Journal of Durgalaxmi <p>The Journal of Durgalaxmi (JDL) is a double-blind, peer-reviewed academic publication overseen by the Research Management Cell (RMC) of Durgalaxmi Multiple Campus, located at Attariya, Kailali, Nepal. As a multidisciplinary journal, JDL welcomes articles from diverse disciplines including Education, Literature, Management, Humanities, Science, Law, Linguistics, and ICT among others. It accepts submissions in various formats such as research articles, action research reports, reflective articles, and book reviews, in both Nepali and English languages. The publication is available in both printed and electronic formats, accessible to its members globally. Indexed in NepJOL and assigned DOIs since its inaugural volume, JDL serves as a credible forum for scholarly discourse and knowledge dissemination.</p> en-US <p><strong><a href="">CC BY-NC</a></strong>: This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator. </p> (Dr. Bishnu Bahadur Kathayat) (Sioux Cumming) Thu, 09 May 2024 09:08:51 +0000 OJS 60 Digital Banking in Nepal: Embracing the Potential During the COVID-19 Pandemic <p style="text-align: justify;">The digital banking system was introduced with the innovation and advancement of information and communication technology but because of the hesitancy of customers and the lack of initiation from the banks, it did not keep pace in Nepal. In this context, the epidemic of COVID-19 seemed to have a noticeable impact on accelerating digital banking, even though it has caused great damage in other areas of social life. This study seeks to provide a comparative analysis of before and during COVID-19 on customer access and effectiveness of digital banking services, and changes in customer behavior. The research uses annual reports of NRB, newspapers, and article reviews as secondary data and semi-structured interviews with banking customers and bank employees as sources of primary data. This research examines how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected digital banking in Nepal, and it may also serve as a model for future studies in the area. This study found that in the post-pandemic scenario customer access to digital banking services has significantly increased and it consequently led to an increase in customer confidence and it is helpful to reduce the cost of digital transactions. This study will also be helpful to make digital banking more effective.</p> Bhuwan Raj Joshi, Pusp Raj Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Social Media and Social Ills: Overcoming the Challenges in the Contemporary Era <p>Social media has become an integral part of modern society, offering unprecedented opportunities for communication, education, entertainment, and activism. However, social media also poses significant challenges and risks for individuals and communities, such as cyber bullying, misinformation, privacy predation, mental depression, social isolation, and addiction. Especially, this paper reviews the situations of the positive and negative effects of social media on various aspects of human well-being for the children and teens age group, such as physical and mental health, social capital, personal privacy, civic engagement, and democratic participation. It also discusses the potential strategies and interventions to overcome the challenges and enhance the benefits of social media in the contemporary era. To overcome these challenges, the article proposes solutions such as enhancing content moderation procedures, promoting digital and medical literacy and critical thinking among users, implementing transparent and accountable procedures, and fostering collaboration between platforms, policymakers, and civil society organizations. These include promoting digital literacy, fostering online civility, regulating harmful content, supporting vulnerable users, and encouraging positive online behaviors. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for more interdisciplinary and collaborative research on the complex and dynamic relationship between social media and social ills.</p> Bishnu Bahadur Mahara Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Education Directors Acting as an Agent for a Transformation: A Case-based Investigation <p>Education is a moral endeavour aimed at improving society. The education directors of the College were supposed to lead the way in implementing the changes by acting ethically. Regretfully, in certain instances, they face criticism for their immoral actions. Thus, this research article aims to investigate how well college education directors function as agents of change in the direction of transformative ethics. Using the interpretivism paradigm and the narrative inquiry approach, the lived narratives produced by four governmental college education directors from three distinct regions of the Bagmati province—Lalitpur, Kathmandu, and Bhaktapur—were purposefully chosen. We used in-depth interviews to determine how administrators felt about the ethical phenomena in light of the developments. Additionally, it shows ethical sensitivity, a fundamental component of a flexible society with sensible people. It implies that treating others with kindness and respect empowers them to consider change. Humanity is the primary source of ethical development, after which everything shifts simultaneously. This discovery clarified the role that ethics plays in bringing about improvements. It disseminates ethical knowledge, values, and expertise throughout the community, college, and individuals.</p> Devendra Rawal, Bipin Sherchan, Prateet Baskota, Puja Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Everyday Racism and Social Representations in Faulkner's Dry September: A Critical Discourse Analysis <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper presents a critical analysis of racial discourse and social representations of people in everyday situations. It begins with a brief discussion of how everyday racism differs from the general understanding of racism. Relying on the review of some previous works on racism, van Dijk's “socio-cognitive model” and some discursive mechanisms (rationalization, emotionalization, and stereotypization) by which racism can be initiated, practiced, maintained, or terminated are discussed and used as the conceptual framework to analyze the elite discourse. This article employs Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as a research tool to unravel the complex webs of racial associations and representations that go into everyday communication with illustration and evidence from William Faulkner's short story, “Dry September.” The results show that the racist people use discourse as a means of promoting their supremacy and group interests, and use it to legitimate their courses of action as well. CDA, as the sole non-recursive methodology, can reveal how the dominant group frames social inequalities using various discursive strategies and maintains power and privilege over the vulnerable one.</p> Giri Singh Bohara Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Hegemony of English Language: An Analysis of Advertisement Strategies Adopted by Private Schools of Nepal <p>Using Fairclough's (1992) three-dimensional framework (i.e., discourse, text, and social practice), this paper critically examines the linguistic and pictorial discourse of private school advertisement strategies, particularly those for new admissions initiatives, to better understand how the English language functions and how it predominates Nepali and other languages in the context of Nepal. The pictures of advertising in English for 'new admission open' published by private schools were collected as research data and, then, critically analyzed the pictorial and linguistic discourse represented by them. This critical discourse analysis reveals that although Nepalese language policy in education prioritizes multilingual education, all private schools solely offer instruction in English as a second language. Most parents and children are drawn to English-speaking schools due to the influence of the language and the appealing marketing tactics utilized by private schools. Language prejudice and racial inequity are brought about by the idea that English is a superior language. The idea that English is a better language generates prejudice towards other languages and social injustice and the identity of Nepali and other local languages is being undermined by the dominance of English in schools.</p> Krishna Kumari Mahara Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Examining the Socio-economic Viewpoint of Nepalese Women Residing in Tokyo, Japan: A Study on Women's Migration to Japan <p>This study aims to determine the push factors and the pull factors driving Nepalese women to choose to work in Japan. It commonly occurs because of the push factor of fewer opportunities in the socio-economic situation and also because of pull factors in more developed areas. This study's general objective is to determine the socio-economic structure of female migrants from Nepal. Similarly, it also attempts to analyze the reasons, role, impact, and process of female migration, and the dynamics of foreign migration. This study adopts the qualitative design; data collection was done by interviewing 150 women and two focus group discussions (FGD) each of 10 informants in each group of 18-45 years old. The finding shows most importantly two types of factors: push and pull factors drive female migration. The finding indicates that poverty, unemployment, unequal wages, less importance of their role in the household, discrimination, poor health care, oppression, and socio-cultural barriers are the main push factors of female migration. More opportunities, equality, good education and health, high wages, technology, family and networks, safety and freedom, and empowerment through knowledge and income are the pull factors of Nepalese females.</p> Padam Saud Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Value Added Tax Registration and E-filling Status in Revenue Administration in Nepal <p>Nepal has also improved the implementation of VAT since 1998 both legally and administratively due to liberalization. A key problem facing revenue administrations in many developing countries is operating manual paper-based recording systems henceforth e-filling systems address this issue (William &amp; Huang, 2019). This research was designed descriptively and secondary data was used ranging from FY 2065/66 to 2078/79. The number of VAT registrations sharply increased during the study period. The main reason behind to rise in VAT registration is simplifying the VAT procedures, introducing or launching the ICT, and wide coverage of business in VAT and PAN by IRD. To sum up, both VAT and PAN registration numbers were rising during the study period. Similarly, the average VAT and PAN registration numbers were 170334 and 899714 respectively. Both VAT non-filers and income tax non-filers taxpayers were fluctuating during the study period with 27.04% and 48.6% on average. The non-filler taxpayers under VAT and income tax were the highest at 38.46% and 58.36% in FY 2076/77 and FY 2067/68 respectively during the study period. The non-filler VAT and income taxes were still 33% and 45% in the fiscal year 2078/79. The reason behind the rise from 25.10% of VAT non-filler to 2076/77 and last year was that due to COVID-19 international and national cases and lockdowns around all places of Nepal, almost all businesses were closed suffering from COVID-19. Hence, the implementation of the efilling system needs to be effective and tax-friendly for the taxpayer.</p> Raja Ram Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Legitimation of Linguistic Hegemony Through Language in Education Policy in Nepal: A Critical Discourse Analysis <p>The constitutional provision of equal right to all languages as a medium of instruction claims that linguistic justice over all the languages has been maintained in Nepalese Education system. However, this 'positive self-representation' of the constitution and the government seem to implicitly marginalize the 'other languages' through legitimation of domination of powerful languages such as, English and Nepali. Based on this issue, this paper critically analyzes the discourse of Language in Education Policy (a part of National Education Policy 2019) in order to examine how hegemony of dominant languages such as, English and Nepali over other minority languages is legitimized through language in Education Policy in the context of Nepal. Critically analyzing the discourse of language in education policy of Nepal through the lens of ideology, power and double voicedness, the paper reveals that even though Nepalese language in education policy seems to adopt mother tongue-based multilingual education policy, hegemony of two dominant languages (English and Nepali) is still prevalent. The hegemony of these dominant languages is legitimized, reinforced and maintained by the nation through language in education policies.</p> Ram Bahadur Mouni Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Initial Public Offering (IPO) and Factors Influencing Investment Decision: Evidence from Dhangadhi <p>This study examines the initial public offering (IPO) and factors influencing investment decisions: evidence from Dhangadhi on the prospectus review, academic qualification, and experience. Prospect Theory and the Information Processing Perspective are discussed to understand the psychological biases and information processing capabilities that influence investors in IPOs. Data was collected through a survey of 200 respondents to investigate these factors empirically. The results of the study indicate significant relationships between the variables. The correlation analysis reveals strong positive correlations between the review of the prospectus and investment decision, as well as experience and investment decision. The correlation between academic qualification and investment decisions was positive but relatively weak. Furthermore, the regression analysis confirms the influence of these factors on investment decisions. The regression results demonstrate that reviewing a prospectus, academic qualification, and experience significantly affects investment decisions in IPOs. A higher review of a prospectus, educational qualifications, and experience are associated with more favorable investment decisions. The findings of this study have important implications for investors, financial professionals, and policymakers. Future research could consider a more extensive and diverse sample and investigate additional factors influencing IPO investment decisions.</p> Surendra Prasad Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Remittances and Financial Deepening in Nepal <p>In the case of remarkable remittance inflows, the impact of remittances on financial development in Nepal has not been adequately studied. Therefore, this paper investigates the effects of remittances on financial development, using Nepal as a case study for the period from 1975 to 2021. The study examines the impact of remittances on the broad money supply. Alongside remittances as the key explanatory variable, other control explanatory variables such as gross capital formation, total trade, real gross domestic product, the national consumer price index, and foreign aid were considered. Unit root analysis revealed that all variables were integrated at order one. Consequently, a cointegration test was conducted, indicating the presence of at least one cointegration equation. Subsequently, an ordinary least squares regression was performed using the first difference data. The results were subjected to various econometric diagnostic tests, including assessment for autocorrelation, heteroscedasticity, multicollinearity, normality, as well as the Durbin–Watson test, t-tests for coefficients, and the F-test. Both the coefficient of determination and the adjusted coefficient of determination confirmed that the models were well-fitted. The outcomes of the model suggest that remittances have a positive impact on the enhancement of the broad money supply. Based on these findings, the study recommends implementing policies aimed at boosting remittance inflows into the country to further financial development in Nepal, specifically promoting financial<br />deepening.</p> Suresh Singh Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ‘सेतीको सुस्केरा’ कथामा सीमान्तीयता <p>यस लेखको मुख्य उद्देश्य ‘सेतीको सुस्केरा’ कथामा सीमान्तीय स्थितिको पहिचान र विश्लेषण गर्नु हो । यस लेखमा कथाकी प्रमुख पात्र सेतीको वर्गीय, जातीय र लैङ्गिक सीमान्तीय स्थितिको खोजी गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत आलेखमा सामग्री सङ्कलनका लागि पुस्तकालयीय कार्य र तथ्यको प्रस्तुतीकरणका लागि वर्णनात्मक विधिको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । समाजमा वर्ग, जाति, लिङ्ग आदिका आधारमा आवाजविहीन, पहिचानविहीन, पहुँचविहीन तथा सामथ्र्यहीन बनाइएका व्यक्तिहरू सीमान्तकृत वर्गमा पर्दछन् । यस कथाकी प्रमुख नारी पात्र सेती उच्च वर्गको शोषणबाट सीमान्तकृत बन्न पुगेकी छिन् । उच्च जाति मानिनेहरूबाट तिरस्कृत र बहिष्कृत बन्न पुगेकी उनलाई कथित माथिल्लो जातिका व्यक्तिहरूबाट पटक पटक शोषणको सिकार बन्नु परेको छ । त्यसै गरी पितृसत्तात्मक सामाजिक संस्कृतिले शासित र शोषित बनाएको छ । पुरूषवादी वर्चश्वको दमनबाट प्रताडित र आश्रयहीन बन्नु पर्दा उसले पुरूषको साथ खोज्नुपरेको देखिन्छ भने तिनै पुरूषबाट पुनः आश्रयहीन बन्न बाध्य भएकी छ । प्रस्तुत आलेखमा सेतीको सुस्केरा कथामा परम्परागत वर्गीय, जातीय र लैङ्गिक विभेदका कारण पात्रहरूले सीमान्तकृत बन्नु परेको निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ ।</p> प्रकाशचन्द्र Prakashchandra बडू Badu Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 विश्वमा शैक्षिक रेडियो प्रसारणको अभ्यास सम्बन्धी विवेचना <p>रेडियो प्रसारण हरेक देशको सर्वाधिक पहुँचयोग्य र सर्वशुलभ प्रविधिको सवाल हो । रेडियोले हरेक किसिमका सवाललाई स्थानीय, क्षेत्रीय, राष्ट्रिय र अन्तराष्ट्रियकरण गर्नमा प्रमुख भूमिका निर्वाह गर्दै आएको छ । अझ शैक्षिक प्रसारणहरूले विश्वविद्यालयका अन्तर्निहित ज्ञान, विज्ञान, विवेक तथा शैक्षिक चेतनाको दायरालाई मुखरित गर्ने कार्य समेत गर्दछ । दक्षिण एसियाका भारत, बंगलादेश र नेपालका विश्वविद्यालयले एफएम प्रविधिमा सरकारबाट प्रसारण इजाजतपत्र प्राप्त गरेर १००वाटदेखि ५००वाट प्रसारण क्षमताका एएम/एफएम शैक्षिक रेडियोको सञ्चालन तथा व्यवस्थापन गरिरहेका छन् । सरकारको सम्बन्धित निकायबाट सामुदायिक गैर–मुनाफामुखी प्रकृतिको प्रसारण इजाजतपत्र प्राप्त शैक्षिक रेडियोका विभिन्न स्वरूप तथा संरचनामा कलेज रेडियो, विश्वविद्यालय रेडियो तथा विद्यार्थी रेडियोका रूपमा सञ्चालन र ब्यवस्थापन भइरहेका छन् । कलेज रेडियो पत्रकारिताले दिगो विकासमा सहयोग पु¥याउनुका साथै शैक्षिक जागरण ल्याउनमा, अनौपचारिक शिक्षाको जग सुनिश्चित गर्नमा, मौलिक लोकपरम्परा, संस्कार र संस्कृति जगेर्ना गर्न तथा सामाजिक मूल्य–मान्यतालाई पुस्तान्तरण गर्नमा समेत अहम् भूमिका खेलेको हुन्छ ।</p> भुवन Bhuwan भण्डारी Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 'मेरो चोक' कविताका तत्व <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा ‘मेरो चोक’ कविताका संरचक घटकहरूको अध्ययन विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । गुणात्मक ढाँचामा संरचित यस अध्ययनमा विषयवस्तुको सङ्कलन पुस्तकालयीय कार्य र विषयवस्तुको विश्लेषण वर्णनात्मक विधिबाट गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनमा भूपी शेरचनद्वारा लिखित ‘मेरो चोक’ कवितालाई कविताका संरचक घटकहरूका आधारमा अध्ययन विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस लेखमा कविताका सबै संरचक घटकहरू नभई यहाँ प्रस्तुत कविताको विषयवस्तु र भाषाशैलीय विन्यासको मात्र अध्ययन विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । ‘मेरो चोक’ कविता कवि भूपी शेरचनको ‘धुम्ने मेचमाथि अन्धो मान्छे’ (२०२६) कविता सङग्रहमा राखिएको उत्कृष्ट कविता हो । सर्वप्रथम २०११ सालमा नयाँ झ्याउरेका माध्यमबाट एकैचोटि पुस्तकार कृति ल्याएर नेपाली कविताका फाँटमा देखा परेका कवि भूपी शेरचनले यस ‘मेरो चोक’ कवितामा साँघुरो गल्लीमा अव्यवस्थित चोक रहेको र त्यहाँ रोग, भोग र शोक व्याप्त रहेको कुरा उल्लेख गरेका छन् । म, मानिस र देवता गरी तीन थरी सहभागीको प्रयोग गरिएको यस कवितामा वर्णित चोकलाई ‘मेरो चोक’ भन्ने ‘म’ पात्र यस कविताको समख्याता वक्ता एवम् यस कविताका मानिस र देवता दुवै प्रमुख सहभागीका रूपमा आएका छन् । कवि भूपी शेरचनद्वारा लिखित ‘मेरो चोक’ कविताका संरचक घटक अन्तर्गत विषयवस्तु र भाषाशैलीय विन्यासलाई मात्र अध्ययन विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> भुवेश्वरी Bhuweshwari बडू Badu Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 बेन्जु शर्माको ‘लोहारपट्टीवाली’ कथामा लैङ्गिकता <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक लेख बेन्जु शर्माद्वारा लेखिएको ‘लोहारपट्टीवाली’ कथामा नारीमाथि गरिएको विभेदात्मक व्यवहार लैंङ्गिकताको आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । उक्त लेखमा वर्णनात्मक र विश्लेषणात्मक ढाँचाको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । यसमा नारीवाद अन्तर्गत लैङ्गिकताको सिद्धान्तमा आधारित रहेर कथालाई लैंङ्गिकताको दृष्टिकोणले विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । लैंङ्गिकताको दृष्टिकोणलाई मूल विषय बनाएर प्रस्तुत गरिएको कथामा महिला र पुरुषलाई जैविक रुपमा नभई हाम्रो समाजमा महिलाले महिला भएकै कारणले गर्नुपर्ने कामहरुलाई सामाजिक संरचनाद्वारा छुट्टयाएको छ । महिलामाथि गरिने अभद्र व्यवहारको वास्तविक चित्रण गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनको आधारभूत वा प्राथमिक सामग्रीका रूपमा बेन्जु शर्माको लोहारपट्टीवाली कथा समकालिक कथासंग्रहलाई लिइएको छ भने द्वितीयक सामग्रीका रूपमा पर्याधार र विश्लेषणका लागि लैंङ्गिकता सिद्धान्त सम्बन्धी विभिन्न लेखकद्वारा लेखिएका पुस्तक र लेखरचनालाई उपयोगमा ल्याइएको छ । लोहारपट्टी कथामा सङ्कलन गरिएको सामग्रीको विश्लेषणका लागि मूलतः वर्णनात्मक र पाठविश्लेषणात्मक विधिको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । सङ्कलित सामग्रीहरूबाट प्राप्त तथ्यहरूको विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्षसम्म पुग्न सहजताका लागि निगमन विधिबाट सामग्रीको व्यवस्थापन गर्दै विश्लेषण विधिको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत कथामा पितृसतात्मक सोचको कारण नारीहरूमाथि गरिएको दमन , अन्याय ,अत्याचार ,समाजमा पुरुषले जमाएको पुरुषप्रभुत्वको कारणले महिलामाथि गरेको थिचोमिचोले गर्दा सृजना भएको दयनीय स्थितिलाई देखाइएको छ । पुरुषको दासत्वबाट जीवन गुजार्नु पर्ने बाध्यात्मकता र नारीलाई गरेको शोषणमाथि आधारित भएर लोहापट्टीवाली कथामा लैङ्गिकता शीर्षकमा आधारित भई प्रस्तुत लेख तयार गएिको छ । अतः प्रस्तुत कथा लैंङ्गिकतामा आधारित उत्कृष्ट कथाका रुपमा लिन सकिन्छ ।</p> सरिता Sarita ताम्राकार Tamrakar Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 इन्द्रबहादुर राईको ‘कठपुतलीको मन’ कथामा उत्तरआधुनिकता <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा ’कठतुतलीको मन कथामा’ उत्तरआधुनिकता को अध्ययन विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यसका लागि दस्तावेज विश्लेषण विधिबाट प्राथमिक र द्वितीयक स्रोतका सामग्रीहरुको सङ्कलन, गुणात्मक ढाँचामा आधारित रहेर अध्ययन र विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्षमा पुग्ने प्रयास गरिएको छ । उत्तरआधुनिकताले आधुनिकताको मौलिक स्वरूप वा निर्माणका व्यतिरेकमा विनिर्माण वा विनिर्मिततालाई आत्मसात् गर्छ । उत्तरआधुनिकतावादले आधुनिकताको क्रमिक स्वरूपका व्यतिरेकमा व्यतिक्रमिक वा विशृङ्खलित पठनमा विश्वास राख्दछ । कुनै पाठको शृङ्खलित वा क्रमिक पठन हुन्छ भन्ने कुरामा उत्तरआधुनिकवादले अविश्वास जनाउँछ । नेपाली साहित्यमा विनिर्माणवादको प्रयोग इन्द्रबहादुर राईको कठपुतलीको मन कथा सङ्ग्रहमा पहिलोपल्ट भएको हो । उत्तरआधुनिकताका कोणबाट कथालाई सूक्ष्म विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । कथामा मूल प्रवत्तिका रुपमा उत्तरआधुनिकताभित्र द्विचरविरोधको अस्वीकार, अर्थको बहुलता, विधाभञ्जन को प्रयोग कसरी गरेको छ भन्ने कुरालाई देखाइएको छ । प्रस्तुत कथामा मूल प्रवृत्तिका रुपमा रहेको उत्तरआधुनिकताका मान्यताहरू कथामा कसरी अभिव्यञ्जित भएर आएका छन् । इन्द्रबहादुर राईद्वारा लिखित कठपुतलीको मन कथालाई उत्तरआधुनिकका कोणबाट अध्ययन विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> हेमा Hema जोशी Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial <p>No abstract available.</p> Editorial Board of JDL Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000