Education Quarterly https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu <p>Education Quarterly is published by the Faculty of Education, Office of the Dean, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> en-US bhimsen.devkota@mrc.tu.edu.np (Prof. Bhimsen Devkota, PhD) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial Vol.4(1) https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57239 <p>No abstract available.</p> Bhimsen Devkota Copyright (c) 2023 Faculty of Education, Tribhuvan University https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57239 Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Message from the Dean Vol.4(1) https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57241 <p>No Abstract available.</p> Chitra Bahadur Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2023 Faculty of Education, Tribhuvan University https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57241 Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Predicting Smokeless Tobacco Consumption Behavior of Adolescent Students Through Protection Motivation Theory https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57242 <p> Smokeless tobacco, a type of tobacco product that is consumed without burning, is detrimental to health but its consumption among youths of Nepal is increasing. In this regard, the main purpose of this paper is to predict SLT consumption behavior of students based on protection motivation theory (PMT), which is mostly used to study health related protective behaviors. For this study, descriptive research design was followed. Adolescent students of Class 9 and 10 of community schools of Siraha districts comprised the population of the study and the sample was selected by applying multiple-cluster sampling method. Although the sample size was 240, which was determined by using Yamane formula, only data of 225 students were analyzed due to discarding 15 incomplete questionnaires. Anonymous questionnaire was the tool of data collection that contained behavioral, socio-demographic and PMT scale sections. Data were collected through enumerators. The study found that threat appraisal was significant predictor of SLT consumption behavior of students and their intention to consume it. It is concluded that higher proportion of students consumes SLT that should be minimized by developing and implementing tobacco cessation policies and programs based on threats related to its consumption at local and national level.</p> Anil Kumar Mandal Copyright (c) 2023 Faculty of Education, Tribhuvan University https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57242 Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Strategies for Including the Excluded in Education: A Case of Children with Intellectual Disabilities https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57243 <p>This article has been prepared to disclose a number of strategies that need to be implemented to ensure the inclusion of students with intellectual disabilities in education. This research is guided by interpretive paradigm accompanied by institutional ethnography. Eight special education teachers, four resource classroom teachers, and five experts working in the field of inclusive education were chosen as the sample of the study by employing purposive sampling technique. In-depth interview and desk review were used as the main techniques to collect information and then the information were transcribed, edited, classified, and thematized by considering the objective of this study. External audit, peer review and thick description have been used as major techniques to maximize the credibility and authenticity of this article. Results of this study reveal that almost all students with intellectual disabilities were receiving educational services in segregated settings though there are policy provisions of providing inclusive education. Therefore, different strategies such as providing multi-tiered supports, developing sense of belongingness, educating in the mainstream classroom, mobilizing peers, formulating alternative learning standards, creating cooperative learning environment, etc. should be employed to optimize the inclusion of these children in education.</p> Dhruba Prasad Niure, Madhav Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Faculty of Education, Tribhuvan University https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57243 Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Collecting Field-Based Oral Language Data: Experiences and Reflections https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57244 <p>This article unfolds our experiences and reflections of field-based oral corpus collection from the Nepali language in the business setting applying observation, audio-recording, interview and field notes as qualitative techniques. Understanding our own role as auto ethnographic researchers-as-authors, in this article, we draw a set of fieldwork traits: the simplicity of the fieldworker(s), context-dependence of appropriating research ethics, and understanding fieldwork as a spiral process. Based on our practical experiences, we recognize that the qualitative interview is an inefficacious technique for collecting functional linguistic data. Likewise, preserving the linguistic-cultural identity of the source language in terms of its forms, functions and sense while translating the corpus is challenging. We also recognize some fundamental traits to be followed by an oral corpus collector: relative simultaneity of data collection and analysis, the researcher’s autonomy in selecting the topic, the value of good planning in research, research as work and habits, and life and health as being more important than research. The insights derived herein are expected to be pivotal for the researchers working in a similar field.</p> Kamal Kumar Poudel, Kamal Raj Devkota, Binod Luitel Copyright (c) 2023 Faculty of Education, Tribhuvan University https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57244 Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Strategies for Coping with Teaching and Learning Difficulties During COVID-19 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57245 <p>Finding the reality of the strategies for coping, t teaching, and learning difficulties during the COVID-19 pandemic situation is the primary objective of this study. The study employed a mixed-method research design and drew on primary and secondary data sources. Surveys, field observations, personal interviews with students, teachers, parents, and focus group discussions were used to collect primary data. Two secondary schools involved in online teaching-learning were purposively selected from Lalbandi Municipality in the Sarlahi district of Madhesh Pradesh. Secondary data were collected from policy documents, empirical reports, theoretical literature, and e-resources. The finding shows that schools were not ready for the situations like COVID-19 lockdown. After the lockdown, schools made managerial and policy changes to provide an alternative mode of learning to students in the form of online classes. Schools followed the Student Learning Facilitation Guidelines to some extent and provided training to faculties on how to operate online classes. Those students who had no access to online classes tended to study in groups with teachers, friends, and families. The schools provided textbooks to the students. Thus, this paper concludes the important role local government played in providing effective alternative solutions to online classes rather than leaving students on their own.</p> Matrika Prasad Koirala Copyright (c) 2023 Faculty of Education, Tribhuvan University https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57245 Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Teachers’ Knowledge and Practice of Using ICT Tools in High School Science Teaching and Learning https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57246 <p>Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are the integral part of innovative science teaching. Effective uses of ICT tools play a vital role in teaching and learning in this era. This research was done to analyze the level of expertise and practice of using ICT tools among teachers in classroom teaching. The study is based on quantitative descriptive design. Four municipalities and 16 schools were selected randomly. Fifty science teachers were selected on the basis of census sampling from Siraha district. The collected data were evaluated by utilizing statistical tools which indicates that most science teachers have inadequate access to ICT tools and have moderate knowledge and practice of handling them. All teachers used mobile phone and internet for personal purpose but ICT tools practices were poor in an integrated science classroom. The traditional lecture-based pattern of teaching, lack of ICT-specific knowledge and practice, content-based knowledge of teachers, aged teachers, inadequate ICT infrastructure and lack of ICT-friendly environment are the major barriers to the transfer of ICT teaching-learning process. The study suggested that there is the need for conducting of ICT based educational training, and preparing the teaching guidelines for regular use of ICT tools.</p> Rajeshwer Prasad Yadav Copyright (c) 2023 Faculty of Education, Tribhuvan University https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57246 Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 अनलाइन शिक्षामा विद्यार्थीको पहुँच र धारणा {Student Access to and Perceptions of Online Education} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57303 <p>कोरोना महामारी पश्चात् त्रिभुवन विश्वविद्यालयले अनलाइन माध्यमवाट शिक्षण गर्ने योजना बमोजिम माइक्रोसफ्ट टिम्स मार्फत शिक्षण गराउने गरी देशभरका प्राध्यापकतथा विद्यार्थीहरूको व्यक्तिगत विवरण (आइ. डी.) तयार गरी शिक्षण सिकाइ सञ्चालनमा ल्याउन सफल भयो । यसै सन्दर्भमा यस अध्ययन अनलाइन शिक्षामा विद्यार्थीको पहुँच र अनलाइन शिक्षाप्रति विद्यार्थीको धारणासँग कस्तो रह्यो भन्ने प्रश्नमा यस अध्ययन केन्द्रित रहेको छ । यस अध्ययन सर्वे विधिमा आधारित भई स्नातकोत्तर तह प्रथम सेमेस्टरमा अध्ययनरत विद्यार्थीहरूलाई गुगल फर्ममा प्रश्नावली पठाई आवश्यक तथ्याङ्क सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनमा जम्मा ५० जना विद्यार्थीहरूलाई प्रश्नावली पठाइएकोमा ३५जनाले प्रश्नावली फारम भरेका थिए । उक्त तथ्याङ्कलाई प्रतिशतमा र रेटिङ स्केलमा उल्लेख गरी व्याख्या गरिएको छ । अधिकांश विद्यार्थीहरू ग्रामीण क्षेत्रका रहेको र उनीहरूको इन्टरनेटको पहुँच राम्रो नभएको उनीहरू मध्ये अधिकांशले स्मार्ट फोनद्वारा नै कक्षा लिन बाध्य भएको पाइयो । अनलाइन कक्षा सञ्चालनमा अधिकांश विद्यार्थीहरू सन्तुष्ट रहेको पाइयो । यसबाट इन्टरनेट र विद्युतीय साधनको व्यवस्था राम्रो भएमा अनलाइन कक्षा प्रभावकारी हुने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । यसका लागि विद्यार्थी, प्राध्यापक, पाठ्यक्रम निर्माता, स्थानीय तह, केन्द्रीय तहको सक्रियता हुनु अति आवश्यक देखिन्छ ।</p> दावा Dawa शेर्पा Sherpa, सन्जिता Sanjita सिँतान Singtan Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57303 Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 मैथिली मातृभाषी विद्यार्थीको नेपाली उच्चारण क्षमताको अवस्था {Of Maithili mother tongue student's Nepali pronunciation ability situation} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57407 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख मैथिली मातृभाषी विद्यार्थीले नेपाली उच्चारण गर्दा गर्ने त्रुटिको पहिचान गरी त्रुटि दर पत्ता लगाउनु उद्देश्य रहेको छ । सिरहा नगरपालिका भित्रका चार वटा सामुदायिक विद्यालयका कक्षा ११ र १२ मा अध्ययनरत मैथिली मातृभाषी विद्यार्थीहरूको उच्चारणसम्बन्धी त्रुटि मापनको लागि ४३ वटा शब्दहरू छनोट गरिएका छन् । छात्रछात्रा, उमेरसमूह, बसाइ क्षेत्र र अभिभावकको पेसालाई लक्षित गरिएको छ । उद्देश्यमूलक नमुना छनोट विधिलाई कक्रोनको सूत्र प्रयोग गरी प्रत्येक विद्यालयबाट चिठ्ठाद्वारा प्रत्येक विद्यार्थीको प्रतिनिधित्व हुने गरी जम्मा विद्यार्थी सङ्ख्या १३०२ मध्ये १७३ जना छनोट गरिएका छन् । शुद्ध उच्चारण गर्नेलाई १ कोड र अशुद्ध उच्चारण गर्नेलाई २ कोड राखी प्राथमिक स्रोतबाट तथ्याङ्क सङ्कलन गरी क्एक्क् सफ्टवेयरमा राखेर वर्णनात्मक विधिद्वारा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । शब्दहरूको प्रकृति र बनोटका आधारमा त्रुटि पनि कम बढी हुन्छ नै । सिग्निफिकेन्ट लेभल १, पियर्सन रिलेसनको मान –.०८२, टी टेस्ट गर्दा ऋयजभल’कम . ०.९ रहेको छ । मध्यमान २७.२१५ रहेको छ । उल्लिखित मानहरूका आधारमा मैथिली मातृभाषी विद्यार्थीको नेपाली उच्चारण समग्रमा राम्रै देखिन्छ । केही मात्रामा देखिएका त्रुटिहरूलाई सुधारका लागि तल्लै कक्षादेखि त्रुटि गर्ने बेलामा नै पृष्ठपोषण दिंदै जानुपर्दछ । बोलाइ सिपमा आधारित रूपक विधा, वादविवाद, वक्तृत्वकला, सस्वरवाचनजस्ता क्रियाकलापहरूमा सहभागी गराउनुपर्दछ । विद्यालय अवधिभरि नेपाली भाषाको अनिवार्य प्रयोग र बोल्ने बेलामा भएका त्रुटिलाई त्यतिखेर नै गुरु, साथीहरूबाट पृष्ठपोषण दिंदै जानुपर्दछ । सकभर घरपरिवार लगायत साथीभाइसँग नेपाली भाषामा नै कुराकानी गर्नुपर्दछ । विभिन्न साहित्यिक कार्यक्रमहरूमा सहभागी हुन आवश्यक देखिन्छ ।</p> रामदेव Ramdev मण्डल Mandal Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57407 Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 उच्च माविमा अध्ययनरत विद्यार्थीको प्राज्ञिक लेखन सक्षमता {Academic writing of undergraduate students competence} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57411 <p>उच्च माविमा अध्ययनत विद्यार्थीको प्राज्ञिक लेखन सक्षमता नै यस लेखको शीर्षक हो । उच्च मावि अन्तर्गत सुनसरी जिल्ला, धरान उपमहानगरपालिका भित्रका ५ वटा सामुदायिक उच्च माविका कक्षा १२ मा अध्ययनरत ५० जना विद्यार्थीलाई मात्र यस लेखमा नमुनाका रूपमा लिइएको छ । यस लेखमा उक्त कक्षा १२ मा अध्ययन गर्ने विद्यार्थीहरूको मात्र प्राज्ञिक लेखन क्षमताको परीक्षण तथा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । अध्ययनका लागि लेखनको शीर्षक र तार्किकता, शब्दचयन र सान्दर्भिकता, वाक्यगठन र पुनरावृत्ति, संसक्तता तथा अनुच्छेदगठन र शैली प्रस्तुति तथा प्राज्ञिकतालाई उपकरण बनाइएको छ भने समग्रता, भाषिक पृष्ठभूमि र लैङ्गिकतालाई अध्ययनको आधार बनाई तथ्याङ्क शास्त्रीय मध्यमानर प्रतिशत विधिद्वारा व्याख्या विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्षमा पुगिएको छ । यस अध्ययनको प्राप्तिअनुसार उच्च माविका विद्यार्थीको वाक्यगठन र पुनरावृत्तिमा सबभन्दा धेरै ६०% तथा शब्दचयन र सान्दर्भिकतामा ५८.३३% अभिक्षमता रहेको देखिएको छ । साथै संसक्तता र अनुच्छेद गठनमा सबैभन्दा कम ५०.६% अभिक्षमता रहेको पाइएको छ । समग्रमा कक्षा १२ का विद्यार्थीको प्राज्ञिक लेखनको क्षमता ५४.७४% प्रतिशत रहेको छ । लेखाइ सिपको विशिष्ट अभ्यासका रूपमा प्राज्ञिक लेखनलाई लिइने भएकाले विद्यार्थीले लेखन अभ्यासमा एकरूपता, औपचारिक ढाँचा, प्रौढ भाषाशैली, संसक्तता, चुस्त र अन्तरसम्बद्ध स्वरूपको अभ्यासमा बढी जोड दिनुपर्ने देखिन्छ । स्थलगत सर्वेक्षण तथा कक्षा अवलोकन विधिको प्रयोग गरी सामग्री सङ्कलन गरिएको यस लेखमा परिमाणात्मक अध्ययन पद्धतिलाई अपनाइएको छ साथमा प्राज्ञिक लेखनका प्रवृत्तिहरू; शीर्षक चयन र तार्किकता, शब्द चयनर सान्दर्भिकता, वाक्य गठन र पुनरावृत्ति, संसक्तता र अनुच्छेद गठन तथा शैली, प्रस्तुति र प्राज्ञिकताका आधारमा विश्लेषणको अवधारणात्मक ढाँचा बनाइएको छ । प्राज्ञिक लेखनजस्तो विशिष्ट प्रकृतिको लेखनमा विद्यार्थी, शिक्षक तथा सरोकारवालाहरूले अलि बढीध्यान दिनुपर्ने देखिन्छ र ती सरोकारवालाहरूलाई यस अध्ययनले प्राज्ञिक लेखनका सवालमा सहयोग पुर्याउने देखिएको छ ।</p> शक्तिराज Shaktiraj नेपाल Nepal Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57411 Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 भाषा शिक्षकका दृष्टिकोणमा सुनाइ सिप परीक्षण {Listening skills test from a language teacher's point of view} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57416 <p>कथ्य वा विद्युतीय सामग्रीमा व्यक्त भाव, विषयवस्तु, सन्देश, सूचना, तथ्य वा अनुभव बुझ्ने गरी सुन्नुलाई सुनाइ सिप भनिन्छ । उपर्य‘क्त पक्षको प्राप्ति भए नभएको मापन वा लेखाजोखा गर्नु नै सुनाइ सिप परीक्षण हो । सुनाइ सिप परीक्षणबारे भाषा शिक्षकको दृष्टिकोण पहिचान गर्ने उद्देश्यले यो लेख तयार पारिएको छ । पूर्वकार्यको समीक्षालाई आधार मान्दा नेपालमा प्रयोगात्मक मूल्याङ्कनको सन्दर्भमा सुनाइ सिप परीक्षणको व्यवस्था भए पनि यसको कार्यान्वयनका विषयमा अध्ययन भएको देखिँदैन । सर्वेक्षण विधिको प्रयोग गरी ४१ जना शिक्षकबाट मतावली लिई परिमाणात्मक ढाँचामा यस अध्ययनलाई पूरा गरिएको छ । सुनाइ सिप परीक्षण सम्बन्धी कथन निर्माण गरी लिकर्ट पद्धतिबाट विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । पाँचओटा स्केलमा दृष्टिकोण लिई प्रतिशतमार्फत परिणामको छलफल गरी निष्कर्षमा पुगिएको छ । माध्यमिक तहमा सुनाइ सिप परीक्षणमा शिक्षकहरू सचेत भए पनि यसको प्रयोग र व्यवहारमा सैद्धान्तिक दृष्टिले एकरूपता हुन नसकेको देखिन्छ । प्रयोगात्मक मूल्याङ्कनमार्फत सुनाइ र बोलाइ सिपको परीक्षण गर्ने व्यवस्था प्रशंसनीय भए पनि यसको साधन र परीक्षण पद्धतिमा निश्चित मार्गदर्शन हुन सकेको देखिएन । सुनाइ सिप परीक्षण गर्दा मौखिक अभिव्यक्तिबाट तथा श्रुतिलेखन र श्रुतिबोधलाई मुख्य आधार मान्नुपर्ने तथ्यबाट पुष्टि भएको छ । श्रव्य सामग्रीको उचित व्यवस्थापनका साथ वस्तुगत प्रश्नबाटविद्यार्थीको सुनाइ सिप परीक्षण गरिएको छ । यस लेखबाट प्राप्त तथ्यले पाठ्यक्रम निर्माता,पाठ्यपुस्तक लेखक, भाषा शिक्षक तथा शिक्षण सिकाइसँग सरोकार राखी नवप्रवर्तनप्रति चासो दिने सम्पूर्ण व्यक्तिलाई सहयोग पुग्दछ ।</p> उमेश Umesh काफ्ले Kafle Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jeqtu/article/view/57416 Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000