Journal of Development and Social Engineering <p>The <em>Journal of Development and Social Engineering </em>(ISSN: 2382-5332) is an interdisciplinary journal published biannually by the School of Development and Social Engineering, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Pokhara University. The journal is committed to advancing education, practice, research and policymaking. The journal provides a forum for scholars and practitioners from interdisciplinary areas the diverse interdisciplinary viewpoints and to discuss theories and practices on contemporary development and social engineering.</p> en-US <p>Copyright © Journal of Development and Social Engineering, School of Development and Social Engineering, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Pokhara University. All rights reserved. The School of Development and Social Engineering, Pokhara University holds the exclusive copyright of all the contents of this journal. No part of this journal may be reproduced or transmitted by any media or publishing organizations including websites without the written permission of the copyright holder. The contents of this journal are available for any citation, using a recognized and proper referencing system.</p> (Dr Indra Prasad Tiwari) (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 13 Mar 2020 14:00:33 +0000 OJS 60 Balancing Act: An Approach for Organization Management in the 21st Century <p>The main purpose of this paper is to discuss why the balancing act is an important approach in leading or managing public and private organizations in the 21<sup>st </sup>century. The paper presents a brief concept of the terms; exhibits a critical discussion on the application of balancing act between the various approaches of organization management such as continuity and diversity, individual and organization incentive, conformity and individualism, centralization and decentralization, face to face and distant communications, and different but complementary roles into public and private organizations; and finally draws a conclusion. The paper is expected to be useful for the leaders and/or managers of public and private organizations to manage organizations efficiently and effectively.</p> Ajay Thapa Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Development and Social Engineering Sat, 02 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-economic Status of Gandharva Community Living in Batulechaur, Pokhara <p>This study aims to explore the socio-economic status of Gandharva community. For this purpose, the household heads of all the fifty households of Gandharva community of Batulechaur in Pokhara were interviewed by using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used for analyzing the information gathered from the respondents. The study focused on socio-economic status and occupational shift of Gandharva community. The study found that the Gandharva community is socially marginalized and relatively poor in comparison to other communities. Their living status is not good. They have low education and low income profession as reason. For this reason most of them have shifted their occupations from singing and dancing to others like service sector, unskilled job, foreign employment in golf countries and some small business like running shops, vegetable selling, etc.</p> Ananta Raj Dhungana Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Development and Social Engineering Sat, 02 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 An Assessment of Household’s Out of Pocket Healthcare Payment and Impoverishment in Nepal: Evidence from Nepal Living Standard Survey III <p>Despite Government of Nepal’s effort of universalizing basic free health care services and other demand side financing health schemes, there is an ongoing debate regarding equity in health service coverage, availability and high out of pocket payment. So this study intends to assess out of pocket payment and its associated factors and its implication on impoverishment. A cross sectional descriptive study was designed which is based on Nepal Living Standard Survey III 2010/11, a rich and well representative secondary data of Central Bureau of Statistics, National Planning Commission Nepal. The information about individuals who reported out of pocket healthcare payment was extracted from 28,747 individuals (or 7,020 households) of the survey. An individual from a household is considered as the unit of study. The major findings of the study show that age, caste ethnicity, place of residence, ecological belt and development region have statistically significant association with OOP payment. Due to OOP expenditure near about 3 percent of people are falling below the poverty line. The impoverishment rate is high among people residing in rural areas (3.4%), Terai belt (3.4%) and Eastern development region (3.7%). Higher impoverishment level in Terai and Eastern development region where health facilities are fairly available in comparison to remote Mountain belt, low developed Far west and Mid-west only signifies low availability and utilization of health services. So there is a need to address lacunae in fair coverage and utilization of health services across the country along with impoverishment.</p> Arjun K. Thapa Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Development and Social Engineering Sat, 02 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Social Responsibility: Can it Contribute for Sustainable Welfarism? <p>Human beings as natural persons as well as other juristic persons are expected to contribute to the society as part of social responsibility in addition to their defined legal and professional responsibilities with a view to continuously building a better and equally equitable, peaceful and sustainable society. If defined “social responsibility” as the voluntary contribution of the juristic and natural persons, i.e. government, corporations/ companies, organizations/ associations, and individual human beings, should the matter of contributing for the betterment of the society through social responsibility be left to the contributor? Contrarily, in a situation of functioning within the stringent laws, rules and regulation of the Government by all juristic and natural persons, should we expect something more than their legal and main responsibilities from them on the name of social responsibilities? Do society, moreover communities and individuals, expect special/additional social responsibilities from all persons, and if so, what sorts of responsibilities are included with what priorities? Similarly, are there different approaches in defining responsibilities of various persons, juristic and natural? If yes, in what situations and what conditions? Debates are going on about the functions and procedures for undertaking social responsibilities as well. This paper in the above context is discussing the objectives and missions, functions, structure(s), processes, the expectations from social responsibilities fulfilled and unfulfilled, and the impacts in the society as expected and not expected, thereby open up the areas for comprehensive and holistic discussion.</p> Indra P. Tiwari Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Development and Social Engineering Sat, 02 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Differences in the Academic Performance of Students <p>This study aimed to examine gender differences in the academic performance of students. The data were collected from 240 students who passed the district level standard exam of grade eight in 2016 and were studying in grade nine in public and private schools in Lekhnath Municipality, Kaski, Nepal. The data on the characteristics of students, their parents, students’ behavior, perceptions, family environment, school environment were collected from the students, and their parents, and teachers using a structured questionnaire. The data on student’s results and divisions scored by students as measures of academic performance of the students were obtained from the District Education Office (DEO) of Kaski. The study found significant gender differences in the academic performance of students. The female students were found outperforming their male counterparts. The study also revealed that a large majority of the students scored first division or higher with relatively an outstanding performance by private schools compared to public schools. The students of private schools seem to perform better in task completion, attendance and assertiveness as well.</p> Mankumari Parajuli, Ajay Thapa Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Development and Social Engineering Sat, 02 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Social Status of Nepalese Single Women and Perception on Remarriage: A Case Study of Pokhara Lekhnath Metropolitan City <p>The aim of this study is to examine the social status of Nepalese single women and their perception on remarriage. For this purpose, out of 157 respondents, 128 single women (7.3% margin of error and 90% Confidence level) of age 25 years to 80 years, from Pokhara Metropolitan City Ward No. 26 and 27 were interviewed purposively by using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used for the analysis of the data. Majority of single women were from age group of 40 years and above. Majority of them were illiterate and deprived from the political, social and economic participation. Major problems faced by the single women are economic hardship, family violence (especially mental tension given by the family and society), less freedom, deprivation of the social and economic rights and participations, less decision making roles and so on. Further, the majority of the single women had very little freedom to do something and go somewhere. It is also found that the land ownership has been transferred to them but it is due to legal provision after the death of husbands only. The result also shows that the single women faced the problem of loneliness. Majority of respondents think about remarriage without leaving children. It clearly shows that majority of the single women want to remarry not for physical pleasure but concerning about their safety, their children future and less economic burden. The study depicted that the barriers for the single women in social and religious participations have been changed slowly. It can be concluded that the social status of single women seems to be changing towards positive social status such as society has been liberal in their clothing and participation in various religious functions.</p> Surendra Tiwari, Sabitri Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Development and Social Engineering Sat, 02 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Gandharva: Origin and Performing Arts <p>The prime objective of this research article is to explore the different forms of arts performed by the ‘Gandharvas’ along with their historicity of social and sacred religious origin towards which the mainstream Nepali society is indifferent. In the social context of Nepal, they are regarded as the musician caste. They are also treated as the so-called lower caste people, the ‘dalits’ and are also denied the prestigious position in the society as well as in the pages of history. Although neglected in the society as well as in the history, they have got a pious origin as mentioned in the Hindu religious scriptures and beliefs. Their performing arts and musical instruments also have the religious significance. They have made a great contribution for nation through their performing arts. But the paradox is that they have not got the true recognition in Nepali society even though they share the sacred lineage like other groups. Although they have sacred place in religion, their position is downtrodden in society.</p> Bharat Raj Dhakal Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Development and Social Engineering Sat, 02 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Aristotelian Appeals in Influencing Consumer Behavior <p>&nbsp;The purpose of this paper is to identify the effects of some representative print advertisements on consumer, relating to Aristotelian appeals- ethos, logos and pathos individually or simultaneously. How advertisers utilized this trinity to influence the behavior of consumers to use their products and services is the major concern of this study. For this, nine print advertisements which were published in two English newspapers of Nepal are studied. These adverts are conveniently taken from the Republica and The Himalayan Times of 15 and 16 February 2017. It accomplishes the intense assessment and yawning interpretation of the entire selected samples to expose the newspaper advertising behavior using content analysis. Languages of advertising are read between the lines. Used images and colors are also discussed relating to their symbolic meanings. Marketing strategies like free offer, buy one get one free, discounts, celebrity endorsement, expert opinion, sex appeals, etc are highly exercised to craft credibility, sentiment and reason to move audience and seeming common concepts and objects are transferred into highly desirable services and products. Maximum advertisers are so mindful to merge language, image and color according to their nature of product and service keeping literate audience in mind. So, the study notifies the consumers about how they are being influenced by Aristotelian appeals and equips advertisers with tool and process of influencing consumer behavior while making advertisement. Among this trinity of ethos, pathos and logos, emotion is observed almost unavoidable and the emotion is also contributive to make ethos and logos more effective. Nevertheless it seems as black sheep, but the appropriate amalgamation of ethos, pathos and logos appears successful.</p> Yog Raj Lamichhane Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Development and Social Engineering Sat, 02 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000