Journal of Durgalaxmi <p>The Journal of Durgalaxmi is published by the Durgalaxmi Multiple Campus, Attariya, Kailali, Nepal. The goal of this journal is to publish the articles from a range of areas such as Social Sciences, Management, Mathematics, and Education. It attempts to cover multidisciplinary areas. The journal also aims to disseminate research studies, conducts conferences, seminars and workshops, from various disciplines. </p> en-US <p><strong><a href="">CC BY-NC</a></strong>: This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator. </p> (Dr. Rajendra Kumar Shah) (Sioux Cumming) Mon, 07 Aug 2023 10:49:57 +0000 OJS 60 Producing the Research Article: Support and Assistance by the Mentors <p>Mentoring and Co-Writing for Research Publication Purposes<br>Pascal Patrick Matzler<br>Routledge, 2022, 165 pp.<br>ISBN: 978-1-003-15263-7</p> Rajendra Prasad Joshi Copyright (c) 2022 Rajendra Prasad Joshi Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Multilingual Turn and the Need of Multilingual Education in the Nepalese Context <p>This article is related with multilingual turn, multilingual education, and the need of it in the Nepalese context. It has highlighted the shifting of monolingual trend into multilingual education. Multilingual turn is a revolution in the sector of education. Day by day the demands of it are increasing for minority and indigenous languages. Similarly, there is need of multilingual education for people from such groups. Accordingly, the need of multilingual education is the focal point of this article. It has linked multilingual turn with multilingual education in the context of Nepal. Multilingual education is significant for learners’ cognitive and literacy skills. These skills are possible through the implication of this type of education. The language learning through the access of home language, or mother tongue is better and more effective for language learners. In true sense, multilingual education is bridging between learners’ first language and target language. Therefore, linguistic diversity is flourished from the multilingual education. Nepal, a multilingual country, has linguistic diversity requires multilingual education.</p> Man Bahadur Jora Copyright (c) 2023 Man Bahadur Jora Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Teacher Educator’s Qualities for Successful Teaching: Students’ Perspectives on Teacher’s Personal Traits in Nepalese Context <p>The nature of teacher education in Nepal is being questioned by various critics because they argue that it only focuses on the formal or theoretical knowledge of the teachers rather than considering practical and behavioral aspects of teachers’ professional development. On this ground, this phenomenological research primarily aims at identifying students’ perspectives on personal qualities/characteristics of teacher educators and investigating how such personal qualities/characteristics contribute to successful teaching in the context of Nepal. The data has been collected through personal and structured interview taken with 10 students (who are prospective teachers as well) purposively selected from the 5 campuses of Kailali district that run B. Ed. and M. Ed. Programs. Through the interpretation and analysis of the data, the study reveals that personal characteristics of teacher educators are essential for successful teaching and learning. Such qualities should be recognized as the formal parameters of assessing teacher’s qualification for improving the entire course of teacher education.</p> Ram Bahadur Mouni Copyright (c) 2022 Ram Bahadur Mouni Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Perception of Teachers on Using ICT in Classroom in Context of Kailali District <p>This paper aims to present perception of teacher on using ICT ((information, communication and technology) in classroom in context of Kailali district. For the purpose of the survey, ten teachers teaching in secondary level were selected and questionnaire was used to collect data. The findings of the research show that even though majority of the teachers are equipped with electronic gadgets like laptop and desktop computers and have access to the reliable internet both in school and at home, they cannot use ICT in their teaching because of lack of sufficient knowledge about web-based and game-based teaching tools and they have not received training related to ICT use in the classroom teaching.</p> Suman Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Suman Shrestha Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Rasa in Deudā: Emotive Expressions of the Folks in Western Nepal <p>In recent years, many authors have shed light on the hidden world of folklore particularly on folk songs seeking to re-envision the traditions and practices of the traditional society. The present research on a folk song of Far Western Nepal, i.e., <em>deudā</em> holds special promises for analyzing it in the light of rasa theory. The study reflects upon the theory of rasa, as propounded in Indian aesthetics, and attempts to make an assessment of it in relation to <em>deudā</em> song using qualitative method. The main intention of this study is to see how the song lets out the various common emotions (<em>rasas</em>) of the people dwelling in some parts of Far Western Nepal. It examines how different types or forms of rasa function in various <em>deudā</em> songs. Particular emphasis is placed on analyzing the songs in terms of nine <em>rasas</em>. The findings of this research showed that the <em>deudā</em> song is loaded with the feeling of the throbbing hearts of the people of the region with their emotions of pain, pathos, suffering, misery, hardships, compassion, mercy, romance, love, humor, heroism, fury or anger, disgust, wonder, horror and peace. The songs reflect the ethnic culture and tradition of the people and their experiences in the real sense.</p> Narendra Bahadur Air Copyright (c) 2022 Narendra Bahadur Air Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Issues and Aspects of Women Empowerment: Feministic Perspectives <p>This article attempts to draw on the conceptual understanding of women empowerment primarily focusing on its major aspects. Empowerment enables women to acquire knowledge, skills, and techniques which will help them in their personal and social growth as well as foster their sensitivity towards problems in society. Women Empowerment refers to the creation of an environment for women where they can make decisions of their own for their benefit as well as for society. The issues of women and their empowerment are explored and interpreted using qualitative methodology highlighting feminism as a critical approach. Employing both description and content analysis as major methodological tools, the writer discusses on the social, economic, cultural, educational, political, and psychological aspects of women empowerment from feministic perspectives with an aim to familiarize the women with the basic concepts of empowerment so that it can help them increase and improve their strength in these various domains and build up confidence to create a just society based on equality, freedom and justice.</p> Bishnu Bahadur Mahara Copyright (c) 2022 Bishnu Bahadur Mahara Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Meaning of Numeral and Number System and Formulation of Roman Numerals Corresponding to Decimal Numbers <p>The primary objective of the paper is to review the definition of number system adopting the basic and general way of formation of number in any existing number system like Egyptian, Roman, and Hindu-Arabic number system which played and are playing vital role for development of today's existing number system. But secondary aim of this article is to analyze and synthesize on Roman number system in various aspects and then to formulate structural stands to create Roman numbers corresponding to Hindu-Arabic (Decimal) numerals/numbers.</p> Dal Bahadur Saud Copyright (c) 2022 Dal Bahadur Saud Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Grading System at Secondary Education Examination in Nepal <p>Education is one of the pivotal infrastructures among all infrastructures for the development of the nation. Skilled human resource is the key factor for national development which is possible for an effective and relevant education system in the country. The main objective of this paper is to carefully explore, explicitly overview and comprehensively evaluate the contemporary grading system and conventional examination systems practiced in Nepal. The SLC examination system was the barrier for most of the students prior to introducing the letter grading system (2015/016) in Nepal. The stress of the students has been reduced by taking the Secondary Education Examination (SEE), which provided students with an opportunity to pursue higher education. Secondary level education has been evaluated by school leaving certificate (SLC) result before 2015 A.D. in percentage system. Nepalese students should have to go to Calcatta, Bananas, Haridwar and some other places of India for their SLC examination before 1990 B.S. The SLC Board started conducting examinations in Nepal in 1990 B.S. This examination had been called "Iron Gate" (MOES, 2003). The grading system is an integral part of the educational system that helps to enhance the capacity and relevance of the required knowledge, skills, and experiences to students.</p> Damber Bahadur Pal Copyright (c) 2022 Damber Bahadur Pal Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Problems and Prospects of Women Entrepreneurship in Nepal <p>Entrepreneurship plays a key role in the economic development of the nation. It leads to the creation of capital as well as the generation of social benefits. It has incredible possibilities in exploring women's potential which could directly contribute to the national economy through women entrepreneurship. Due to the growing industrialization, urbanization, communication, social legislation and higher education and awareness, the emergence of women-owned business is increasing rapidly in the economies of almost all countries. The present paper endeavors to examine the problems faced by women entrepreneurs and to make suggestions for future prospects for the development of women entrepreneurs in Nepal. This paper is based on secondary data and an extensive literature review is carried out on problems faced by women entrepreneurs. At the end, this paper recommends addressing problems of women entrepreneurship from the Nepalese perspective. The result of this article indicates that government and policy makers should play their role toward preventing gender discrimination and domestic violence against women and upholding their right to work for women entrepreneurs. They should develop effective policies, rules and regulations to enhance women entrepreneurship. Finally, the researcher recommends establishing institutions for advocating the right of women entrepreneurs that provides social awareness against discrimination of women.</p> Ghanshyam Bhatta Copyright (c) 2022 Ghanshyam Bhatta Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Linguistic Human Rights and Trilingual Educational Policy of Nepal <p>Resource-based approach and right-based approach in education are the two contending issues among the academicians who have their own opinions about whether to ensure individuals’ linguistic human rights or to treat language as a communication resource. However, this article aims to justify the suitability of the right-based approach in the trilingual educational policy of Nepal by providing arguments from cultural, social, economic, and educational perspectives. Firstly, it introduces right-based and resource-based approaches in education. Secondly, it concentrates on how this approach relates to present Nepal’s trilingual educational policy in practice. Finally, it advocates for the rigorous implementation of this policy of the government of Nepal for the cultural, social, economic and academic development of the learners and conservation of their linguistic human rights. It further explicates the role of translanguaging, bilingualism and multilingualism as some of the strategies or approaches that can be used according to the local context and needs of the learners.</p> Narayan Paneru Copyright (c) 2022 Narayan Paneru Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Women Employment as an Opportunity and Challenge in the Context of Nepal <p>No Abstract available.</p> Mala Bhandari Copyright (c) 2022 Mala Bhandari Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Application of the Positive Reinforcement to Enhance the Learnability of EFL Learners <p>The article aims to explore the effectiveness of positive reinforcement in EFL (English as a foreign language) classrooms with the situations of enhancing the learnability of EFL learners. For the concern, I applied positive reinforcement to one section of class 11 for a month, and to another section of the same class, there was no treatment after the treatment post-test was administered in the two groups. From the data, the group in which the treatment applied was found better motivation in learning; as a result, they can enhance learnability and develop a friendly situation in learning English. Therefore, positive reinforcement enhances the learnability of the learners, and they can develop the level of confidence, the horizon of knowledge, and cooperative learning strategies in the EFL situation.</p> Bhavana Basnet Copyright (c) 2022 Bhavana Basnet Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 भाषिक अनुसन्धानका क्षेत्र {Areas of Linguistic Research} <p>प्रस्तुत लेख भाषिक अनुसन्धानका क्षेत्रको प्रस्तुतिमा केन्द्रित छ । पुस्तकालयीय अध्ययन प्रक्रियाबाट सामग्री सङ्कलन गरी त्यसैका आधारमा लेख तयार गरिएकाले यो गुणात्मक प्रकृतिको अध्ययन बनेको छ । भाषिक अनुसन्धान सम्बन्धी विभिन्न सैद्धान्तिक ग्रन्थहरूलाई स्रोत सामग्री बनाई यो लेख तयार पारिएको छ । यस लेखमा भाषिक क्षेत्रमा केन्द्रित रहेर के कस्ता क्षेत्रसँग सम्बन्धित अध्ययन अनुसन्धान गर्न सकिन्छ भन्ने बारेमा विस्तृत चर्चा गरिएको छ । भाषा पाठ्यक्रम तथा भाषापाठ्यपुस्तकको अध्ययन, निर्माण तथा प्रभावकारिता, शिक्षक निर्देशिकाको उपयोग, शैक्षणिक शब्दकोश निर्माण तथा शब्दकोशको अध्ययन जस्ता क्षेत्र भाषिक अनुसन्धान अन्तर्गत पर्दछन् । विद्यालय तहका विद्यार्थीहरूका भाषिक क्षमता तथा उपलब्धि र मूल्याङ्कन (जस्तै : वर्णविन्यास, शब्दभण्डार, व्याकरण, सिर्जनात्मक लेखन, व्यावहारिक लेखन आदि) भाषिक मूल्याङ्कनको अवस्था, शिक्षण सिकाइ प्रक्रिया तथा प्रभावकारिता जस्ता क्षेत्रहरू भाषिक अध्ययनका महत्वपूर्ण क्षेत्रहरू हुन् । त्यस्तै भाषा तथा भाषिक भेदको पहिचान, अध्ययन, व्यतिरेकी अध्ययन, त्रुटि विश्लेषण, कुनै कृतिको अनुवाद अध्ययन, सङ्कथन विश्लेषण, लैङ्गिक अध्ययन, समाजभाषिक अध्ययन तथा भाषिक अध्ययन पनि भाषिक अनुसन्धानका अनुसन्धेय क्षेत्र मानिन्छन् । बालसाहित्य, पत्रपत्रिका एवम् विभिन्न लेख, अभिलेख आदिको भाषिक तथा भाषावैज्ञानिक अध्ययन पनि भाषिक अनुसन्धानको महत्त्वपूर्ण क्षेत्र मानिन्छ ।</p> राजेन्द्र Rajendra खनाल Khanal Copyright (c) 2022 Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 आधारभूत तह उत्तीर्ण विद्यार्थीहरूको व्याकरणिक क्षमता {Grammatical ability of students passing the basic level} <p>प्रस्तुत लेख व्याकरणिक क्षमताको तुलनासँग सम्बन्धित रहेको छ । यसमा सहरी र ग्रामिण क्षेत्रका विद्यालयबाट आधारभूत तह उत्तीर्ण विद्यार्थीहरूको व्याकरणिक क्षमताको तुलना गरिएको छ । यस लेखको उद्देश्य ग्रामीण र सहरी विद्यालयका आधारभूत तह उत्तीर्ण विद्यार्थीहरूको व्याकरणिक क्षमताको तुलना गर्नु रहेको छ । यसमा मूलतः क्षेत्रीय विधिबाट सामग्री सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । सामग्री सङ्कलन गर्दा प्राथमिक र द्वितीयक दुवै स्रोतकोउपयोग गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत लेख परिमाणात्मक अनुसन्धान ढाँचा र उद्देश्यमूलक नमुना छनोट विधि अबलम्वन गरी तयार पारिएको छ । यसमा मूलतः कक्षा आठ उत्तीर्ण विद्यार्थीहरूको व्याकरणिक क्षमता परीक्षणका लागि ३० पूर्णाङ्कको प्रश्नावली निर्माण गरी छनोटमा परेका विद्यार्थीमा परीक्षण गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनबाट सहरी क्षेत्रका विद्यालयबाट आधारभूत तह उत्र्तीण विद्यार्थीहरुको व्याकरणिक तत्व पहिचान तथा प्रयोग क्षमता राम्रो रहेको निष्कर्ष निस्केको छ । प्रस्तुत लेखले निर्दिष्ट विषय क्षेत्रमा अध्ययन, अनुसन्धान गर्न चाहने सरोकारवालालाई सहयोग पुर्याउने विश्वास गरिएको छ ।</p> महेश प्रसाद Mahesh Prasad भट्ट Bhatta, कृष्ण प्रसाद Krishna Prasad पोख्रेल Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2022 Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 डडेल्धुरेली भाषाको वाक्य व्यवस्था {Sentence structure of Dadeldhureli language} <p>डडेल्धुरेली भाषामा वाक्यको बाह्य संरचनाका आधारमा उद्देश्य–विधेय, उद्देश्य–प्रत्यक्ष कर्म–विधेय,उद्देश्य–पूरक–विधेय, उद्देश्य–अप्रत्यक्ष कर्म–प्रत्यक्ष कर्म–विधेय, उद्देश्य–प्रत्यक्ष कर्म–पूरक–विधेय गरी पाँच प्रकारका आधारभूत वाक्य ढाँचा पाइन्छन् । यस्तो वाक्य ढाँचा डडेल्धुरेली भाषाको व्याकरणिक वाक्य ढाँचा हो । तर यस्तो पदक्रम कतिपय अवस्थामा विचलन भई आलङ्कारिक पदक्रम पनि बन्ने गरेको पाइन्छ । डडल्धुरेली भाषामा चार प्रकारका पदावली रहेका पाइन्छन् – नाम पदावली, विशेषण पदावली, क्रिया पदावली र परस्थानिक पदावली । नाम पदावलीमा निर्धारक र नाम,गुणवाचक विशेषण र नाम, भेदक र नाम, सङ्ख्यावाचक र नाम तथा समानाधिकरण र नामको पदक्रम पाइएको छ भने विशेषण पदावलीमा परिमाणवाचक पद र विशेषणको पदक्रम रहेको छ । पदावलीको रचनामा नाम पदावली र क्रियापद, क्रियायोगिक पदावली र नाम पद तथा परस्थानिक पदावली र क्रियापदको योग भएको पाइन्छ । क्रियाविशेषण पदावलीको रचनामा मात्राबोधक र क्रियाविशेषण तथा नामिक पद र नामयोगीको योग भएको पाइन्छ । डडेल्धुरेली भाषामा कर्ता र क्रिया, नाम र कोटिकर, विशेषण र विशेष्य, भेदक र भेद्य, नाम र सर्वनाम, कर्म र क्रियाका बीचमा समेत सङ्गति हुने गर्छ । डडेल्धुरेली भाषामा सरल, संयुक्त र मिश्र गरी तीन प्रकारका वाक्य रहेका छन् । सरल वाक्य आधारभूत र विस्तारित गरी दुई प्रकारका छन् भने संयुक्त वाक्य समुच्ययबोधक, विकल्पबोधक, विशेषक, कारणबोधक र अनुक्रमबोधक गरी पाँच प्रकारका रहेका छन् । यसै गरी मिश्र वाक्यमा नाम उपवाक्य, विशेषण उपवाक्य र क्रियाविशेषण उपवाक्यका प्रकार पाइन्छन् ।</p> मोहनप्रसाद Mohanprasad भट्ट Bhatta Copyright (c) 2022 Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 लोकसाहित्य र बझाङी भाषामा गाउँखाने कथा {Gaun Khane story in folklore and Bajhangi language} <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक लेखमा बझाङ जिल्लाका लोकसाहित्य र बझाङी भाषाका गाउँखाने कथाका रूपमा लिई त्यसमा विश्लेषण निर्मितका विभिन्न पक्षहरूको विश्लेषण र मूल्याङ्कन गरेर उक्त लोकसाहित्य तथा बझाङी गाउँखाने कथाको विश्लेषण र मूल्याङ्कन गरेर उक्त साहित्यको अर्थनिक्र्योल गरिएको छ । लोकसाहित्य र लोककथामा प्रचलित गाउँखाने कथाको विश्लेषण निर्मितहरू कसरी वितरित भएका छन् र तिनको अन्तर्सम्बन्धबाट उक्त लोकसाहित्यको आशय निर्धारण गर्नु यस लेखको उद्देश्य हो । यसमा विश्लेषण सामग्री सङ्कलन र विश्लेषण वर्णनात्मक सैद्घान्तिक ढाँचाका रूपमा अवलम्बन गरी बुँदागत विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यसमा लोकसाहित्य र बझाङी गाउँखाने कथाका क्रियाकलापहरूको सामग्री सङ्कलन र विश्लेषण तार्किक शृङ्खलाको सुसंयोजन गरी नेपाली लोकसाहित्य र बझाङी गाउँखाने कथाको अध्ययन र सङ्कलित सामग्रीको लिखित दस्तावेजका रूपमा ग्रहण गरिएको छ । नेपाली भाषा र बझाङी भाषामा रहेका गाउँखाने कथाको अस्तित्वको खोजी र लिपिबद्घ गर्नु यस लेखको निष्कर्षको रूपमा लिइएको छ ।</p> विष्णुबहादुर Bishnubahadur कठायत Kathayat Copyright (c) 2022 Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 नेपाली भाषा शिक्षण र विश्वव्यापीकरण {Nepali language teaching and globalization} <p>नेपाली भाषा नेपालको राष्ट्रभाषा, सम्पर्कको भाषा, शिक्षणको भाषा, संचारको भाषा, अधिकतम नेपालीले बोल्ने र बुझ्ने भाषाका रुपमा परिभाषित गर्न सकिन्छ । क्षेत्रफलको हिसाबले सानो देश भएपनि यहाँ भाषिक विविधता पाइन्छ तर जतिसुकै भाषिक विविधता पाइए पनि धेरै जनसंख्याले प्रयोग गर्ने भाषा भनेको नेपाली नै हो किनभने यो नेपालको मातृभाषा पनि हो र सरकारी कामकाजको भाषाका रुपमा पनि नेपाली भाषालाई लिइन्छ । नेपाल बाहिर यसको प्रयोग क्षेत्र फराकिलो बन्दै गइरहेको छ । नेपाल बाहिर पनि नेपाली भाषाको शिक्षण कार्यहरू थालिएका छन् जसलाई नेपाली भाषाको विश्वव्यापीकरण भनिन्छ । छिमेकी देश भारत लगायत विश्वका विभिन्न ठाउँमा जहाँ नेपालीहरूको बसोबास रहेको छ त्यहाँ नेपाली भाषाको शिक्षण गर्नु आवश्यक ठानिएकोले विभिन्न स्थानमा नेपाली भाषाको पठनपाठन हुँदै आइरहेको कुरा पनि यस लेखबाट थाहा पाउन सकिन्छ । यसरी नेपाली भाषाले आफ्नो क्षेत्र फराकिलो बनाई दिनप्रतिदिन विस्तारित हुँदैगएको कुरालाई यस लेखमा प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । नेपाली भाषा नेपालमा मात्र नभएर नेपालबाहिरका विभिन्न मुलुकहरूमा पनि विस्तारित हुँदै विश्वव्यापीकरणमा गइरहेको छ भन्ने कुराको अध्ययन गर्न यस लेखमा गुणात्मक विधिको प्रयोग गरी प्रत्यक्ष रुपमा सम्बन्धित ठाउँमा गई सम्बन्धित व्यक्तिहरूलाई भेटी, विदेशमा रहेका विभिन्न व्यक्तिहरूसँग फोन सम्पर्क गरी, पुस्तकालयमा भएका पुस्तकहरूको अध्ययन गरी यो लेख तयार पारिएको छ । यस अध्ययनको माध्यमबाट नेपाली भाषा पनि अन्य भाषा जस्तै विश्वव्यापीकरणमा गइरहेकाले यसको क्षेत्र फराकिलो बन्दै गइरहेको निष्कर्ष प्राप्त भएको छ ।</p> मनिषा Manisha उपाध्याय Upadhyaya Copyright (c) 2022 Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 परालको आगो कथामा बाह्य दृष्टिविन्दु {An external point of view on the Paralko Aago Story} <p>प्रस्तुत आलेख गुरूप्रसाद मैनालीद्वारा लिखित परालको आगो कथाको विधा तात्विक अध्ययनसँग सम्बन्धित छ । सामाजिक विषयवस्तुलाई मुख्य आधार बनाएर लेखिएको यस कथामा बाह्यदृष्टिविन्दु प्रयोगको अवस्थाका बारेमा अध्ययन गरिएको छ । यस लेखमा विधा तात्विक अध्ययन अन्तर्गतको दृष्टिविन्दु सम्बन्धी अवधारणालाई सैद्धान्तिक पर्याधारका रूपमा उपयोग गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत कथामा प्रयुक्त बाह्य दृष्टिविन्दुको अवस्था कस्तो छ भन्ने जिज्ञासाको परिपूर्ति गर्नका लागि यो अध्ययन गरिएको छ । बाह्य दृष्टिविन्दुको सैद्धान्तिक पर्याधारलाई आधार बनाई प्राथमिक एव म्द्वितीयक सामग्रीको उपयोग गरी गुणात्मक र पाठ विश्लेषणात्मक विधि अपनाइएको छ । प्रस्तुत कथामा प्रयुक्त दृष्टिविन्दुको पद्धतिसँग सम्वद्ध पक्षको अध्ययन, समाख्याताको अदृश्य उपस्थिति, कथानकीय सन्दर्भ, पात्रविधानगत अवस्था र एकल पात्रको मनोविश्लेषण जस्ता उपकरणको माध्यमबाट गरिएको छ । नेपाली समाजमा देखिने सामाजिक, आर्थिक तथा सांस्कृतिक परिवर्तनकासाथै लोग्ने र स्वास्नी बिचको झगडा परालको आगो जस्तै हो, त्यही सानो झगडाले पनि मानसिकरूपमा चोट पु¥याउन सक्छ भन्ने निष्कर्ष कथाको छ । बाह्य दृष्टिविन्दुको प्रयोगले प्रस्तुत कथाकोसंरचनात्मक र अर्थीय दुवै पक्षको निर्माणमा महत्त्त्वपूर्ण भुमिका खेलि कथालाई कलात्मक, सौन्दर्यपूर्ण र मानवीय संवेदनायुक्त बनाएको कुरा यस अध्ययनमा प्राप्त गरिएको छ । अन्त्यमा दृष्टिविन्दुको प्रयोगले प्रस्तुत कथाका आयामगत लघुता, आफैँमा पूर्णता, पृथक रचना विधानगत पद्धतिप्रतिको आबद्धता परिपाकमा पुग्नुले कथाकार मैनालीमा कथा सिर्जना गर्ने शिल्प उत्कृष्ट रहनुका साथै विश्लेषणात्मक विधिको अवलम्बन गरी बाह्य दृष्टिविन्दुका पद्धतिका आधारमा कथामा दृष्टिविन्दुको प्रयोगको अवस्थालाई पहिचान गरी निष्कर्षमा पुगिएको छ ।</p> हरिप्रिया Haripriya जोशी Joshi Copyright (c) 2022 Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ‘छाउघर’ उपन्यासमा लैङ्गिक विभेद {Gender differences in the novel 'Chaughar'} <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक लेखमा राज सरगमद्धारा लिखित ‘छाउघर’ उपन्यासलाई लैङ्गिक विभेदका आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस लेखमा वर्णनात्मक र विश्लेषणात्मक ढाँचाको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । यसमा लैङ्गिक विभेदको परिचय दिनुका साथै नेपाली समाजमा नारीले भोग्नु परेका महिलाहिंसा र उनीहरुले गरेको पितृसत्ताको विरोधलाई देखाएको छ । प्रस्तुत लेखको सामग्री वा तथ्याङ्क सङ्कलन पुस्तकालयको प्रयोगबाट गरिएका छ । १२ वर्षको उमेरमा रजस्वला (छाउ) भएकी कलाले छाउघरमा भागरथीको सर्पले डसेर मृत्यु भएको, मंगलीको गाउँकै पुरुषद्धारा बलत्कार भएको, रुपाले छाउघरमै बच्चा पाएको देखेकी छ । त्यही उसले बाजेको देउता र नेपाली समाजका कुप्रथा, कुरीति, अन्धविश्वास र कुपरम्परालाई पनि चिनेकी छ । छाउ हुनुको पौराणिक र वैज्ञानिक आधार जानेकी उसले परम्परा र परिवारसँग विद्रोह गरेको देखिन्छ । छाउघर उपन्यासमा नारीले भोग्नु परेका लैङ्गिक हिंसालाई देखाइएको छ भने नारीलाई दमन, शोषण, कुप्रथा र कुपरम्परामा दबाइ असुरक्षित र दुःखद जीवन बाँच्न बाध्य पारिएकोले पितृसत्ताको विरोध गरिएको छ । यसरी लैङ्गिक विभेदका आधारमा ‘छाउघर’ उपन्यास सबल र सफल छ भन्ने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> तुलसी Tulasi शर्मा Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 'किडी जियाले कर्णालीमा फाल हालिन' कथामा अभिघात {Accident in the story of 'Kidy Ziya fell in Karnali'} <p>Available with fulltext.&nbsp;</p> रामचन्द्र Ramchandra जोशी Joshi Copyright (c) 2022 Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 योग शिक्षा र योगको उपयोगिता {Yoga education and usefulness of yoga} <p>Not Available.&nbsp;</p> धर्मराज Dharmaraj उपाध्याय Upadhyaya Copyright (c) 2022 Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000