Journal of Balkumari College <p>Official journal of Balkumari College, Bharatpur Metropolitan City, Chitwan, Bagmati Province, Nepal.</p> en-US <p>Copyright is retained by the authors.</p> (Dr. Guna Raj Chhetri) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 The Effect of Firm Specific Variables on Stock Returns of Nepalese Banks <p>This study focuses to examine the firm specific fundamental variables impact on the stock returns in the context of Nepali banks. The study uses cross sectional panel data of 12 banks for the duration of ten years. The study finds the existence a negative relationship between stock returns (total yield) and firm size. Likewise, the study shows that the book to market equity has negative relationship with stock returns. However, the study reveals that the relationship of earnings yield and cash flow yield with the stock returns is contradicted in comparison to previous studies.</p> Jeetendra Dangol, Bidhan Acharya Copyright (c) 2020 Jeetendra Dangol, Bidhan Acharya Tue, 14 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Men from the Lenses of Deepa Mehta in Fire and Water <p>&nbsp;Movie in this era has become one of the dominant modes of disseminating perceptions. Women and their issues are vital themes of women centric movies. Stereotypically, these movies display women and their position in patriarchal society. Displaying women and their issues in women centric movies is rationally expected but how men are displayed in such movies has not been given much consideration. Customarily men in such movies are presented negative which have negative impact on their audiences too. This article sets its attention on how men are seen from the lenses of women and shown in women-oriented movies. Deepa Mehta is selected to analyze how she has seen men through her lenses and represented them in <em>Fire </em>and <em>Water. </em>Qualitative research methodology is adopted where Deepa Mehta's <em>Fire </em>(1996) and <em>Water </em>(2005) are the primary data and other resources based on it are secondary. <em>Fire </em>is the story of two lesbian women and <em>Water </em>is about widowhood. Characters like Ashok, Jatin, Mundu, in <em>Fire </em>and <em>Seth, </em>Sadananda and Narayan in <em>Water </em>are studied and found that they are presented as the agents of the patriarchal society. Men are exhibited with all the set masculine traits as strong, brave, bold, intelligent, assertive, aggressive, savior, ruler, educated, handsome, smart, dynamic, powerful who can construct the society as they want. Sexually obsessed men in the movies represent the existing Indian patriarchal society. Abusing woman verbally, physically, mentally and sexually is considered as men's privilege. This justifies that Mehta is unable to deconstruct the notion of masculinity as presented by men directors. She also falls in the trap prescribed by patriarchy and for this she has to present men with all positive and masculine traits and women with negative feminine traits. This kind of representation of men has a large impact on the mass because of unintentional imitation.</p> Bimala Sharma Copyright (c) 2020 Bimala Sharma Tue, 14 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Documentation of Ornamental Flora of Balkumari College <p>&nbsp;The practice of decorating home Garden, temples, public parks, hotels, college and other places by ornamental plants have been known from ancient time. These plants are advantageous as they are so applicable for aesthetic purpose in landscaping and also provide fresh air to breathe. The study was destined to document about the circumstances of ornamental plants of Balkumari College. Information's were collected by direct observation questionnaires, interview, and photographic collection. 54 ornamental plants were documented belonging to 38 families. Out of them, 26 plants belong to the herbs .13 plants were shrubs and 10 plants were documented as trees whereas 5 plants were climbers. As 22 plants had entire plants as ornamental values, 28 plants are documented as flowers, as ornamental parts 3 plants had leaves as ornamental part only one plant had fruit, as ornamental part. Out of 54 plants, 42 plants were reported as perennial and 12 plants as annual growing pattern out of all documented plants, 39 plants were available throughout the year 14 plants were cultivated in winter season and only one plant cultivated in the summer season.</p> Manoj K.L. Das Copyright (c) 2020 Manoj K.L. Das Tue, 14 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge Management Enablers for Knowledge Creation Combination in Nepalese Hospitality Industry <p>&nbsp;This paper examines the relationships between the knowledge management enablers and knowledge creation combination in the hospitality industry such as hotel, travel and trekking agencies in Nepal. The study is based on primary data with 382 responses. The self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the perceptive opinions from the respondents. The study concludes that the key knowledge management enablers such as collaboration, trust, learning, and information technology do influence to the knowledge creation combination positively. Managers should promote collaboration, trust, learning and information technology facilities for employees to create knowledge in organisation.</p> Pushpa Maharjan Copyright (c) 2020 Pushpa Maharjan Tue, 14 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Customer Relation Practices and it's Impact on Customer Satisfaction in Travel & Tour Business (A Case Study of Kathmandu Valley) <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To understand customer relation practices of Travel &amp; Tour Businesses and measure the customer satisfaction through survey.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Materials: </strong>Customer relation practices were recorded through semi-structured interviews and observation of travel agencies in Kathmandu. Furthermore, 119 customer feedbacks from the three agencies were gathered. Feedback was gathered by using a questionnaire. Research is based up on primary data. Simple random sampling technique is used to collect data. Descriptive as well as explorative research designs were used to analyze the data.</p> <p><strong>Results and Conclusion: </strong>"Details given to Clients" and "Accurate Information" are the first important factors for travel agents. Attraction of the place and recommendation of travel agent are insignificant. Travel &amp; Tour Business is a part of Tourism Industry which is largest industry in Nepal.</p> Kapil Khanal Copyright (c) 2020 Kapil Khanal Tue, 14 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Managerial Perceptions on Internal Marketing and Employee Commitment in Nepal <p>The major purpose of this study is to examine the managerial perceptions on internal marketing and employee commitment in Nepal. This is a qualitative research in nature. It covers management-level employees of covers 30 organizations (including 14 commercial banks and 16 insurance companies) of Nepal. This study is based on discussions with 30 managers ((division chiefs, branch managers, human resource managers, department heads, IT managers, branch managers, officers and managers) of Nepalese commercial banks and insurance companies by using semi-structured interviews and discussions. The results of present study show that the managers are conscious about internal marketing and employee commitment in their organizations. They also realized the important factor of these components. It is suggested that management should be aggressively engaged in internal marketing to arrive at a synergy of satisfied employees and promoted employee commitment. Committed, satisfied and competent employees will make a better impression on customers, benefiting the organization as a whole.</p> Prakash Shrestha Copyright (c) 2020 Prakash Shrestha Tue, 14 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 In-vitro antioxidant, antidiabetic and toxic effect of Ageratum houstonianum from Chitwan district Nepal <p>&nbsp;Medicinal plants are safe and the oldest natural products used for many years to conserve food, to treat health disorders and to prevent diseases. The active chemical compounds formed during secondary vegetal metabolism is usually responsible for the biological properties of some plant species used throughout the world for various purposes including treatment of diabetes, cancer, infectious diseases etc. The present study was undertaken to analyze the phytochemicals by colour differentiation method, to evaluate the toxic effect by phytotoxic assay, antidiabetic activity by α amylase enzyme inhibition and antioxidant potential by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity of methanolic extract of <em>Ageratum houstonianum</em>. Treatment of problem in carbohydrate uptake needed the inhibition of α-amylase plays a role in the digestion of polysaccharide and glycogen, is made a strategy for controlling diabetes. For this study whole plant was collected, dried and the powder was made. The extraction was carried out by cold percolation in which methanol was used as a solvent. The methanolic extract was subjected to <em>In-vitro </em>phytotoxic activity by adopting the standard protocol. The α-amylase enzyme inhibition activity of plant extract was carried out by using starch as substrate, pancreatic α amylase as the enzyme, and acarbose as standard. The result of <em>in-vitro </em>phytotoxic bioassay revealed that the plant extract showed moderate activity with percentage growth regulation 80 and 25 percent in a concentration-dependent manner. The α-amylase enzyme inhibition was 74.13 to 99.39 percent in a dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant potential of <em>Ageratum houstonianum </em>extract showed mild activity with IC<sub>50</sub> 123.67 μg/ml as compared to the standard ascorbic acid IC<sub>50</sub> 5.38 μg/ ml. It is concluded from the present study that <em>Ageratum houstonianum </em>could be used as a natural source to isolate antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic agent, herbicide and weedicide as it shows a good α amylase inhibition, radical scavenging and phytotoxic activity respectively.</p> Khaga Raj Sharma Copyright (c) 2020 Khaga Raj Sharma Tue, 14 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cognitive Impairment in Alcoholic Addicts <p>&nbsp;This present study was intended examine cognitive impairment in alcoholic addicts. The sample of study comprised of one group male alcoholic addicts (N=100) and one group of comparative matched non addict norma (N=100). The subjects were assessed to measure visual reproduction, visual recognition, immediate recall and delayed recall. Test scores were analyzed using one way ANOVA,. Results revealed significant differences between alcohol addicts and non addicts testifying memory impairment among alcohol addicts.</p> Mahesh Kumar Gajurel Copyright (c) 2020 Mahesh Kumar Gajurel Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Dimensions of Job Satisfaction among Employees of Banking Industry in Nepal <p>&nbsp;<strong>Objective: </strong></p> <p>The purpose of the study was to find out the impact of employee empowerment, team work, bank facilities, training; performance appraisal and quality performance upon job satisfaction of employees that how would these factors affect employees’ job satisfaction in banking sector of Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong></p> <p>Data was collected through questionnaire and the questionnaire was distributed among 200 employees of twenty eight commercial banks. Random sampling technique was applied in this procedure. Correlation coefficient and regression were used to analyze and interpret the data.</p> <p><strong>Results and Conclusion: </strong></p> <p>Regression analysis showed that employee empowerment, team work, and bank facilities affect positively whereas training, performance appraisal and quality performance affect adversely on the job satisfaction level of employees. There exists a positive relation overall and boost job satisfaction, which would in turn enhance the productivity of the organization.</p> Naba Raj Adhikari Copyright (c) 2020 Naba Raj Adhikari Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Attitude of Female Students Towards Physical Education and Sports <p>&nbsp;This study presents an attitude of female students studying B.Ed. third year towards physical education and sports within Kathmandu valley. Initially, it was hypothesized that there is no significance difference in attitude of physical education and sports among female students of different campuses. From these 6 campuses, 184 female students were randomly selected. A five-point Likert-type scale was applied for data collection from the selected students who studied in B.Ed. third year. Altogether five opinion statements were used for data collection. It was found that all respondents showed positive attitudes towards physical education and sports. In order to test whether there is significant interdependence in score among the respondents in different perspectives. The chi-square test score was applied as statistical test at the 0.05 level of significance. The chi-test under contingency table: independent of opinion among the respondent, if (χ2<u>&gt;</u>α=0.05 in different degree of freedom) and independent if (χ2≤ α=0.05 in different degree of freedom). For the measurement of attitude for physical education and sports,it has enough evidence in the data to accept alternatives hypothesis; there is relation or interdependence of attitude towards physical education and sports among the respondents. Because, the score is very high among the response of respondent. The study suggests that the university teacher must be accountable to construct professional environment.</p> Pashupati Adhikari Copyright (c) 2020 Pashupati Adhikari Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Children on Parental Purchase During Shopping in Supermarket <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;Due to changing patterns of Nepalese life style and urbanization, parents are providing more value to their children and they are investing for children‘s tour, entertainment and for shopping that's why number of parental visit is found in park, shopping mall, zoo etc. Supermarket shopping has no longer history in Chitwan. Bhatbhateni supermarket is one of the famous and popular supermarket in this locality. This is famous among the purchaser because of facilities it has and varieties of goods available in the mall. Lift facility and ice-cream outside the mall attracting children towards this shopping mall. This study is focused on the purchasing behavior parents due to children’s demand who are visiting in Bhatbhateni supermarket(BBSM). Objectives of this study was to determine whether there is any influence of children on shopping behavior of their parents or not, if has influence what was the proportion of such parents, what are the major demands of children at BBSM. To fulfil the objectives of this study using purposive sampling of 60 customers attending in Bhatbhateni supermarket, Bharatpur is selected, the study is done on the basis of their response. Using structured questionnaire. The research design used is descriptive research design. Using SPSS data was compiled and analyzed. Simple frequency and percentage analysis has been carried to explain outputs, also chi-square test and Fisher's exact test has been carried to find out the association between variables under study. Outcomes of this study shows that children’s influence is their in parental purchase during shopping at BBSM. Parents, businessman and investors of BBSM are considering major beneficiaries of this study.</p> Ganga Prasad Sapkota, Sarad Chandra Kafle Copyright (c) 2020 Ganga Prasad Sapkota, Sarad Chandra Kafle Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prediction of Haemoglobin Level by Some Probability Distribution <p>&nbsp;Hemoglobin level is a continuous variable. So, it follows some theoretical probability distribution Normal, Log-normal, Gamma and Weibull distribution having two parameters. There is low variation in observed and expected frequency of Normal distribution in bar diagram. Similarly, calculated value of chi-square test (goodness of fit) is observed which is lower in Normal distribution. Furthermore, plot of PDFof Normal distribution covers larger area of histogram than all of other distribution. Hence Normal distribution is the best fit to predict the hemoglobin level in future.</p> Govinda Prasad Dhungana, Laxmi Prasad Sapkota Copyright (c) 2020 Govinda Prasad Dhungana, Laxmi Prasad Sapkota Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Corporate Social Responsibility on Firms’ Financial Performance: Evidence of Banking Sectors of Nepal <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span class="A2"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt;">The purpose of this study was to find the trend and relationship of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices and Firm’s Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Nepal. CSR became a mandatory issued in Nepal. Based on gaps in the extant literature, the current study hypothesizes that three dependent variables of financial performance i.e. Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Net Income (NI) on the independent variable CSR. Out of listed 27 Commercial banks, the sample includes only 3 banks for the base of extensively disclosing CSR activities, from earlier than issued mandatory laws in Nepal. Four years of data (2015/16 to 2018/19) were collected for the study purposes. Data analyzed and interpreted using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Specifically Pearson’s Correlation to analysis the relationship between CSR disclosure activities and Financial Performance. The results revealed that out of 3 variables only a CSR activity on ROA is significantly accepted with having a negative correlation among them. Moreover, CSR activity on ROE &amp; CSR activity on NI both are insignificant, having a neutral relationship i.e. rejected.</span></span></p> Sudip Wagle Copyright (c) 2020 Sudip Wagle Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness Level of College Students on Consumer Protection Practices in Chitwan <p>&nbsp;Any individual who purchases products or services for his personal use is called a consumer. A consumer is one who is the decision maker whether to buy or not to buy an item. And It is true that the consumer is the king of the market, but in reality consumers are treated very badly in the market. The consumers are cheated in different ways by middlemen like adulteration, under-weight of goods, selling goods of inferior quality and duplicated goods, charging higher prices, misleading advertisement in the media, etc. The consumers are not sure of getting qualitative goods as per their demand and price payments. The most important step in consumer education is making them aware about consumer rights and to empower them for self-protection from the different unethical behaviors of the market. Consumer education is an important part of this process. Consumer education at the college level is an important process to enhance the capacity of the youth particularly the students to take the responsibility for their own life, their family, obligations to society and the environment. Consumer education helps the students to participate in the social life, as competent citizens. Students are not only learning about the consumer rights and duties but also teach their parents and the community, thereby they are enriching the society. This research is based on analytical and descriptive research. The method of data collection is based on primary method. The researcher personally involved in the data collection process with the help of structured questionnaire. The method of sampling technique adopted is Convenience sampling. In general, the level of awareness of college students on consumerism is satisfactory. It is found that the practices and behavior during buying process is appreciable.</p> Ashmita Dahal Chhetri Copyright (c) 2020 Ashmita Dahal Chhetri Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Merger on Financial Performance of Nepalese Commercial Bank <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span class="A2"><span style="font-size: 16.0pt;">Mergers and Acquisitions have become the most widely used business strategy of restructuring and strong financial institution to achieve competitiveness, to ensure long term existence with suitable profitability, to forge entering in new markets, and to ascertain the capital base etc. Specially, the merger law policy-2068 and monetary policy 2072 issued by Nepal Rastra Bank, the regulatory body of banks in Nepal, have been experienced as the most effective weapons for merger and acquisition in Nepalese Banking industry. This study makes an attempt to the latest Monetary Policy lays down measures meant to encourage banks to merge. By Shrawan 2076, commercial banks are required to maintain an average interest rate spread (the difference between rates on loans and deposits) of 4.4 percent from the current 4.5 percent; banks that complete mergers and acquisitions by that time will get a one-year extension. Also, by Shrawan 2076, commercial banks are required to float at least 25 percent of their paid-up capital in debentures; banks that decide to tie the knot by that deadline will get a one-year reprieve. A merged bank also does not have to seek Nepal Rastra Bank's approval to open new branches. Currently, the board of directors, CEOs and deputy CEOs are required to abide by a cooling-off period of six months during which they cannot join another bank. This restriction will not apply to executives of a merged bank. The argument for mergers and acquisitions go something like this. There are just too many banks and financial institutions in Nepal. As of Ashad 2076, there were 28 commercial banks (Class A), 32 development banks (Class B), 24 finance companies (Class C) and 91 micro-credit companies (Class D). Conceivably, larger banks should be able to fund large infrastructure projects individually. The existence of larger Nepali banks could also make it easier for them to branch into India. Bigger Nepali banks will be able to compete with foreign banks better on Nepali soil.</span></span></p> Krishna Prasad Acharya Copyright (c) 2020 Krishna Prasad Acharya Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Financial Statement in Investment Decision Making Process <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span class="A2"><span style="font-size: 16.0pt;">It is believed that financial statements are the key documents for any organizations for the investment decision making. Investment decision making depends upon the quality information obtained by the various sources and it is concluded in this research which is based on the findings that financial statement plays a vital role in investment decision making and recommends that no investment decision should be taken without the consideration of a company’s financial statements.</span></span></p> Suraj Bhujel Copyright (c) 2020 Suraj Bhujel Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000