Journal of Balkumari College <p>Official journal of Balkumari College, Bharatpur Metropolitan City, Chitwan, Bagmati Province, Nepal.</p> Balkumari College, Bharatpur Metropolitan City, Chitwan, Bagmati Province, Nepal en-US Journal of Balkumari College 2467-9321 <p>Copyright is retained by the authors.</p> Attitude Survey on Current Governance System at Tarakeshwar and Tokhain Kathmandu <p>This study aims to examinecomponents of local government's development for improving local governance in Nepal. Descriptive and analytical research design was used in this study. The data collected through a questionnaire from 150 respondents were used for analysis. The component of local government for improving local governance in Nepal was found satisfactory, but its implementation was found poor.The findings from this study provide information about Federalismpolicy in Nepal. It could be helpful to provide some particular guidelines to the policymakers for improving local governance. It suggests that appropriate policy must be adopted, and proper communication and information system should be developed.</p> Dr. Hari Prasad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2021 Balkumari College 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 10 1 1 6 10.3126/jbkc.v10i1.42080 Evaluation of Effects of Credit-Risk on Return on Assets of Commercial Banks in Nepal <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The major cause of bank distress in Nepal is associated with poor credit management which results to decline in credit standing of the banks. The study adopts judgmental sampling techniques.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To analyze and evaluate the impact of credit-risk ratio on return on assets of commercial banks in Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Research design: </strong>Descriptive and exploratory research designs were used.</p> <p><strong>Methods and materials: </strong>Review of various articles and collection of secondary data through the websites of Nepal Rastra Bank.</p> <p><strong>Results and conclusion: </strong>It is found that there is inverse relationship between credit risk ratio and return on assets ratio. The findings provide sufficient evidence that credit risk management indicators impact significantly on commercial bank performance in Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Article type</strong>: Research Paper</p> Dr. Kapil Khanal Copyright (c) 2021 Balkumari College 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 10 1 7 12 10.3126/jbkc.v10i1.42082 Impact of Training & Development and Career Planning on Employee Involvement <p>The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of training and development as well as career planning in Nepalese service sector organizations. Data for this study were gathered from service organizations such as banks, insurance companies, telecommunications companies, hospitals, and colleges. In total, 502 questionnaires were distributed, and 82.97 percent of the copies that were filled out and returned were used in the study. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and multiple regression were used to analyze the data. Organizational training and development and career planning, according to the study's findings, have a significant impact on employee involvement in their jobs and performance. As a result, Nepalese service sector organizations must make provisions of the budget for additional employee training and development programs. Similarly, it is necessary to provide employees with career development opportunities so that they can stay with the company for an extended period.</p> Dr. Gopal Man Pradhan Dr. Prakash Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Balkumari College 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 10 1 13 18 10.3126/jbkc.v10i1.42086 Effect of Credit Risk Management on Financial Performance Of Nepalese Commercial Banks <p>The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of credit risk on the financial performance of commercial banks in Nepal. The panel data of seventeen commercial banks with 85 observations for the period of 2015 to 2020 have been analyzed. The regression model revealed that non – performing loan (NPLR) has negative and statistically significant impact on financial performance (ROA).Capital adequacy ratio (CAR) and bank size (BS) have negative and statistically no significant impact on financial performance (ROA). Credit to deposit (CDR) has positive but no significant relationship with the financial performance (ROA) and the study concluded that the management quality ratio (MQR) has positive and significant relationship with the financial performance (ROA) of the commercial banks in Nepal. The study recommends that, it is fundamental for Nepalese commercial banks to practice scientific credit risk management, improve their efficacy in credit analysis and loan management to secure as much as possible their assets, and minimize the high incidence of non-performing loans and their negative effects on financial performance.</p> Dr. Guna Raj Chhetri Copyright (c) 2022 Balkumari College 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 10 1 19 30 10.3126/jbkc.v10i1.42088 Role of Psychology Treatment in "Anxiety Disorder" <p>In order to manage the emotional and psychological problems in special population such as mental retardation. HIV positive cases and so on. A comprehensive management of this type of cases includes psychotherapy. Here it is necessary to know about this concept and its beauty in various disorders. It is a psychological method which is called psychotherapy (Talking Cure). Psychotherapy is a systematic attempt to manage the mental and emotional disorders with the help of psychological means a variant of this approach came in 1960s. Which was called cognitive behavior therapy. Recent days this approached has been brought revolution in management of psychological, behavioral and emotional problems. This paper will enhance our knowledge regarding status of psychological method in various disorders and mental illnesses.</p> Dr. Mahesh Kumar Gajurel Copyright (c) 2021 Balkumari College 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 10 1 31 33 10.3126/jbkc.v10i1.42089 Ranahar: Textuality of History, Culture and Politics <p>The question of the relation between the history and the literature is a central question of historicism and new historicism. Literature is not possible without the influence of the time; past or present. The depiction of the past is the picture of history in the text, and the portrayal of present becomes the history in the future, hence the literary text is not free from the history in any way. Furthermore, some tests intentionally present the history, not as exactly as the history, but as the interpretation of the history, hence the mode of new historical way of understanding the text. Yogesh Raj's Ranahar provides the lost history of Malla dynasty, primarily the history of the last Malla king, Ranajit. The book is not a pure imagination, neither is it a pure history, but it has the combination of the historical facts and his imagination. Reading this novel, as a fiction, just as pure imagination is an injustice to the veiled part of its history. With the background of the history of Bhaktapur, this article examines the novel Ranahar from historical and new historical perspective on how literature has become a medium to reveal the lost history, the textuality of history.</p> Dr. Keshav Raj Chalise Copyright (c) 2021 Balkumari College 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 10 1 34 38 10.3126/jbkc.v10i1.42090 Sexual Harassment AND Its effects on Mental Health OF THE Teenage School Girls in Lalitpur and rupandehi district <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted to find the prevalence of mental health on teenage girl students and the effect of sexual harassment on their mental health: depression, anxiety, and stress. A concurrent mixed method was used and the study was conducted at both community and institutional schools of Lalitpur and Rupendehi districts. A semi-structured questionnaire was used for quantitative data collection along with DASS (42 points) test to measure depression, anxiety, and depression. Focus group discussion (FGD), in-depth interviews (IDI), and key informant information (KII) were used for qualitative data collection. Poor and ill mental health were found among the respondents and the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress were 45%, 52%, and 35% respectively among the sexually harassed girl. As sexual harassment was found as one of the major factors that responsible for the poor mental health status of girl students, it is necessary for every school to adopt anti-sexual harassment policies and to take action against it to create a healthy learning environment.</p> Dr. Kalpana Gyawali Copyright (c) 2021 Balkumari College 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 10 1 39 47 10.3126/jbkc.v10i1.42092 Cash Flow Ratios for Evaluating Performance in Nepalese Commercial Banks <p>The purpose of this paper is to examine and analyze the performance of Nepalese commercial banks through cash flow ratios. Descriptive as well as analytical research design has been used. All the government owned commercial banks has been taken as the sample of the study using judgmental technique. Sufficiency and efficiency ratios has been used for evaluating the performance of the concerned commercial banks. Data have been collected through the annual reports of respective banks covering for the financial year 2017/2018 to 2019/2020. All the banks are efficient to generate operating cash flow from sales and continued activities. However the cash generation from continued activities and asset utilization revealed sound in NBL and RBB than ADB in 2019/2020. Cash flow sufficiency revealed similar trends in all banks.</p> Naba Raj Adhikari Copyright (c) 2021 Balkumari College 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 10 1 48 52 10.3126/jbkc.v10i1.42093 An ethnographic study on the “Use of English Language by the Students of Grade nine” in a Private Boarding School of Chitwan <p>English in Nepal is generally believed to be used only for international communication. The medium of instruction in private boarding schools is English &amp; in most public schools are also practicing English medium classes. Most of the private schools have applied compulsory English language policy. English continues to play a crucial role in the communication among the students in those schools. This study has made an attempt to analyse the reason behind adopting compulsory English language policy and also tried to explore the trend of following the language policy by the students of grade nine. The study concludes that parents in particular and the society as a whole is responsible for the compulsory English language policy and the students of grade nine do not follow the school policy for exercising the freedom.</p> Ananta Dhungana Copyright (c) 2021 Balkumari College 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 10 1 53 60 10.3126/jbkc.v10i1.42094 Students’ Attitude towards Virtual Learning during Covid-19 in Chitwan <p>The COVID-19 pandemic is rapidly accelerating the learning process. As a result, there has been a shift from face- to- face to virtual learning. The major purpose of this research was to identify the interest and attitude of students towards virtual learning during covid-19 pandemic. The study was to determine whether students are interested in virtual learning or not. This survey is based on primary data collected from students who are currently pursuing their degrees. Google form structured questionnaire was distributed via Messenger app to the students of Chitwan district colleges where virtual learning is going on using random sampling method. The result revealed that students are interested in virtual learning. The majority of students found it as an important means of making knowledge widerand bringing social changes despite hindrances (p= 0.001). Virtual learning is a powerful tool for teaching replacing face to face learning in any level as a quick solution to the crisis. However, successful implementation of virtual learning into curriculum requires a well thought-out strategy and equal access of all.</p> Sharada Khanal Copyright (c) 2021 Balkumari College 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 10 1 61 67 10.3126/jbkc.v10i1.42095 Animal Imagery in George Orwell's novel “Animal Farm” <p>The present paper is a literary stylistic study that illustrates in George Orwell's novel Animal Farm the imagery, the allegorical meaning, linguistic exploitation or manipulation of words. One of the most traditional features of the Animal Farm and an integral part of its imagery is Orwell 's sophisticated sensitivity to political abuse of language Inwardly, this novel is an allegory that relates to power struggle, usurpation, coercion, manipulation, hypocrisy, oppression, political racket and fear of the ruling classes in any shape they may exist (human or animal). It seems to be a simple tale of animals. However severe the subject is, through his vivid imagery and artful use of literary instruments, Orwell has made it imaginative and humorous. With its clear, deceptively simple, but creatively honed prose style and expressive language, the novel is a source of great aesthetic and intellectual pleasure and political insight.</p> Sushil Ghimire Copyright (c) 2021 Balkumari College 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 10 1 67 72 10.3126/jbkc.v10i1.42105 The Impact of Trade Deficit in Nepalese Economy <p>The objective of this paper is to study and analyze the growth and direction of Nepalese foreign trade along with the causes and recommendations of trade deficit. Efforts have been made to sort out the principal sources of the trade deficit in Nepal. Landlockedness, political instability, lack of export diversification, devaluation of domestic currency, lack of resources, etc. are the major causes of the trade deficit in Nepal. Nepal, being not self-reliant on factors of production, consumer goods and capital goods, needs to import goods from abroad. On another hand, Nepal’s exports are heavily concentrated; both in terms of product and destination. Nepal’s major trading partners are India, China, U.A.E, etc. During the year 2019/20, Nepal exports goods worth RS. 97.71 Billion And import goods worth RS. 1196.80 billion Leading to a trade deficit of Rs.1099.09 Billion. Trade deficit is acting as negative catalyst in the economic growth and GDP of a country. Increased deficit has caused suppressed inflation. Import to export ratio is continuously increasing as demand is increasing and these demands could not be met by the domestic producers. During the year 2019/20, the contribution of trade on GDP of Nepal is 40.65%. No doubt, trade is an engine of economic growth. So, after analyzing barriers in the foreign trade, some of the steps to be taken are recommended which includes the development of competitive ability and enhancement of Human Resources, commodity and market diversification, formulation of strong legal framework and trade policy, incentives for the promotion of export and priority in the agricultural and hydropower sectors.</p> Ashmita Dahal Chhetri Copyright (c) 2021 Balkumari College 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 10 1 73 88 10.3126/jbkc.v10i1.42108 Factors of the Use of E-learning during COVID-19 Lockdown among the College Students of Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study <p class="Pa7" style="text-align: justify; margin: 2.0pt 0cm 2.0pt 0cm;"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: black;">Background</span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: black;">: COVID-19 Pandemic had affected all sectors of human life around the globe. Education is one of them where traditional method of teaching had to be shift to virtual learning all of sudden in both developed and developing countries. Therefore, the article reflects the associated factors of E-learning among college students of Nepal during emergency shift of teaching paradigm due to COVID -19. </span></p> <p class="Pa7" style="text-align: justify; margin: 2.0pt 0cm 2.0pt 0cm;"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: black;">Methodology</span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: black;">: Convenient sampling method through social media and Google form was used to collect 385 data from college students of Nepal during COVID-19 lockdown. </span></p> <p class="Pa7" style="text-align: justify; margin: 2.0pt 0cm 2.0pt 0cm;"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: black;">Results</span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: black;">: The result showed that only 30% of the Nepalese students had all the required resources all the time for the use of E-learning however, 85% of the student had engaged in in E-learning during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. The study found that gender, marital status, training on the use of E-learning, experience of E-learning prior to pandemic were statistically significant with the future use of E-learning. </span></p> <p class="Pa7" style="text-align: justify; margin: 2.0pt 0cm 2.0pt 0cm;"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: black;">Conclusions: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: black;">Educational institutions need be responsive towards the challenges faced by students during E learning, so that learning needs of the students will be fulfilled even in pandemic situation.</span></p> Poonam Pokhrel Sapkota Dr. Shyam Prasad Sedai Megha Raj Sapkota Copyright (c) 2021 Balkumari College 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 10 1 89 93 10.3126/jbkc.v10i1.42118 Nutritional Status And Its Impact On The Occurance Of Complications In Children With Acute Lymbhoblastic Leukemia During 1Stinduction Chemotherapy: The Experience At Bp Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital <p>Malnutrition is a common problem in cancer patients. It has been recognized as an important component to influence on tolerance to treatment, increased morbidity, poor prognosis, decreased quality of life and increased health care costs. Acute leukemia is the most common malignancy in children of which acute lymphoblastic leukemia accounts for majority of the cases (75%). Chemotherapy is the main treatment modality for acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL). Under nutrition can contribute to the incidence and severity of treatment side effects and increases the risk of infection, thereby reducing the chances of survival.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To evaluate pretreatment nutritional status (BMI) in children with ALL and its effects during first induction chemotherapy.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This observational study included sixty-two consecutive children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, admitted in Haemato-Oncology Ward of BPKMCH over a period of 27 months (15thy May, 2015 to 15th July, 2017) were measured for height and weight to calculate BMI for assessing nutritional status at presentation. Children were grouped into 2 group: normal weight and underweight usingCDC BMI percentile chart by World Health Organization(WHO). Day to day observation and documentation were maintained to identify any side effects and complications over a period of first induction chemotherapy.</p> <p><strong>Findings of the study: </strong>Among 62 cases, majority were male (66%). Three forth of the cases were B-cell ALL. More than 34 percent of the cases (27) had under- weight (BMI&lt; 5thpercentile). Effects like very severe neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, infections, musculoskeletal problems, severe pancytopenia, G/I problems were noted mostly in children with underweight.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Baseline nutritional status negatively influences in the occurrence of complications during induction chemotherapy in children with ALL. The nutritional support has to be personalized according to the nutritional status of the single patient.</p> Sushila Koirala Copyright (c) 2021 Balkumari College 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 10 1 94 100 10.3126/jbkc.v10i1.42124