogens and their management: a review <p>Shisham or sissoo (<em>Dalbergia sissoo</em>) is an important multipurpose tree with great economic importance, but this tree has been infected by various root pathogens. This review article shows the works conducted on root pathogens and die back disease of Shisham and their management. Around seventy-one endophytic fungus has been found in sissoo trees in Nepal. Several fungi, including,&nbsp;<em>Fusarium solani</em>,&nbsp;<em>F. oxysporum</em>,&nbsp;<em>Ganoderma lucidum</em>,&nbsp;<em>Phellinus gilvus</em>,&nbsp;<em>Polypours gilvus</em>,&nbsp;<em>Rhizoctonia solani</em>,&nbsp;<em>Polyporus spongiosum</em>, etc. cause sissoo diseases.&nbsp;<em>Ganoderma Lucidum</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>F. Solani</em>&nbsp;are two main pathogenic agents in&nbsp;Shisham, all of which causes root rot and vascular wilt diseases, and are the causes for the large-scale death of this tree species. Root rot ganoderma is wide spread in both natural and plant-based forests. Older trees in&nbsp;Shisham are usually attacked by these pathogens and cause large-scale death. However, when sissoo is grown as a re-forested pure plant without the removal of the stumps or root of the initial plant, a serious problem of root rot can develop. Field sanitation and proper management of field are necessary to control the fungal diseases of Shisham. Another deleterious disease of &nbsp;Shisham is dieback disease, where sissoo plantations have been confirmed to this disease when the infected trees begin to get dry from the top. There is no suitable solution for control of dieback of Shisham. There is a need of developing resistant varieties and to improve the quality of seed. This review may be useful tool for Forest Pathologists and other persons who are working in forestry and natural conservation sectors.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kabita Kumari Shah Injila Tiwari Bindu Modi Hari Prasad Pandey Sudeep Subedi Jiban Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Kabita Kumari Shah, Injila Tiwari, Bindu Modi, Hari Prasad Pandey, Sudeep Subedi, Jiban Shrestha 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 255 272 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33915 Effectiveness of linking vegetable farmers to formal markets in Lagos State, Nigeria <p>The study assessed how smallholder vegetable farmers are linked to formal markets in Lagos state, Nigeria. The study specifically described the socioeconomic characteristics of the smallholder vegetable farmers, ascertained perceived benefits from the linkage and constraints in linking smallholder vegetable farmers to formal markets. A random sampling technique was used to sample 120 vegetable farmers from Agbowa and Epe clusters. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The results revealed that smallholder vegetable farmers were relatively young with mean age of 41.5 years, mean household size was 4 persons and they mainly sourced information from friends and fellow farmers. The findings also revealed that the smallholder vegetable farmers had strong linkage with input suppliers (x̅ = 2.50), International Fertilizer Development Center (x̅ = 2.33), World Vegetable Center (x̅ = 1.51) and Center for Inclusive Agriculture and Gender Development (x̅ = 1.46). Exposure to production technologies and specialized training (x̅ = 4.69) were the most perceived benefits from the linkage. Level of linkage with farmers and other actors was constrained by lack of basic infrastructure (x̅ = 2.50) and inadequate credit facilities (x̅ = 2.06). The study also found a significant correlation between household size and level of linkages. The linkages arising from the arrangement had no doubt exposed the farmers to production technologies and market information. Extension agencies and relevant non-governmental organisations are implored to offer specific trainings to vegetable farmers on value addition to enhance their participation in the formal markets.</p> Jonathan Akinsola Akinwale Olamide Victoria Oyeyemi Copyright (c) 2021 Jonathan Akinsola Akinwale, Olamide Victoria Oyeyemi 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 273 283 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33920 Nepalese legal standard of milk and common milk products and its implications <p>The milk and milk products are diversified and there is increasing awareness about the quality standards of products among the consumers.Therefore this study reviewed the legal standard of milk and common milk Products in Nepal and its implications using desk review and exploratory research.In Nepal, the department of food technology and quality control has developed several legal standards for the quality assurance of milk and milk products. National Dairy Development Board has established the Code of Practice for Dairy Industry 2004 which directs six criteria for the standardization of milk and milk products like Organoleptic test, Clot On Boiling (COB)&nbsp;test, Alcohol Test,Fat test and Solids-Not-Fat&nbsp;(SNF)test, &nbsp;Adulteration test, phosphate test, and microbial and coliform test. The review identified the quality standards of milk products like ghee, butter, paneer, milk powders but some quality parameters for ice-creams and cheese are still missing. The research identifies the quality non-compliance rate of milk and milk products that is about 19% which is in a decreasing trend. To the effective implementation of the legal standards, maintenance of health and hygiene of livestock at the production site, lab and infrastructure support at the distribution site, and creating consumer awareness to the consumer site is imperative.</p> Namdev Upadhyay Bipisha Khanal Yogendra Acharya Krishna Prasad Timsina Copyright (c) 2021 Namdev Upadhyay, Bipisha Khanal, Yogendra Acharya, Krishna Prasad Timsina 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 284 294 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33924 Evaluation of different chemical fungicides against rice blast in field conditions <p>Evaluation of different fungicides against rice blast was carried out in research plot of the Agronomy farm of IAAS, Prithu Technical College, Lamahi Municpality, Dang district of the Lumbini Province, inner terai region of Nepal during June to November, 2017. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the efficiency of different chemical fungicides against rice blast. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design with the use of susceptible variety ‘Mansuli’. Different fungicides like Hexaconazole 5% SC (Udaan), Propiconazole 25% EC (Tilt), Captan 70% + Hexaconazole 5% WP, Validamycin 3% L, Tricyclazole 75% WP (TRIP) and Biomycin (Kasugamycin 3% S.L.) were applied five times at weekly interval with the doses of 2mL/L of H<sub>2</sub>O, 1.5mL/L of H<sub>2</sub>O, 2g/L of H<sub>2</sub>O, 2mL/L of H<sub>2</sub>O, 2g/L of H<sub>2</sub>O and 2mL/L of H<sub>2</sub>O respectively. From the result, it was concluded that all the fungicides were effective in controlling leaf blast but Tricyclazole 75% WP (TRIP) was more effective among other fungicides and untreated control plots with least leaf blast severity (27.85%), least incidence (35.5%), least mean AUDPC (64.64%) and highest grain yield (3.93 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) followed by Biomycin. It is thus concluded that fungicide Tricyclazole 75% WP should be sprayed five times at weekly interval for the management of leaf blast in rice.</p> Rachana Moktan Anjeela Aryal Sagar Karki Ashbin Kumar Devkota Basistha Acharya Darbin Joshi Krishna Aryal Copyright (c) 2021 Rachana Moktan, Anjeela Aryal, Sagar Karki, Ashbin Kumar Devkota, Basistha Acharya, Darbin Joshi, Krishna Aryal 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 295 302 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33942 Evaluation of bread wheat genotypes under rain-fed conditions in Terai districts of Nepal <p>Thirty four percent of the total wheat cultivated area is under rain-fed condition in Nepal and that of the Terai is nineteen percent. The objective of this study was to develop drought tolerant and high yielding varieties of wheat for timely sown rain-fed environments. Coordinated Varietal trial (CVT) was carried out in normal wheat growing season during 2016/17 and 2017/18. The research was conducted at five locations (Rampur, Bhairahawa, Doti, Jitpur and Nepalgunj) of five research stations of Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) throughout the Terai region in alpha lattice design with two replications. Data on different yield attributing traits were recorded. In the CVT-TTL 2016/17 highly significant difference (p&lt;0.01) among the genotypes was found for days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, number of grains per spike and thousand kernel weight and significant difference (p&lt;0.05) for grain yield. The highest grain yield was observed in NL 1326 (2954 kg/ha) which was followed by NL 1327 (2819 kg/ha), NL 1211 (2719 kg/ha), NL1202 (2683 kg/ha), BL 4707 (2654 kg/ha) and BL 4708 (2652 kg/ha).&nbsp; Similarly, in CVT-TTL 2017/18, highly significant difference (p&lt;0.01) among the genotypes was observed for the days to heading, days to maturity and plant height and non-significant different for number of grains per spike, grain yield and TGW.&nbsp; However, Genotype by Environment (G x E) was found highly significant (p&lt;0.01) for the days to heading, plant height, grain yield and TGW and significant different (p&lt;0.05) for number of grains per spike. The highest grain yield was obtained in NL1322 (2305 kg/ha) which was followed by NL1369 (2287 kg/ha), NL 1202 (2205 kg/ha), BL 4708 (2197 kg/ha) and BL 4820 (2118 kg/ha). Among these tested genotypes BL 4708, NL 1202, NL 1211, NL 1307, NL 1327 and NL 1369 are recommended for the coordinated farmer's field trial for further verification and release as variety.</p> Deepak Pandey Khem Raj Pant Biswas Raj Bastola Rabin Giri Suman Bohara Shankar Shrestha Govinda Bahadur Hamal Jiban Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Deepak Pandey, Khem Raj Pant, Biswas Raj Bastola, Rabin Giri Giri, Suman Bohara, Shankar Shrestha, Govind Bahadur Hamal, Jiban Shrestha 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 303 315 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33946 Behavioural science principles for scaling-up zero tillage wheat and maize in the Eastern Terai region of Nepal <p>Farmers have a set of convictions and tend to do what their forefathers had practiced. By identifying their beliefs and designing appropriate ways of upscaling to convince them of new and improved practices, we can improve the adoption of zero tillage technology for maize and wheat. Small and fragmented landholdings that resulted from the cultural system of distributing land to heirs are diverse in their cropping requirements. Moreover, farmers are risk-averse and do not believe easily in new technologies. Traditional extension approaches have not been effective in upscaling these technologies. A new way of thinking based on behavioural science can provide some insights and guidelines for improving the effectiveness of technology adoption. Understanding farmers' socioeconomic circumstances and their decision-making system at the household and society level can help in designing upscaling approaches. Approaches such as capitalising on social bonding, use of established technology leaders, and use of farmers' organizations can improve adoption. Recommended strategies include encouraging a comprehensive contracting system of service provision, using active community influential local leaders in technology expansion, taking group and social identity approaches in technology extension, and capacity building programs for service providers/operators and farmers to help raise confidence and to remove perceived barriers to technology adoption. &nbsp;</p> Yuga N. Ghimire Krishna P. Timsina Surya P. Adhikari Keshav P. Shrestha Samaya Gairhe Yogendra Acharya Deepa Devkota Namdev Upadhyay Meena Kharel Hema K. Poudel Roy M. Prior Maria Fay Rola-Rubzen Copyright (c) 2021 Yuga N. Ghimire, Krishna P. Timsina, Surya P. Adhikari, Keshav P. Shrestha, Samaya Gairhe, Yogendra Acharya, Deepa Devkota, Namdev Upadhyay, Meena Kharel, Hema K. Poudel, Roy M. Prior, Maria Fay Rola-Rubzen 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 316 326 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33947 Plant Parasitic Nematodes and their management in crop production: a review <p class="MDPI14history" style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; color: #222222; background: white;">Plant Parasitic Nematodes are small worm like transparent, bilateral symmetry, pseudocoelomate, multicellular, free living or parasitic microorganism which are predatory, aquatic, terrestrial, entopathogenic, ectoparasite, endoparasite, semi-endoparasite or sedentary. They cause substantial problems to major crops throughout the world, including vegetables, fruits, and grain crops.&nbsp;The root knot and cyst nematodes are economically important pests in numerous crops. Crop damage from nematodes is not readily apparent in most cases, and it often remains hidden by the many other factors limiting plant growth. In the past, the control of the nematodes has been based on the synthetic nematicides, the number of which has been drastically restricted in the EU because of their environmental side effects and subsequent restriction in&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; color: #222222;">European<span style="background: white;">&nbsp;Union (EU) rules and regulations. Many other methods like cultural control, biological control, use of biotechnological tools and methods, use of resistant cultivars are tested and proven successful in controlling different species of nematodes all over the world. Alternatively, combinations of the different methods are proven to be highly effective both economically and environmentally.</span></span></p> Honey Raj Mandal Shambhu Katel Sudeep Subedi Jiban Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Honey Raj Mandal, Shambhu Katel Katel, Sudeep Subedi, Jiban Shrestha 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 4 2 327 338 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33950 Evaluation of rice genotypes for growth, yield and yield components <p>Twelve rice genotypes were evaluated under irrigated lowland and upland rainfed conditions in a randomized complete block design with three replications at Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal in 2019. Data on plant height, panicle length, effective tillers per plant, fertile grain number per panicle and grain yield were taken.&nbsp;The variation was observed for plant height, panicle length, effective tillers per plant, fertile grain number per panicle among the evaluated rice genotypes. The rice genotype NR 11375-B-B-21 produced the highest grain yield (3974.75 kg/ha) followed by NR 11374-B-B-23 (3615.26 kg/ha) and NR 11145-B-B-B-6 (3597.56 kg/ha) under irrigated low land condition. Similarly, the rice genotypes, NR 11375-B-B-21 produced the highest grain yield (3837.15 kg/ha) followed by NR 11321-B-B-7-3 (3588.71 kg/ha) and NR 11305-B-B-1-3 (3292.36 kg/ha) under upland rainfed condition. The combined analysis showed that rice genotype NR 11375-B-B-21 produced the highest grain yield (3905.95 kg/ha) followed by NR 11374-B-B-23 (3494.63 kg/ha), and NR 11321-B-B-7-3 (3409.89 kg/ha) respectively. Thus, after evaluation of yield, two genotypes namely NR 11375-B-B-21, NR 11374-B-B-23, were selected as outstanding genotypes, which can be used as potential breeding materials for upland and low land environments of mid hills of Nepal.</p> Jiban Shrestha Sudeep Subedi Ujjawal Kumar Singh Kushwaha Bidhya Maharjan Copyright (c) 2021 Jiban Shrestha, Sudeep Subedi, Ujjawal Kumar Singh Kushwaha, Bidhya Maharjan 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 4 2 339 346 10.3126/janr.v4i2.33967