Journal of Development Review <p>The Journal of Development Review is published by the Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association of Saraswati Multiple Campus (a unit of Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Nepal).</p> TUTA, Saraswati Multiple Campus en-US Journal of Development Review 2382-5103 Risks in Nepalese Microfinance Institutions (MFIs): A Review of Best Practices <p>This article aims to analyze possible risks in microfinance institutions (MFIs) in Nepal during the loan disbursement decision. Effective risk management allows MFIs to capitalize on new opportunities and to minimize threats to their financial viability. MFIs consciously take a risk to fulfill their dual mission of sustainability and outreach to the poor. Consequently, they are exposed to a spectrum of risks which include institutional risk, operational risk, financial risk, and external risk. MFIs need to manage these risks for their survival and sustainability. They take risks every day by lending money to people without credit histories, without business records, and often without collateral. Each MFI takes risks to operates as a successful microfinance institution. But it is important to take calculated risks. Risk Management is always focused on the process of taking calculated risks. It includes both the prevention of potential problems and the early detection of problems. Risk management is an ongoing process of systematically identifying, measuring, monitoring, and managing risks in MFIs. It is important to ensure that MFIs operate in a safe, responsible, and sound manner towards their mission. &nbsp;</p> Basudev Lamichane Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Development Review 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 1 12 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51127 Psychoanalytic Criticism of Dr. Van Helsing in the Novel Dracula <p>Set in the backdrop of Gothic horror tradition, Bram Stoker’s novel <em>Dracula </em>(1897) intermixes with fondness of romance. It overtly describes the love of Dr. John Seward, Arthur Holmwood and Quiencey Morris to Lucy Westerna. The behaviuors that they show towards main female characters in the novel express their love to women. But Dr. Van Helsing, the leader of the heroes’ team, is presented as the inspiring figure who leads the band of the young people in a sacred ritual. He is from Amsterdam and we do not know anything about his family background except his insane wife who is now in “insane institution”. In the novel he is the character taken for granted as an all good personality. He is presented as the benevolent father figure who is panacea for the trouble wrenched youngsters. However, we can raise some questions on his behaviours. Is he solely an ascetic person? Is he not interested in love affairs with any woman? This paper attempts to analyze the behaviuors of Dr. Van Hesling from psychoanalytic perspective. This paper claims that there is the working of the unconscious at his love to the women so that he takes part in Dracula killing mission. By analyzing his behaviours from psychoanalytic perspective, he is a man unconsciously running after women. His behaviours express his unfulfilled sexual desire, a man with woman fixation.</p> Chandra Bahadur K.C. Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Development Review 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 13 17 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51128 Functional and Conceptual Differences of Micro-credit and Microfinance in Nepal <p>The study analyzes the functional and conceptual differences between micro-credit and microfinance in Nepal. The main concern of this paper is to analyze the fundamental differences between the concept of microcredit and microfinance. Generally, it uses similar terminology; however, it has certain fundamental dissimilarity on a practical level. The main focus of this study is to analyze theoretically and conceptually differences the terms used in the field of economic development and poverty alleviation field. The study has been based on a qualitative research paradigm and only secondary sources of data were used for this study. Books, articles, thesis, dissertations, and reports were the main secondary source of data. Secondary information has collected through the library research method. Data were analyzed by using a simple paragraph description. The conclusion of this study has been drawn based on analysis and description.</p> Chandra Dhakal Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Development Review 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 18 25 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51129 Narrating Trauma in The Farming of Bones <p>This article aims to analyse the trauma faced by the main character Amabelle Desir in Edwidge Danticat’s novel <em>The Farming of Bones</em>. It also takes into account the trauma faced by other characters in the novel. It explores their psychological trauma and its causes. The trauma is caused by the disappearance of her parents as well as her lover Sebastian. The shock of this loss overwhelms her and causes a deep wound on her heart. Her trauma is what exemplifies the suffering of many Haitians that has come as a result of ethnic cleansing practised by the despot Trujillo. Set in the 1930s Dominican Republic, the novel highlights the pain and torture experienced by the Haitians working-class people in the cane plantations of the Republic and the torture and mass killings carried out by the despot. How Amabelle is traumatized and how she tries to give an expression to that trauma is the main focus of this research paper. The paper analyses the issue in the light of theoretical insights taken from Cathy Caruth and Dominick La Capra.</p> Gol Man Gurung Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Development Review 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 26 29 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51130 Financial Performance of Nepalese Public Sector and Joint Venture Banks Using CAMEL Model <p>Nepalese banking sector plays a crucial role in the economy due to its dominant position in the financial system, and hence the efficiency of the financial institutions is crucial for the whole economy, as bank failures become a threat on the banking system. This study analyses the relative performance of selected public and joint venture commercial banks of Nepal using CAMEL rating system and provides a relative ranking under each of the parameters independently. This study focuses on every aspect of financial performance measurement for the study periods of five years i.e. from 2015 to 2019. HBL was found to be able to maintain a higher level of capital and EBL to maintain a higher level of good performing loans and earnings efficiency, as well as SCB, was found to be able to maintain a higher level of managerial efficiency and ADBL to maintain a higher level of liquidity. The results of independent sample t-test showed no significant mean difference in capital adequacy, earning performance, and liquidity between public and joint-venture banks, but showed a significant mean difference in asset quality, and management quality between public and joint-venture banks has found.</p> Janga Bahadur Hamal Padam Raj Adhikari Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Development Review 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 30 40 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51131 Environmental Economics and Sustainable Development: A Study on Environment Management Policy of Nepal <p>Environmental economics has important contributions to the understanding of environmental phenomena, their causes, effects, and possible solutions that have been developed from various areas of economic theory and original applications and developments. Economists are to provide an increasingly effective contribution to the study of environmental issues and the pursuit of sustainable development. In particular, empirical analyses are of fundamental importance both to environmental economics and to the sustainability debate. The objective of this study is to analyze the environmental problems which are being encountered as a result of attempts to produce economic development in the nation. Descriptive research design and descriptive statistics have been followed to make an analysis. The secondary information was collected. It was found that the acts and regulations related to the environment have not been effective due to the lack of integrated environmental policy, lack of coordination among various agencies, and lack of adoption of a holistic approach.</p> Khom Raj Kharel Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Development Review 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 41 52 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51132 The Evolution of Children’s Literature <p>Children’s literature is literature for children and about children, maybe written by children or adult writers. The article sheds lights on the meaning and importance of children’s literature. It mainly focuses on how children’s literature in general has been evolving in the English and Nepali contexts of literary history. Some writers and their books have been consulted and some critics’ opinions have been cited in order to find out the general trends of the evolution of children’s literature. Efforts have been made to observe some commonalties and contrasts in the evolution trends between children’s literature, mainly in English, and children’s literature in Nepal. It is observed that the sources and themes of children’s literature are similar both in English and Nepali. The oral trend of sharing folk and mythic stories is also similar in both cases. Writing books that can be leveled as children’s literature started very late in Nepal, however the story-telling tradition in village houses by grandparents, parents and uncles is very old<em>.</em></p> Kul Bahadur Khadka Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Development Review 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 53 57 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51133 Remittance from Gurkha’s as a Source of Foreign Currencies and Contribution to Livelihood Practices of Left Behind <p>Study shows that remittances from the Gurkha’s are an important source of foreign currency for Nepal which has also been contributing as a reliable source of income for the family and relatives left behind. The article depicts the statistical data of Gurkhas who have been in service and retired, in the Indian army and the British army. For the study here, I have deployed the observation and purposive sampling method followed by semi-structured interview techniques to collect the required data. My respondents are the household heads of employees and office personnel of Indian and British pension camp for primary data, and records from respective camp for secondary data. The finding shows a huge amount of Indian rupees and British pound as a foreign currency remitted by Gurkhas. The data shows that there are NPR.1,28,52 crores inward remittance come to Nepal annually from Gurkhas. On top of that, the remittances are playing a vital role to uplift the economic condition of left behind. However, the absence of energetic migrants has changed the traditional socio-cultural construction of the community, the role of women in the household chore, and demographic composition. Positively, women are empowered and economically they get a reliable source of income throughout their life. While single parenting, the loneliness of old parents, and sacrifice for social relations seem very challenging to manage them as a social being. Findings also show that there is a tangible gap between the pace of global economic advancement and local economic advancement, which has encouraged youths to join the army.</p> Laxmi Thapa Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Development Review 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 58 65 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51134 Historical Study on Sustainable Tourism Practice in Nepal <p>Sustainability principles refer to the ecological, economic, and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development and a suitable balance between these three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability. Ecotourism is a burning issue and one of the fastest-growing sectors in the world tourism industry. Many developing countries like Nepal are trying to use ecotourism as a tool to achieve sustainable tourism goals. The UN Sustainable Development Goal 12 focuses on sustainable tourism. From the Nepalese perspective, tourism is gradually heading towards mass tourism. So it is the right time to implement the principles of sustainable tourism for its sustainable development. Nepal Tourism Policy 2009 identifies the tourism sector as an important vehicle for economic and social development. Directions set by the policy such as quality improvement of tourism services, increasing revenue, and expansion of employment opportunities to improve the living standard of Nepalese people. Vision 2020 focuses on sustainable tourism envisions of increasing tourist arrival to two million and tourism-related employment to one million. It is no doubt that proper use of sustainable tourism principles can be very beneficial in various aspects. Sustainable tourism has been priorities by the Nepal government for a long. However to achieve its objectives, in the context of the Nepalese tourism industry, much more has to be done in days to come.</p> Niranjan Ojha Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Development Review 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 66 74 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51135 Dynamics and Extent of Exclusion of Ethnic Population in Urban Setting: An Ethnographic Study of Darai People <p>Exclusion as a widespread phenomenon has prevailed in urban settings. The ethnic population in particular is victims of exclusion caused by urbanization. Though the process of urbanization and its associated processes result in opportunities for income and better services, ethnic populations feel detached from them in the absence of efficiency of modern state institutions and officials. Also, the change in traditional occupation and production results in ethnic populations in their exclusion and marginalization from the social position and space. Darai people of the studied area have been suffered from exclusion however the income chances are increased.</p> Pramod Hari Guragain Tika Raj Kaini Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Development Review 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 75 84 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51136 Operational Management Approaches/Suggestions to Strengthen the Academics of the Tribhuvan University <p>This article tries to analyze the existing functions of Tribhuvan University from the perspectives of its operational efficiencies for its sustaining, even not the growth, in the 21st century. Its current status has raised many questions due to current and potential student’s behavior seeking higher education from abroad. The methodology adopted is comparing its existing performance with the performances envisaged by the world-class university’s quality concept.</p> Satyanarayan Choudhary Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Development Review 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 85 91 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51137 Revisiting Black History in William Faulkner’s Light in August <p>This paper aims to explore and analyze Faulkner’s novel that fictionalizes the history of Southern part of the US during the time of Harlem renaissance when blacks were conscious of their own position as blacks as well as the time of Jim Crow laws that legalized racial segregation in the south. The book depicts whites’ domination of America and it questions the representation of blacks as violent and irrational and challenges the official history with its emphasis on white supremacy and condemnation of blacks. It puts the issues and experiences of black people at the center of the text and through an engagement with historical realities of American South tries to blur the boundaries between history and fiction. The violent nature of Joe Christmas is not an inborn quality but a result of various socio-political forces that have played a key role in shaping his psychology. The truths about blacks are white ‘constructs’ and Faulkner brings those constructs under scrutiny in this novel. This paper looks at the novel as a fictionalization of history and a questioning of official history in the light of theoretical insights derived from Stephen Greenblatt, Michel Foucault and Louise Montrose.</p> Shankar Subedi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Development Review 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 92 96 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51138 निर्बन्ध उपन्यासको नारीवादी अध्ययन {Feminist Studies of the Essay Novel} <p>प्रस्तुत अध्ययन निर्बन्ध उपन्यासको नारीवादी अध्ययनमा केन्द्रित रहेको छ । यस अध्ययनका लागि नारीवादी समालोचनका क्षेत्रमा प्रचलित कृतिभित्र पुरुष पात्रले नारीलाई हेर्ने दृष्टिकोण, नारीप्रतिको लेखकीय दृष्टिकोण, कृतिमा नारीले प्राप्त गरेको सामाजिक अधिकार, आर्थिक अधिकार, नागरिक तथा राजनीतिक अधिकार, सांस्कृतिक अधिकार, यौन तथा प्रजननअधिकारका साथै उपन्यासको कालगत, वर्गीय र उपन्यासको जातीय सन्दर्भको अध्ययन गरिएको छ । उपन्यासको प्रमुख पुरुष पात्रलाई परिवर्तन गर्न सफल हुनाले म पात्र नारीवादी दृष्टिले सबल देखियो भने अन्य पात्रहरू नारीवादी दृष्टिले दुर्बल पाइयो । आधारभूत मानवाधिकारका दृष्टिले हेर्दा म पात्रले सामाजिक अधिकार उपयोग गरेको पाइयो तर त्यो अधिकारको उपयोग नारीको सवाललाई सामाजिक परिवर्तनका रूपमा एकीकृत गरी उठाउन सकेको पाइएन । उपन्यासमा नायिकाकोआर्थिक र राजनीतिक स्वतन्त्रता छ तर अन्य पात्रले सो स्वतन्त्रता प्राप्त गर्न सकेका छैनन् । नायिका स्वतन्त्र यौन एवम्प्रजनन सम्बन्धी विशेष अधिकारप्रति सचेत देखिएको पाइएन । निर्बन्ध उपन्यासमा कालगत, वर्गीय र जातीय सन्दर्भ मध्ये कालगत दृष्टिले नारीवाद सबल देखिए पनि वर्गीय र जातीय दृष्टिले कमजोर देखियो । नायिकाले परापूर्वकालदेखि चलिआएको धर्म, संस्कृतिका कारण नारीमाथि गरिएको हिंसा विरुद्धको आफ्नो विद्रोह उत्तराद्र्धमा कमजोर बनाएको पाइएकाले यस उपन्यासमा नारीवादी विचारमा ठेस पुगेको देखियो ।</p> कल्पना Kalpana लुइटेल Luitel Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 97 106 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51288 नाट्यरचना र त्यसको प्रस्तुति {Dramatic composition and its presentation} <p>नाटक प्रदर्शनकारी कला हो । प्रदर्शन तथा प्रस्तुतितिर उन्मूख हुनु यसको विधागत मूल विशेषता हो । यसै कारणले गर्दा यो साहित्यको अन्य विधाभन्दा फरक छ । नाटककारले त्यसको प्रस्तुति पक्षको शिल्पीय उपकरणलाई पनि ध्यान दिएर नाट्यरचना गर्नुपर्दछ । नाट्यरचना हुनुलाई त्यसको प्रस्तुति तर्फको यात्रा आरम्भ मानिन्छ । त्यस यात्रालाई तय गर्न त्यहाँ अनेक सिद्धहस्तको सिर्जनाशील कल्पनाशीलता, समन्वय, धैर्य, तपस्या, लगनशीलता, परिश्रम, सहयोग, व्यवस्थापन आदिको आवश्यकता पर्दछ । प्रस्तुतिको केन्द्रीय सूत्र मानिने निर्देशकको जिम्मेवारी व्यवस्थापन आदिले गर्दा नाट्यरचनाले नाट्य छनोटदेखि रिहर्सल हुँदै अन्तिम प्रदर्शनका लागि दर्शकमाझ मञ्चमा प्रस्तुत हुन्छ । यस लेखमा नाट्यरचना प्रस्तुतिको क्रममा के कसरी परिमार्जित र संशोधित अवस्थामा दर्शकसामु आउंछ भन्ने कुराको अध्ययन गरिएको छ । कृतिलाई परिवर्तित, संशोधित र नाटकीय रूपान्तरण गरेर आजकाल विभिन्न विधाजस्तै कविता, कथा, उपन्यास आदिलाई मञ्चन गर्ने गरिएको पाइन्छ तर यस लेखमा केवल नाट्यरचनाको प्रस्तुतीकरण र त्यसमा देखिने परिवर्तनको अवस्थालाई अध्ययनको क्षेत्र निर्धारण गरिएको छ । नाटकको रचना शब्दका माध्यमबाट साहित्यिक रूप प्रदान गर्ने अवस्था हो भने मञ्चमा प्रस्तुत गर्नु &nbsp;त्यसलाई व्यावहारिक रूपमा कार्यान्वयन गर्नु &nbsp;हो । यस क्रममा नाटकको गौण कथानको काँटछाँट गौण पात्रको अप्रस्तुति, रङ्गसामग्रीको प्रयोग आदिको अवस्थामा निर्देशकले आवश्यवताअनुसार मूल नाटकीय कथ्य नमर्नेगरी परिमार्जन गरेर प्रस्तुत गर्न सक्तछन् भन्ने नै यस लेखको मूल निचोड हो ।</p> कान्छी Kanchhi महर्जन Maharjan Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 107 114 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51338 सङ्कथन विश्लेषण पद्धति {Collection Analysis Methodology} <p>सङ्कथन वाक्यभन्दा माथिल्लो स्तरको भाषिक अभिव्यक्ति हो । सङ्कथनमा प्रयुक्त विषय, सहभागी, माध्यम, कोड आदि तत्वहरुको आधारमा सङ्कथनको विश्लेषण गरिन्छ । यस लेखमा विभिन्न सन्दर्भस्रोतहरुको उपयोग गरी सङ्कथन विश्लेषणको सामान्य परिचय दिने प्रयत्न भएको छ । सङ्कथन विश्लेषण प्रक्रियाको परिचय दिने क्रममा नेपाली साहित्यबाट सान्दर्भिक उदाहरण दिई तिनको व्याख्या गर्ने कार्य भएको छ । कतै त्यस्ता उदाहरणहरु आफै पनि निर्माण गरिएको छ । सङ्कथन विश्लेषण पद्धतिलाई प्रायोगिक भाषाविज्ञानको साहित्य विश्लेषण गर्ने वस्तुपरक सैद्धान्तिक आधारका रुपमा यसको उपयोग गर्न थालिएको छ ।</p> डी.पी. D.P. भट्टराई Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 115 126 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51344 सहचालकले बोल्ने भाषाका शब्द र वाक्य {Words and phrases in the language spoken by the co-driver} <p>प्रस्तुत अध्ययन सहचालकको भाषाको शब्द र वाक्यमा केन्द्रित रहेको छ । भाषाका विषयगत आधारमा विशिष्ट लक्षणहरू सिर्जना हुन्छन् । सार्वजनीक बसका सहचालकले प्रयोग गर्ने भाषाका पनि आफ्नै प्रकृतिका लक्षणहरू रहेका हुन्छन् । उनीहरूले प्रयोग गर्ने भाषाका शब्दअन्तर्गत शब्दको आयाम, स्रोत, बनोटका साथै उनीहरूका वाक्य अन्तर्गत वाक्यको आयाम, वाक्यको प्रकृति, कोड मिश्रण र विचलनको आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । शब्दका आयामका दृष्टिले सहचालकले छोटा शब्दको प्रयोग गरेको पाइयो । स्रोतगत दृष्टिले सहचालकले बढी आगन्तुक शब्दको प्रयोग गरेको पाइयो । बनोटगत आधारमा सहचालकले बढी मूल शब्द प्रयोग गरेको पाइयो । सहचालकले छोटो र सरल वाक्य बढी प्रयोग गर्ने गरेको पाइयो । सहचालकले वाक्यमा भाषिका, ध्वनिप्रक्रियात्मक, व्याकरणिक, अर्थता तात्विक विचलन प्रयोग गरेको देखियो ।</p> दुर्गाप्रसाद Durgaprasad दाहाल Dahal Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 127 132 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51345 ऋतुविचार खण्डकाव्यमा मोक्षचिन्तन {Mokshachintan in Rituvichara Khandakavya} <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा लेखनाथ पौड्यालद्वारा रचित ऋतुविचार खण्डकाव्यलाई पौरस्त्य आध्यात्मिक दर्शनका मोक्षसम्बन्धी सैद्धान्तिक स्थापनाका आधारमा विवेचना गरिएको छ । विवेचनाका लागि आवश्यक सामग्रीको सङ्कलनका निम्ति पुस्तकालयीय सामग्री सङ्कलन विधिको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । यस सन्दर्भमा मोक्षसम्बन्धी सिद्धान्तको गहिराइको बोध गर्नका निम्ति क्रमशः उपनिषद्, साङ्ख्य, योग, न्याय, वैशेषिक, मीमांसा, वेदान्त र बौद्ध दर्शनका मोक्षसम्बन्धी स्थापनाहरूको अनुशीलन गरीमोक्ष भनेको के हो ? भन्ने कुरा प्रस्ट पारिएको छ । उपर्युक्त सबै दर्शनले मोक्षमाथि प्रकाश पार्ने प्रयत्न गर्दा प्रयोग गरिएका पद, पदावली, उपमान आदिका साथै अभिव्यक्तिको पद्धतिमा केही भिन्नता भए पनि सङ्केत गर्न खोजिएको कुरा एउटै भएको तथा यसलाई स्वयं अपरोक्षानुभूति नगरेसम्म पूर्ण रूपमा ज्ञात नहुने र अपरोक्षानुभूतिपछि पनि पूर्णरूपमा निर्वचनीय नरहेको कुरा प्रस्ट पारिएको छ । त्यसपछि ऋतुविचार खण्डकाव्यको सूक्ष्मपठन गरेर मोक्षसम्बन्धी चिन्तन अभिव्यञ्जित केही प्रमुख श्लोकहरू ठम्याई पौरस्त्य आध्यात्मिक दर्शनको केन्द्रविन्दुका रूपमा रहेको मोक्षसम्बन्धी सैद्धान्तिक स्थापनाका आधारमा विवेचना गर्दै खण्डकाव्यमा विषयगत विम्बहरूका रूपमा पूर्वीय दर्शनका मोक्षसम्बन्धी बिम्बहरू प्रशस्त प्रयोग भएकाले खण्डकाव्यका विभिन्न अंशमा मोक्षचिन्तन पनि कलात्मक उपकरणका रूपमा प्रभावकारी रूपमा आएको निचोड दिइएको छ ।</p> यादवप्रसाद Yadavprasad शर्मा Sharma Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 133 152 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51434 संस्कृत साहित्यको ऐतिहासिकता {Historicity of Sanskrit Literature} <p>प्रस्तुत लेख संस्कृत साहित्यको उद्गम र विकासका सम्बन्धमा गरिएको सङ्क्षिप्त अध्ययन हो । ज्ञान–विज्ञान र साहित्यको विशाल भण्डार रहेको उच्च बौद्धिक र परिष्कृत संस्कृत भाषा प्राचीन समयमा बोलीचालीको लोकभाषा पनि हो । यस भाषाको वैदिक वाङ्मयको विकाससंगै साहित्यिक रूपको विकास भएर संस्कृत साहित्यको प्रारूप देखिन थालेको हो । यसै क्रममा ऋग्वेदलाई संस्कृत साहित्यको उद्गम बिन्दु मानिएको छ । वेदका विभिन्न शाखा–उपशाखा, ब्राह्मण, आरण्यक, उपनिषद् आदिमा संस्कृत साहित्यको वैदिक रूप देख्न सकिन्छ । संस्कृत साहित्यको लौकिक स्वरूप पुराणेतिहासको आर्ष रूपमा देखापर्दछ । संस्कृत वाङ्मयको आर्ष साहित्यिक भण्डारमा अठार पुराण र तिनका उपपुराणहरू छन् तर तिनलाई साहित्यभन्दा बढी इतिहासका रूपमा चिनाइन्छ । आर्ष साहित्यका रूपमा चिनिने लौकिक संस्कृतको उच्चतम् साहित्यिक ग्रन्थहरू रामायण र महाभारत हुन् । संस्कृत साहित्यको विकासको पछिल्लो चरण ललित साहित्य लेखनको उत्कर्षावस्था हो । कलात्मक साहित्य शास्त्रीय नियम र व्यकरणसम्मत परिष्कृतिको पालना गर्दै रचिएका छन् । संस्कृत साहित्यको विकास पाणिनि उत्तरकालमा उत्कर्षमा पुगेको देखिन्छ । त्यसबेला रचना गरिएका विधागत विशिष्टतायुक्त अनेकौ“ साहित्यिक ग्रन्थहरू संस्कृत साहित्यको भण्डारमा उपलब्ध छन् । यस लेखमा संस्कृत साहित्यको उद्भव र विकासका क्रममा देखापरेका विभिन्न चरण, विशिष्ट स्रष्टाहरू एवम् तिनका योगदानको विहङ्गम अध्ययन गर्दै संस्कृत साहित्यका भण्डारमा प्राप्त भएका महत्वपूर्ण उपलब्धिहरूको विवरण प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । संस्कृत साहित्यको ऐतिहासिक विकासको सर्वेक्षणबाट ईशापूर्व एक हजार वर्षदेखि ईशाको सत्रौं शताब्दीसम्मको अवधि संस्कृत साहित्यको चरम विकास र उपलब्धिको अवधि रहेको देखिन्छ । वैदिक कालदेखि हालसम्म आइपुग्दा करिब एकतिस सय वर्ष पुरानो इतिहास भएको संस्कृत साहित्य विगत चारसय वर्षदेखि शिथिल अवस्थामा रहेको छ । पछिल्लो समयमा विभिन्न पश्चिमा मुलुकहरूले समेत संस्कृत भाषाको अध्ययन, अध्यापन एवम् खोज–अनुसन्धानमा अभिरुचि देखाएका र अनुसन्धनका क्रममा संस्कृतभाषा कप्युटरीकृत भाषा बन्न सक्ने प्रवलता रहेकाले संस्कृत साहित्यको पुनरुत्थान हुने सम्भावनालाई नकार्न सकिदैन ।</p> रामहरि Ramhari लम्साल Lamsal Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 153 169 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51436 सामाजिक सुधारको मार्गमा एक चिहान उपन्यास {A grave novel on the road to social reform} <p>सामाजिक सुधारको मार्गमा एक चिहान उपन्यास शीर्षकको प्रस्तुत आलेखमा उपन्यासकार ह्दयचन्द्रसिंह प्रधानद्वारा लिखित‘एक चिहान’ उपन्यासमा व्यक्त भएको सामाजिक सुधारका मार्गहरूको अध्ययन, विश्लेषण र निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । वि.सं. २०११ साल आसपासको नेपाली सामाजिक जीवनको सन्दर्भ उपन्यासमा प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । वि.सं. २००७ सालको राजनीतिक परिवर्तनपछि आमजनमानसमा चेतनाको अभिवृद्धि भए पनि शोषक, सामन्त र षडयन्त्रकारीहरूको भने दबदबा नै रहेकाले सर्वसाधारणले दुःख पाइरहेकै अवस्था थियो । सर्वसाधारणहरूमा यी दुःख र सास्तीबाट मुक्ति प्राप्त गर्ने तीव्र चाहना रहेको थियो । विद्यमान समाजमा जरा गाडेर रहेका कुसंस्कार, कुप्रवृत्तिको बिस्तारै भण्डाफोर हुँदै गएको तथा आमजनमानसमा तिनै खराब प्रवृत्ति, सामाजिक चालचलन, मानवीय प्रवृत्तिमा परिवर्तनको चाहना रहेको थियो भन्ने विषय विवेच्य उपन्यासमा व्यक्त भएको छ । प्रस्तुत कृतिपरक अनुसन्धानमूलक लेखमा सामाजिक सुधारका विविध पक्षहरूमध्ये सामाजिक, आर्थिक र सांस्कृतिक सन्दर्भहरू कृतिगत तथ्य र साक्ष्यका आधारमा विषयको विवेचना गरिएको छ । गुणात्मक अनुसन्धान ढांचामा आधारित प्रस्तुत लेखमा पुस्तकालय कार्यका आधारमा प्राथमिक र द्वितीयक स्रोत सामग्रीको सङ्कलन, अध्ययन, विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्षीकरण गरिएको छ । ‘एक चिहान’ उपन्यासमा प्रस्तुत विविध विषयहरूमध्ये सामाजिक,आर्थिक र सांस्कृतिक पक्षको मात्र विवेचना गरिनु यस लेखको सीमा हो । प्रस्तुत कृतिले समाजमा जरा गाडेर बसेका रूढिवादी मूल्यमान्यतामा परिवर्तन वा सुधार गर्ने अपेक्षा राखेको छ । उपन्यासमा प्रस्तुत तिनै सन्दर्भमार्फत् सामाजिक मूल्य तथा मान्यताप्रति आममानिसहरूलाई सचेत, जागरुक गराउनु यस लेखको निष्कर्ष हो ।</p> विष्णु Bishnu न्यौपाने Neupane Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 170 180 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51439 हाइकु कविताको रचनाविधान : नेपाली परम्परा र विकास {Composition of Haiku Poetry: Nepali Tradition and Development} <p>जापानी साहित्यको इतिहासमा सन् १६०३ देखि १८६८ सम्मको समयलाई इदोयुग भनिन्छ । यस समयमा जापानमा हाइकाई नामका लघु कविता लेख्ने परम्परा रहेको थियो भने एकतिस अक्षरमा संरचित हुने होक्कु पनि लेखिन्थ्यो । होक्कुको पहिलो पङ्क्तिका तीन हरफलाई केन्द्र मानेर कविता साहित्यमा स्वतन्त्र विधा स्वीकार गर्दा सत्र अक्षर भएको त्रिपदीहाइकु कविताको जन्म भएको हो । माचुओ बासोले जापानी वाङ्मयमा विस्तार गरेको हाइकु कविताको संरचना विधान स्वीकार गरी नेपाली साहित्यमा शङ्कर लामिछानेले वि.सं २०१९ मा रूपरेखा पत्रिकामा सूर्योदय शीर्षकमा सर्वप्रथम हाइकु प्रकाशन गरेका थिए । वैदिक वाङ्मयदेखि नै त्रिपदी संरचना भएका कविताका बारेमा चर्चा भएको पाइए पनि यिनलाई हाइकु स्वीकार गरिएको थिएन । नेपाली साहित्यमा हाइकुको प्रारम्भ भएको समयदेखि वर्तमान समयसम्म हाइकु विषयक चर्चा एवम् तिनको सर्वेक्षण गरी हाइकु कविताको रचनाविधान र परम्परा पहिल्याउने अभीष्ट यस लेखमा राखिएको छ ।</p> षडानन्द Shanananda पौड्याल Poudyal Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 181 192 10.3126/jdr.v5i1.51441