Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology Association of Nepal <p>The official journal of the Diabetes and Endocrinology Association of Nepal. The journal allows readers to freely read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and to use them for any other lawful purpose.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence"></a><br>The articles in the Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology Association of Nepal are licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.&nbsp;</p> <p>See <a href="">About</a> the journal for the full Open Access policy and the Plagiarism Policy.</p> Diabetes and Endocrinology Association of Nepal en-US Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology Association of Nepal 2594-3367 Digital Health Services in Managing People Living with Diabetes <p>In the recent world, more than 450 million people have diabetes. There are several types of diabetes and among them common are Type 1 DM in which the body cannot produce Insulin, Type 2 DM in which body cannot properly use insulin and Gestational Pregnancy related Diabetes. For diabetic patients, failure to treat or manage it can lead a serious complications like blindness, renal failure, heart attack and lower limb amputation. The burden of diabetes in patients are more acute in low middle income countries where nearly 80 % people lived with diabetes.</p> P.P. Gupta R. Maskey Copyright (c) 2021 P.P. Gupta, R. Maskey 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 2 1 4 10.3126/jdean.v5i2.43388 Clinical Laboratorial Perspective on Screening of Prediabetes and need for Standardization of Post Prandial Blood Glucose Testing in Nepal <p>This study explores the differences in categorization of prediabetes based on fasting blood glucose by the World Health Organization and the American Diabetes Association from a laboratory perspective and the associated implications. As the diagnostic thresholds for prediabetes are based on the likelihood of developing overt diabetes, the criteria for this collective representation of dysglycemic states, including Impaired Fasting Glucose and Impaired Glucose Tolerance needs to be clearly established in the face of a society that grows increasingly concerned about diabetes and its associated complications over time. The authors intend to delve into different published points of view and recommend a categorization in Nepal’s context. </p> Vivek Pant Santosh Pradhan Keyoor Gautam Copyright (c) 2021 Vivek Pant, Santosh Pradhan, Keyoor Gautam 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 2 33 36 10.3126/jdean.v5i2.35776 Study of Biochemical Parameters in Diabetic Patients with and without Diabetic Retinopathy – A Hospital based study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a common, potentially blinding and visually disabling complication of diabetes. Early detection of retinopathy and its progression to severity with routine referral for screening by Ophthalmologist can save vision by timely management.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a hospital based cross-sectional study done to study the association of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting and postprandial blood sugar, serum lipid profile, serum creatinine and urine albumin in diabetic patient with and without DR. A total of 50 patients with Diabetic retinopathy and 50 patients without diabetic retinopathy were enrolled in this study. All patients included were Type 2 DM aged 35 years and above.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean HbA1c was 8.62±1.5 and 5.54±1.2, total cholesterol was 228.9±63 and 184.9±39.8 mg/dl, serum triglyceride was 226.6±80.7 and 160.8±45.1 mg/dl, LDL-C was 152.3±49 and 127.2±37 mg/dl and serum creatinine was 1.15±0.45 and 0.66±0.27 mg/dl in diabetic retinopathy group and no diabetic retinopathy group respectively. There was significant association of elevated HbA1c, serum triglyceride, LDL- C and total cholesterol with diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 DM. The mean values of serum lipoproteins were higher in the diabetic retinopathy group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Elevated fasting and postprandial blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, LDL-C, serum creatinine and urine albumin were significantly associated with DR in our study. So, all patients with diabetes mellitus should be screened routinely for serum lipoproteins along with blood sugar profile, as it would help in early detection of diabetic retinopathy.</p> I. Joshi P. Lavaju B.P. Badhu R. Maskey M. Lamsal Copyright (c) 2021 I. Joshi, P. Lavaju, B.P. Badhu, R. Maskey, M. Lamsal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 2 5 10 10.3126/jdean.v5i2.37033 Correlation between Cytology and Histology of Solitary Thyroid Nodule: Our Institutional Experience <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Thyroid swelling is one of the most common disease presenting to otorhinolaryngology out patient. Fine needle aspiration cytology is key point in planning the surgical management. The discrepancy between cytology and histology reported in wide range depending upon centres. We planned to conduct this study with aim of knowing the sensitivity of cytology which can guide the need of surgical or observational treatment.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Our study is prospective enrolling the patients with thyroid swelling who underwent surgical treatment between 1st October 2020 to 11th November 2021. Clinical, cytological and histological parameters were recorded. Accounting histology as gold standard, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of fine needle cytology were calculated. The correlation was evaluated by chi square test. The p value of ≤0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The most common age group reporting was 20-40 years accounting for 68.6% of cases with the female predominance (92.2%). The accuracy of fine needle cytology in detecting non neoplastic, neoplastic benign and neoplastic malignant lesion were 96.0%, 96.0% and 100.0 % respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Fine needle cytology is good tool for deciding surgical management for thyroid nodule and recommended for all cases.</p> R. Thakur S.K. Thakur Copyright (c) 2021 R. Thakur, S.K. Thakur 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 2 11 14 10.3126/jdean.v5i2.43390 Prevalent Misconceptions and Determinants of Knowledge in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in a Medical College <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetes prevalence is high in South Asian countries. In Nepal, numbers are increasing every year. Many patients are aware that they have diabetes only when they develop one of its complications. This study was done to assess the knowledge and awareness of diabetes mellitus and the prevailing myths in outpatients of a tertiary care hospital.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>It is a cross-sectional study conducted on diabetic patients attending the Department of Endocrine and Internal medicine, Nobel Medical College, over two months using questionnaires.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 200 diabetics, 67% believed that insulin is the medication of the last stage, 76% said insulin once started cannot be stopped.37% said medicine once started cannot be stopped. There was a misconception regarding the use of COVID-19 vaccines. 27% of the respondent opinioned that COVID-19 vaccines cause harm to diabetic patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The survey showed many myths and misconceptions are prevailing in society regarding diabetes which needs to be addressed for better patient outcomes. The age of the participants, duration of illness, and their education status did not correlate with the total score for prevailing myths in the Nepalese population.</p> S.V.A. Shah P. Roy F. Ansari Copyright (c) 2021 S.V.A. Shah, P. Roy, F. Ansari 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 2 15 21 10.3126/jdean.v5i2.43391 Depression in Diabetes: A cross sectional survey among patients attending Diabetes Clinic in Kathmandu <p><strong>Background: </strong>Depression, being a leading cause of disability, is a common illness affecting an estimated 350 million people affected worldwide and is a major contributor to the global burden of disease3. Depression is a significant comorbid condition prevalent in people with diabetes and adversely affects health outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross sectional study was conducted on 434 patients in Metro Polyclinic situated in Kathmandu district of Nepal. Metro polyclinic was purposively selected as the sampling frame for this study as this polyclinic receives significant number of diabetes patients coming in from various regions of Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among type -1 diabetes 55% had depression whereas 45% were normal. Among Type -2 diabetes 31% of them had depression whereas 69% had no depression. Among a total of 434 study sample, 425 were suffering from Type-2 diabetes while only nine of them were suffering from Type-1 diabetes. Of those who were suffering from Type-2 diabetes, 13 had severe depression, 27 had moderate depression, 85 had mild depression and 300 had normal range of depression.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study sheds the importance of looking for depression in Nepali diabetes patients. It has been shown that without identifying co-morbid depression and treating it, most of the patient will have poor prognosis. &nbsp;</p> J. Bhattarai A. Kunwar P. Shrestha S. Acharya R.P. Sah Copyright (c) 2021 J. Bhattarai, A. Kunwar, P. Shrestha, S. Acharya, R.P. Sah 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 2 22 25 10.3126/jdean.v5i2.43394 Relationship between Body Fat Percentages by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Body Mass Index (BMI) And other metabolic Parameters among Filipino Adults At Emilio Aguinaldo College Medical Center- Cavite <p><strong>Background: </strong>Obesity posing burgeoning risk for mortality, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer among fast ageing Filipino population must be accurately measured by the use of rapid, non-invasive, digitally precise tool, Body Fat percentage and segmental body composition obesity predictors in Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis where overseas studies established significant but limited results. Our study focused on Filipino group with the correlation of its body fat percentage and other obesity predictors set in BIA therein like Free Fat Mass, Fat, Bone and Muscle masses, visceral fat amongst others, with Body Mass Index and other conventional obesity measurements.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>This cross-sectional, correlational study included 363 Filipinos, patients and employees of Emilio Aguinaldo College Medical Center- Cavite and nearby health center, 18-80 years of age, BMI of 16-34, excluded those pregnant and bearing metallic body implants, have imparted their History, level of activity. Installed Standardized protocol for Physical Examination, measurements of height, weight, Body mass index waist and hip circumferences, waist-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>All BIA measurements used Tanita MC980. The Pearson correlation coefficients, Binary logistic regression analysis, two tailed test, Shapiro-Wilk tests analyzed 137 Males, 226 females with mean age of 34.64, p-value of 0.29, showed strong, significant correlation between BFP and BMI, and other measurements, where BMI had strongest correlation to women than men with synonymous correlation with other metabolic variables and predictors, and no significant difference between genders.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our research reflected that Body Fat Percentage have strong significant correlation with BMI, metabolic variables and obesity predictors measured, established a better estimate for obesity as compared to the conventional measurements. &nbsp;</p> J.K. Yadav E. Sherwin M. Baris D. Pagsisihan A. Baston J.M. Sembrano Copyright (c) 2021 J.K. Yadav, E. Sherwin, M. Baris, D. Pagsisihan, A. Baston, J.M. Sembrano 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 2 26 32 10.3126/jdean.v5i2.43395