Journal of Balkumari College <p>Official journal of Balkumari College, Bharatpur Metropolitan City, Chitwan, Bagmati Province, Nepal.</p> en-US (Dr. Guna Raj Chhetri) (Sioux Cumming) Thu, 07 Dec 2023 09:37:12 +0000 OJS 60 Human Resource Management Practices and Employee Retention <p>The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between HRM practices and employee retention in bank and financial institutions (BFIs) of Nepal. Recruitment and selection, training and development, promotion opportunities, and compensation practices are the four HRM practices examined in this study. A questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale is used for collecting data. 135 completed questionnaires were returned out of the 205 that were distributed, representing a 65.85% response rate. The results show that selection and recruitment have no significant relationship with employee retention. The findings also indicate that there is little to no relationship between training and development and employee retention. There is a strong positive association between employee retention and other aspects of HRM practices like promotion opportunities and compensation practices. Therefore, Nepalese BFIs need to provide timely promotion opportunities and fair compensation practices so that they can retain talented employees in their organizations. Moreover, to meet the challenge of gaining a competitive edge, today’s organizations must create a workplace that encourages performance, productivity, and retention.</p> Prakash Shrestha, Dhan Krishna Prajapati Copyright (c) 2023 Balkumari College Thu, 07 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Entrepreneurship Development: A Crucial Factor for the Sustainability of Nepalese Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) <p>In this study, the researcher makes the efforts to examine impact of relationship marketing strategies followed The purpose of the paper is to highlight the prospects and challenges of entreprunership development programs of Nepalese microfinance institutions (MFIs) and their sustainability. Descriptive research design has adopted in the study based on review of best practices. Micro entrepruners are those types of members of microfinance who are graduated from microfinance. Nepalese MFIs faced a numbers of challenges for entrepreneurship development (EDs). Finding shows that unskilled human resources, low technical knowledge, financial constraints and poor financial literacy are main constraints of Nepalese MFIs for entrepreneurship development. Conclusion from the study is drawn that entrepreneurship development directly affects viability and sustainability of microfinance institutions (MFIs) through scale of loan disbursement, saving mobilization, profitability for further investment, business development, market analysis and complying with all rules and regulations provided by regulatory authority. The findings of the study might be applicable to the BFIs, MFIs, regulatory authorities, SMEs analyst, entrupruner and planners.</p> Basu Dev Lamichhane, Bishnu Kafle , Padam Bahadur Lama Copyright (c) 2023 Balkumari College Thu, 07 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Academic Procrastination’s Antecedents and their Predictability on College Students in Kathmandu Valley <p>The purpose of this study is to examine the predictability of self-efficacy, self-regulation on academic procrastination of undergraduate students in Kathmandu Valley. For this, first, the undergraduate students from management program in three different districts in Kathmandu valley were taken through convenience sampling. The sample were examined by using self-report scale viz. Academic Procrastination Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale, Self-Regulation Scale and Self-efficacy for self-regulation Scale, followed by correlation and hierarchical regression under cross-sectional research design and finally, hypotheses were tested. The study found negative bivariate correlation between academic procrastination, self-efficacy, self-regulation and self-efficacy for self-regulation. Among all the the predictors, self-regulation stood the strong predictor. This study tires to provide the general understanding of procrastination in the Nepalese context, with the view to support on determining the antecedents in developing the possible intervention program for overcoming procrastinatory behavior among undergraduate students.</p> Navraj Bhusal Copyright (c) 2023 Balkumari College Thu, 07 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Fortifying Trust, Security, and Privacy in Online Trading Systems: Unlocking their Paramount Significance <p>The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of perceived security and perceived privacy on customers trust to accept the use online trading system in an extended form of the tam model with TAM constructs. This research paper tries to study the impact of security and privacy perceptions on customer’s trust, also the impact of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on customer’s intention to use online trading system. For the purpose of the study total of 201 samples were collected through the online survey and the data so collected was analyzed descriptively in SPSS version 24, and the seven hypotheses were tested using PLS-SEM in SmartPLS. The path modeling through PLS indicated that perceived ease of use and privacy has no significant positive relation with behavioral intention and trust respectively but all others hypothesis were accepted and the research showed that trust plays an important role for customers intention to use online trading system.</p> Omkar Poudel, Pradeep Acharya , Daya Simkhada Copyright (c) 2023 Balkumari College Thu, 07 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Descriptive Study to Assess Knowledge Regarding Breast Cancer Screening among Reproductive Age Women of Bharatpur-12, Chitwan <p><strong>Background</strong>: Incidence of breast cancer in Nepal has increased in recent years. Screening helps in early detection of cancer and early diagnosis and timely treatment of breast cancer lead to better prognosis.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: Cross sectional study on “ Knowledge Regarding Breast Cancer Screening among Reproductive Aged women of Bharatpur-12 Chitwan” was carried out to identify the knowledge regarding breast cancer screening. Non- probability purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample and sample size was 50. Data was collected by using structured questionnaire. Collected data was entered in SPSS version 22 and analysis was done using descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>: Findings of the study reveals that respondent’s mean age was 33.50±8.734. Regarding the religion, majority (90%) were hindu, similarly 52% were Bhramin. More that half (52%) had secondary education and 44% were engaged in business. In regard to marital status, 76% were married. Study findings summarized the level of knowledge in to three categories where, majority (52%) of the respondents had poor level of knowledge, less than half (44%) had moderate level of knowledge and only 4% had good level of knowledge. Conclusion majority of women in community are unaware about the use of different methods of breast cancer screening so awareness program for the breast cancer screening is essential.</p> Sarojini Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 Balkumari College Thu, 07 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Crude Ethanolic Extracts of Selected Spices <p>Infectious diseases and food poisoning caused by microbial pathogens continue to pose significant threats to global public health. In this context, the antimicrobial properties of certain spices have garnered attention due to their historical use not only for culinary purposes but also for their medicinal value. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of crude ethanol extracts obtained from a selection of spices, including clove, cinnamon, cardamom, fenugreek, cumin, and ajowan against several pathogenic bacteria, namely Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Results indicated that among the six tested spices, clove exhibited the highest antimicrobial efficacy, with no-table inhibition zones of 23mm against E. coli, 20mm against Klebsiella pneumoniae, 32mm against Staphy-lococcus aureus, and 16mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cumin demonstrated considerable antimicro-bial activity with inhibition zones of 22mm, 14mm, 29mm, and 20mm against E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. Ajowan, cardamom, and cinnamon also displayed varying degrees of antimicrobial efficacy against the tested bacterial strains.On the other hand, fenugreek showed weak antimicrobial activity, as it failed to inhibit the growth of any of the four bacterial isolates. The findings suggest that spices such as clove, cumin, and cinnamon possess promising potential as natural remedies against pathogenic bacteria, providing a safer alternative to traditional antibiot-ics. Additionally, these spices could serve as natural preservatives in various food and healthcare applications.</p> Anup Muni Bajracharya , Shusila Shrestha, Jyoti Lama, Ganga Sharma, Ashok Adhikari, Kanhaiya Lal Gupta Copyright (c) 2023 Balkumari College Thu, 07 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Narrative Tools and Strategies: Representation of Trauma in Bista’s The Andhi Khola <p>This article explores the post-traumatic journey of the central character Gangi in the story The Andhi Khola by Daulat Bikram Bista. The aim of this study is to analyze Gangi’s journey and investigate the deep effects of trauma on her psyche and experiences. The methodology is a close reading and textual analysis of Bista’s work, examining key passages and themes related to Gangi’s trauma. Through this analysis, the article uncovers the emotional trajectory of Gangi, highlighting themes of loss, separation, and longing, as well as the continuing impact of trauma on her sense of self and her hope for her lover’s return. The findings of this study contribute to a deeper understanding of the transformative power of trauma and promote empathy for individuals who carry its burden. By revealing Gangi’s narrative, this research highlights the need for sensitivity and support in addressing the psychological effects of trauma in individuals’ lives.</p> Sushil Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 Balkumari College Thu, 07 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Practice of Business Intelligence System in Nepalese Small and Medium Enterprises <p>Everywhere, competition has increased in the digital age. Modern technology makes small business management difficult as well. Customers are aware of the international market. The most recent advancement in management is business intelligence. A data-driven decision to address the challenge encountered by any corporate organization is the current dilemma in management, as opposed to an intuitive or constrained logical decision. Any corporate organization should be concerned with decoding the message from data via scientific analysis. The analysis in this study included 504 Nepalese SEMs. We questioned companies in the manufacturing, service, wholesale, and retail industries on how they used business intelligence in their operations. The survey found that Nepalese SMEs are only just beginning to use business intelligence. For Nepalese businessmen, technological literacy is of the utmost importance. The major worry of Nepalese SMEs is the fear of losing sensitive data.</p> Shiva Prasad Nepal , Shiba Prasad Sapkota Copyright (c) 2023 Balkumari College Thu, 07 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Distribution Nature of Foreign Exchange (FOREX) Rates in Nepal <p>The economy of Nepal is based on the inflow of remittances sent by the Nepalese who have gone abroad for foreign employment. The trend started after the start of the Maoist insurgency and has been going on due to a lack of employment opportunities within the nation. Other than remittance, tourism and a certain amount of foreign aid have been the sources of foreign exchange earnings for Nepal. These sources of FOREX have been able to maintain the balance of payments in Nepal. One unique feature of FOREX rates in Nepal is that the Nepalese rupee (NPR) is pegged with the Indian rupee (INR), the currency of the neighboring nation, India. The central bank of Nepal, Nepal Rastra Bank, publishes FOREX rates for 21 different countries on a daily basis, though exchange rates for 16 currencies have been publishing buying and selling rates for the past decade. Hence, the paper analyzed the distribution nature of 16 countries FOREX buying and selling rates and found that INR FOREX rates have no randomness as they are pegged. The most concerned currencies, like USD, SAR, QAR, and AED, were fitted with beta distribution capabilities to reflect the future trend of the exchange rate. At the same time, the GBP buying rate, JPY, and KRW buying and selling rates were best-fitted in general extreme value (GEV), reflecting the risky nature of currencies. The exchange rate distribution seems to be a concern to the exporter and importer, as the nature of the distribution could help to categorize the level of FOREX risk with a specific currency.</p> Rashesh Vaidya, Kulchandra Pandit Copyright (c) 2023 Balkumari College Thu, 07 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Students’ Perception on Power Point Use in Classroom <p>This paper presents students’ perception on PowerPoint use in the classroom in Balkumari College. This study aimed at finding out students’ perception on PowerPoint use in the classroom and to determine association of students’ perception on PowerPoint use and variable (of faculty). This paper was a cross-sectional survey based on self-administered 180 sets of questionnaire, 20 sets for each faculty incorporating demographic and five Likert scale questions through purposive sampling method covering nine faculties of Balkumari College. This study concluded student’s memory enhancement and overall students’ perception on PowerPoint use in the classroom was statistically significant(r = 0.362, P&lt; 0.001). The study showed if students memory was enhanced their overall perception remained positive on PowerPoint use.</p> Sharada Khanal Ghimire, Pranjana Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 Balkumari College Thu, 07 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Discrimination Experienced by Secondary Level Students in ELT Classroom: A Narrative Inquiry <p>This study aims at examining the experiences of discrimination in English language classrooms from the perspective of secondary level students. The research adopted a narrative inquiry approach, conducting individual face-to-face interviews with participants to explore their personal experiences and observations regarding discrimination. We selected four secondary level students from two government schools in the Kathmandu district purposively. We used semi-structured interviews allowing for open-ended questions and follow-up probes to gain deeper insights into participants’ responses.The analysis of the collected data followed a thematic approach. The researchers carefully reviewed the transcribed interview recordings to identify recurring patterns, themes, and key insights related to discrimination in English language classrooms.The findings revealed instances of unequal treatment by teachers, including favoritism based on gender, academic performance, and subjective factors. Participants expressed how such unequal treatment affected their motivation and engagement in the English language classroom. Discrimination based on physical appearance, skin colour, and linguistic competence was also highlighted, demonstrating the negative impact on students’ self-esteem and sense of belonging. Additionally, social hierarchies among peers contributed to exclusion and marginalization, affecting students from less privileged backgrounds.To minimize discrimination in ELT classrooms, the study suggests fostering an inclusive and supportive environment where all students are treated equally and valued for their individual strengths and contributions. Teacher training programs are recommended to promote cultural sensitivity, awareness of biases, and inclusive teaching practices. The importance of creating gender-inclusive curricula and encouraging positive gender socialization is emphasized. The research contributes to the understanding of discrimination in English classrooms by centering on students’ perspectives. The insights gained can inform educational policies and practices aimed at reducing discrimination and promoting equity in English language teaching classrooms.</p> Cheta Raj Regmi , Indra Kumari Oli, Pushpalata Kaphle , Gokul Prasad Silwal Copyright (c) 2023 Balkumari College Thu, 07 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Purchase Decision Factors of Residential Real Estate in Kathmandu Valley <p>This research paper aims to examine the associations of residential real estate factors with individuals purchase decisions. The research follows correlational research design to examine the association between the variables (recreational facilities, physical utility, basic amenities, safety and security, and proximity) with purchase decision. It identifies and analyses the attributes customers consider while buying residential real estate and the study was carried out among prospective buyers and owners of houses currently residing in the Kathmandu Valley. The findings reveal that there exist positive association between all the independent variables and dependent variable, where physical utilities, basic amenities and proximity show stronger association where the coefficient of physical utilities is the highest.</p> Sansar Bhoortel, Keshab Khatri Chettri, Rupak Aryal Copyright (c) 2023 Balkumari College Thu, 07 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Problems Faced by Cancer Patients due to COVID 19 at Tertiary Cancer Hospital, Chitwan, Nepal <p><strong>Background</strong>: The corona virus disease (COVID 19) Pandemic has had a global impact on health care. Patients with cancer have been affected by the COVID 19 Pandemic and faced various psychosocial problems.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: A descriptive cross-sectional study on title “Problems Faced by Cancer Patients due to COVID 19 at Tertiary Cancer Hospital, Chitwan, Nepal” was conducted at B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Chitwan to assess problems faced by cancer patients. Non- probability purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample and sample size was 50. Data was collected by using structured interview schedule and distress thermometer.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>: In this research 50 respondents were included for the study. Among them 72% respondents faced treatment related problems where 27.7% respondents faced unavailability of chemo medicine, nearly half of respondents (48%) faced the transportation related problems and unavailability of transportation service was the key transportation problems faced by 58.3% respondents. Similarly, nearly half of the (46%) faced the accommodation problems and more than two fifth (42%) had economic related problems during COVID 19 pandemic situation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Cancer patients have faced several problems during COVID 19 pandemic such as unavailability of chemo medicine, treatment delay, lack of transportation services, accommodation problem, financial problems and psychological distress. So, cancer hospital should make strategic planning of health care services by means of alternative solutions like telemedicine, home-based palliative care services, and ensuring the availability of essential cancer drugs.</p> Sushila Koirala, Sabina Giri Copyright (c) 2023 Balkumari College Thu, 07 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000