Journal of Fine Arts Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac <p>The Journal of Fine Arts Campus is a multidisciplinary journal published by Lalitkala Campus, Tribhuvan University, Bhotahity, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> en-US info@lc.tu.edu.np (Dr. Dhrubesh Chandra Regmi) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 21 Jan 2022 09:19:26 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Contemporary Nepali Arts: Some Shocking Trends https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42488 <p>In contemporary Nepali arts, there are some trends that shock any sensible viewer or any informed person in the area. Some artists repeat the same subject matter, figure and technique throughout their life or from the beginning of their profession till now. The presentation of the same thing all the time creates monotony and nausea in the viewers. The question arises: how can an artist do the same thing all the time? Some artists see the works of famous western artists in art history books, art magazines and the world wide web, and they copy their subject matters and techniques thinking that they can create works and be famous. Some artists randomly splash and pour colors on the canvas and say that the mess and confusion in the canvas is abstract art. They opine that nobody can understand abstract art. They are fooling the viewers. Some artists call themselves modern Nepali artists, for they have practiced modern techniques of western arts. Some artists print the photograph on the canvas, make the photograph rough using paints and call it their paintings thinking that the viewers will be fooled. Some artists do realistic paintings with sweats and tireless efforts to earn their livelihood but when it comes to the exhibition of artworks, they make abstract paintings in few minutes. We can find such naïve and shocking trends in some senior artists as well, and young artists following their footprints. As a result, a substantial portion of Nepali art has already entered the whirlpool presenting its non-existent situation which demands immediate rescue from real artists and intellectuals. The scenario of art can be an analogy of the social and political situation of Nepal. We talk about great revolutions, changes and achievements but the situation of people is getting worse and civilization has been degenerated.</p> Yam Prasad Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Lalitkala Campus, Bhotahity, Kathmandu, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42488 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of educational virtual class during Covid-19- with reference of Music online class of Fine Arts Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42489 <p>As the Covid19 pandemic started, COVID infected nations announced to keep physical distance, affected all the human activities, as a result, educational institutions closed physically. The aim of the present research was to study the effectiveness of virtual class during Covid-19 with reference to music online class of Fine Arts Campus, TU. An online survey design was used by taking responses of 47 students of the Bachelors' program and further corresponded with 16 teachers, and 17 parents for the data collection through Google Form. The finding of the research indicates that the online mode of the educational class, with reference to practical and theory music subjects, was ineffective for students and effective for teachers and parents.</p> Parsuram Prasad Poudel Copyright (c) 2021 Lalitkala Campus, Bhotahity, Kathmandu, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42489 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Color: The Spirit of Painting https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42491 <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Color exists in the presence of light. Light not only brings forth the existence of color but also helps to perceive its reality. Color is a powerful medium to express our feelings, and that also evokes emotional responses which attract and keep the attention of a beholder. Color combination in painting is concerned with aesthetic aspects. The color beauty sustains the undivided attention to the beholder. Color amplifies the degree of emotion that touches and influences the human body, mind and soul directly which leads towards contemplation. The contemplation opens up the way to the journey of eternity. All this is possible through the combination of harmonious and contrastive colors that awakens a corresponding sensation, which directly works upon the soul. Therefore, color is the spirit of painting that makes the work of painting lively by putting breath into it. This article, thus, attempts to trace how color becomes the spirit of painting. Color as the spirit of painting will be the center of research focusing on the influence of color upon human beings. The main objective of this article is to study the role of color in painting. The study explains the impact and aesthetic value of color in painting. It is relevant to explore the strength of color application in painting. The qualitative model of research is adopted to analyze and interpret the artworks.</span></p> Krishna Prakash Shah Copyright (c) 2021 Lalitkala Campus, Bhotahity, Kathmandu, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42491 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Origin, Development, Classification and Historicity of Ancient Percussion Instruments https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42492 <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Music has a prominent place in fine arts. This art has been considered as a means of spiritual satisfaction. Apart from material excellence and fame, music has an important place in all the different ways of devotion or worship in India. There have been two main types of worship since ancient times as Vedic and Tantric. The <em>Avanaddha </em>instrument maintains the rhythm in singing, dancing and instrument-playing. Different opinions, legends, stories, statements of the origin of instruments are prevalent but differences are found in them. The article describes the method and material of ancient <em>Avanaddha </em>instruments on the basis of various texts. Thereafter, under the classification of instruments opinion of various scholars on <em>Tat, Ghan, Sushir</em>, and <em>Avanaddha </em>instruments and the various classifications have been mentioned and discussed in detail. The origin and association of ancient <em>Avanaddha </em>instruments is described with reference to various deities. The article lists ancient and medieval <em>Avanaddha </em>instruments. The use of instruments by gods, demons, human beings in various ceremonies, events, worship lessons, war sites, on auspicious occasions is evidently shown with their importance, use and antiquity. A musical instrument with serious sound was used at warrior sites and <em>Yagna</em>. From different sources like; ancient texts &amp; other facts, it can be concluded that since ancient times eastern musical instruments have been used in music right from the beginning of the era. <em>Avanaddha vadya </em>were invented to support the singer, accompany his song, engage his mind more, cover up his faults, and measure his singing activity in <em>Taal</em>.</span></p> Pravin Uddhav Copyright (c) 2021 Lalitkala Campus, Bhotahity, Kathmandu, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42492 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Distortion of Forms and Subjects in Paul Cezanne’s Paintings https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42493 <p>Paul Cezanne is the 19th century painter born in France who was a very important figure in the history of modern art. He had painted so many paintings like landscapes, portraits and still life. The figures and forms in his artwork do resemble the real world but the distortion is the most significant feature. The subject matters reveal the changes and gives emphasis upon forms. Subjects lack likeness and negate imitation as art followed by predecessors. The flatness and geometric forms are amplified along with expression in the paintings. The formal distortion played a vital role to give birth to Modernism in 20th century Western Art. So, he is called “Father of Modern Art”.</p> Nem Bahadur Tamang Copyright (c) 2021 Lalitkala Campus, Bhotahity, Kathmandu, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42493 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Art in nature: Shifting trends in Nepali sculpture https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42494 <p>Art has its environment and meaning, and it can exist free from a pedestal. Different approaches have sprung up with current environmental impacts, including other outdoor sculptures in Nepal as a modern movement. This form of activity has given new meaning to local indigenous values, art, and crafts. The transition started after some naturalistic sculptures, including equestrian statues, were brought from Europe and installed in the open environment. Environmental sculpture is a type of public art that creates or changes the spectators' surroundings. Nepalese sculptors have practiced a new genre as an alternative discipline of sculpture. A significant sculpture, Nirmāna, which means construction, was created by Thakur Prasad Mainali in 2024-25 B.S. at Bhirkutimandap, Kathmandu. Hence, two methodological approaches-primary observation and historical connections used to conduct this study. Besides numerous modern sculptures, this investigation focused on the earliest environmental sculptures. The study also explores the historical significance of sculpture in Nepal as it evolved and assimilated into modernity over time. After centuries of artistic and cultural legacy in Nepal, environmental sculpture underwent new changes.</p> Om Khattri Copyright (c) 2021 Lalitkala Campus, Bhotahity, Kathmandu, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42494 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 नेपालमा शास्त्रीय सङ्गीतको विकासक्रम {Development of classical music in Nepal} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42517 <p>नाद उपासनाको लागि पूर्विय शास्त्रीय संगीत परम्परा सामवैदिक गानबाट सुरु भएर आजको अवस्था सम्म आइपुगेको हो ।<br>सँगीतको व्याकरणको रुपमा रहेको शास्त्रीय सँगीतका आफ्नै मुल्यमान्यता, परम्परा, नियम र रस–सौन्दर्य विधान छन जुन भरतको<br>नाट्यशास्त्रीय परम्परामा आजपर्यन्त प्रत्यक्ष या परोक्ष रुपमा जोडीन पुग्दछ । नेपालमा शास्त्रीय सँगीतको यथेस्ट प्रचारप्रसार र सोको<br>विकास शाहकाल र त्यसमा पनि विशेष राणा शासनमा भएको देखिन्छ । लिच्छवी शासनकालमा शास्त्रीय सँगीतलाइ वादित्रगोष्ठी मार्फत सरकारी पो्रत्साहनमा अगाडी बढाउन खोजिएको पाइन्छ भने मल्लकालमा विभिन्न जात्रा, पर्व, नाटक आदिमा शास्त्रीय सँगीत गायन, वादन र नाचको प्रयोग हुन्थ्यो । उन्नाइसौं शताब्दीको सुरुवात सँगै भारतका अलग अलग देशहरुमा अंगे्रज सामा्रज्यको कारण विस्थापित दरवारमा आश्रीत शास्त्रीय सँगीतज्ञहरुलाइ नेपालको राज दरवार र राण दरवारमा संरक्षण दिइएको नेपाली सँगीत इतिहासले देखाउँछ । औपचारिक शास्त्रीय सँगीतसँग सम्बन्धीत प्रस्तुती, पठनपाठन एवं प्रसार प्रसारका कार्य विशेषगरि २००७ सालको प्रजातन्त्र पा्रप्तीसँगै नेपालमा शुरुवात भएको देखिन्छ । प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धान–आलेखमा नेपालमा शास्त्रीय सँगीतको ऐतिहासिक विकासक्रम, त्यसमा उल्लेखनिय भुमिका खेल्ने विभिन्न कालखण्डसँग सम्बन्धीत राज्य शासन व्यवस्था र वर्तमानको परिवर्तीत अवस्था, सँस्थागत शैक्षिक अभ्यास बारे वर्णनात्मक रुपले प्रष्ट पार्न खोजिएको छ र यस अध्ययनबाट जोकोही सँगीत जिज्ञासुले नेपालमा शास्त्रीय सङ्गीतको विकासक्रमबारे जानकारी हाँसील गर्न सक्छ ।</p> रमेश Ramesh पोखरेल Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42517 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ‘बर्सातमा बुद्धको मूर्ति सामु’ कवितामा शिल्प र् सौन्दर्य {Craft and beauty in the poem 'In front of Buddha statue in the rain'} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42519 <p>प्रस्तुत अध्ययन कवि सुमन पोखरेलको ‘बर्सातमा बुद्धको मूर्ति सामु’ कवितामा अन्तर्निहित शिल्प सौन्दर्यको विश्लेषणमा केन्द्रित<br>रहेको छ । कवितामा प्रयुक्त हुने भाषाको विशिष्टताको पाठपरक विश्लेषणका निम्ति यो कविता सोद्दश्य छनोट गरिएको हो । यस<br>अध्ययनका निम्ति पुस्तकालयीय कार्यद्वारा अध्ययन सामग्रीहरू सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । कविताको विधागत विशिष्टता निर्धारण गर्ने मुख्य आधार यसमा प्रयुक्त भाषिक कला वा उक्तिगत विचित्रिता नै हो । यस अध्ययनमा उल्लिखित कवितामा चयन गरिएका पद र पदक्रमको विचलनयुक्त व्यवस्थितता, अर्थगत विपर्यास र समानान्तरता आदिमार्फत प्रस्तुत कविता शिल्पको विश्लेषणका निम्ति यसको आयामगत विस्तृति र भावगत परिग्रहणको समष्टिगत विश्लेषण गरी कवितामा प्रकट भएको बाह्य र आन्तरिक सौन्दर्यको मूल्याङ्कन गरिएको छ । यस मूल्याङ्कनबाट ‘बर्सातमा बुद्धको मूर्ति सामु’ कविताको आयाम र अर्थगत सौन्दर्य कवितात्मकताका पक्षमा विशिष्ट किसिमको रहेको निष्कर्ष प्राप्त भएको छ ।</p> गीता Geeta त्रिपाठी Tripathi Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42519 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 नेपालमा संगीत विषयका उच्च शैक्षिक जनशक्तिको वर्तमान अवस्था : एक परिचय {Current Status of Higher Educational Manpower in Music in Nepal: An Introduction} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42523 <p>नेपालमा संगीतको प्रचलन विभिन्न बंशहरूको शासन काल हुँदै प्रथम प्रजातन्त्र पछि संस्थागत हुन पुगेको हो । विद्यावारिधिको<br>लागि भारतकै विश्वविद्यालयहरू एक मात्र विकल्प थियो । वर्तमानमा नेपालमै संगीत विषयमा स्नातक, स्नातकोत्तर एवं विद्यावारिधि<br>सम्मको अध्ययन अध्यापन हुन थालेको छ । त्यस समयमा मन्चमा हुने प्रदर्शनलाई नै परीक्षा मान्ने चलन थियो । संगीतमा क्रियात्मक<br>पक्षलाई मात्र जोड दिइएका कारण धेरै विद्वानहरूको कुनै प्रकारको अभिलेख नपाइएको अवस्था रहेको छ । पुराना पुस्ता क्रियात्मक पक्षमा मात्र कार्य गर्नुहुने भएकाले अनुसन्धानात्मक लेखन कार्यको कमि भएको मान्न सकिन्छ । यस लेखले विभिन्न विश्वविद्यालयबाट संगीतका विभिन्न विषयमा शिक्षा प्राप्त जनशक्तिको बारेमा एवं वर्तमान अवस्थाका बारेमा सबैलाई जानकारी हुनेछ । वर्तमान अवस्था, चुनौती एवं योगदान आदि यस लेखमा सूक्ष्म रूपमा दर्शाउन खोजिएको छ । भविष्यमा अनुसन्धानका लागि पुराना जनशक्तिको नाम खोज्न धेरै समय नलाग्ने कुरामा लेख सहयोगि हुने बिस्वास छ । नेपालमा संगीत विषयमा विद्यावारिधि गर्ने प्रचलन भर्खर–भर्खर मात्र सुरुवात भएको हो । हालसम्म सांगीतिक क्षेत्रमा कतिजनाले उपाधि प्राप्त गर्नु भएको छ लेखबाट थाहा पाउन सकिन्छ । वर्णनात्मक शैलीको लेखबाट ई.सं– २००० पछी विभिन्न विश्वविद्यालयबाट प्रमाणपत्र प्राप्त जनशक्तिको बारेमा महत्वपूर्ण जानकारी दिने छ । द्वितीयक श्रोतः प्रकाशित पुस्तकहरू, विद्यावारिधि थेसिस, जर्नलहरू, साक्षात्कार एवं सांगीतिक विद्वानहरूको सहयोगमा लेख तयार पारिएको हो । प्रमाणपत्र प्राप्त जनशक्तिहरूको स्थाई आर्थिक पक्ष एवं विभिन्न संगीत सम्बन्धित संस्थाहरूमा संलग्नताको बारेमा केहि कुराको साथमा लेखको समापन गरिएको छ ।</p> Wenkatesh Dhakal Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42523 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 पौभाः र थान्का चित्रहरूमा रेखाद्वारा निर्मित आकार–प्रकार बीचको तुलनात्मक अध्ययन {A comparative study between the shapes and types formed by lines in the Paubha and Thanka paintings} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42533 <p>नेवारी शब्दको रूपमा परिचित पौभाः र तिब्बती शब्दको रूपमा परिचित थान्का चित्रमा प्रयोग भएका हरेक विषयवस्तुहरूएउटै जस्तो देखिएता पनि तिनीहरूका आकार–प्रकार बीच भिन्नता रहेको पाइन्छ । चित्रमा देखिने देवीदेवताहरू, उनीहरूलेपहिरिएका आभूषणहरू, वस्त्र लगायत मानवाकृति, धर्मगुरु, पशुपंक्षीका आकृतिहरूको साथै दृश्य चित्रमा प्रयोग हुने बादल,बोटबिरुवा, रूख, आगो, पानी आदि हरेक विषयवस्तुलाई गतिशिल र प्रवाही रेखाद्वारा आआफ्नै भित्र र मौलिक आकार–प्रकारमाढालेर चित्रमा प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । जसले गर्दा यिनीहरूका विषयवस्तुहरूको बनौट र आकार–प्रकारमा भित्रता आएको छ । तर तीआकार–प्रकारहरू बीच त्यति ठूलो भिन्नता चाहिँ देखिँदैन । यो लेखले थान्का र पौभाः चित्रहरूमा केकस्ता र कसरी आकारप्रकारहरू प्रयोग भएका छन् भत्रे बारेमा तुलनात्मक अध्ययन गर्ने कोशिस गरेको छ । {Although the Newari word pauvaha and the Tibetan word thanka used in the painting seem to be the same, they differ in shape and form. The gods and goddesses seen in the picture, the ornaments they are wearing, the garments including human figures, religious leaders, animal and bird figures as well as the clouds, plants, trees, fire, water etc.&nbsp; Due to which, there is an intrusion in the structure and shape of these subjects. But there is not much difference between the three types. This article attempts to make a comparative study of what and how shapes are used in Thanka and Paubha paintings.}</p> मकुन्द Mukunda पौडेल Poudel Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42533 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 संगीत शास्त्र तथा प्रयोगको दृष्टिमा राग बसन्तको अध्ययन {Study of Raga Basanta in terms of musicology and usage} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42534 <p>वसंत ऋतुमा धेरै प्रस्तुत गरिने ऋतुकालीन राग बसंत प्रचीनकालदेखि वर्तमानसम्म संगीतका शास्त्रग्रन्थहरुमा उल्लेखित छ<br>साथै प्रयोगात्मक रुपमा पनि प्रचलित छ । प्रस्तुत अध्ययनको मुख्य उदेश्य संगीत शिक्षक, विद्यार्थी, आलोचक, समालोचक तथा<br>शास्त्रीय संगीतका पारखीहरुलाई राग वसन्तको फराकिलो क्षेत्र दर्शन गराई राग ज्ञानको भण्डार बढाउनु हो । विभिन्न संगीत शास्त्र<br>ग्रन्थहहरुको अध्ययन, संगीतका विद्घान कलाकारहरुसँग राग चर्चा, रेकर्डेड राग वसन्तको श्रवण आदि स्रोतहरुद्वारा तथ्यांक संकलन<br>गरि प्रस्तुत अध्ययनमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस किसिमको राग अध्ययनको प्रयोग मुख्य रुपमा संगीतका विद्यार्थीरुलाई सही<br>शिक्षा दिन, राग चिन्तन तथा ज्ञानको क्षेत्र बढाउन, रागलाई लोप हुनबाट बचाई जीवित राख्नको लागि हुन्छ । प्रस्तुत अध्ययनद्वारा<br>राग वसन्तको अध्ययन गर्दा अलग अलग स्वर प्रयोग भएको भेटियो । {The seasonal raga, which is often performed in the spring, is mentioned in the musical scriptures from ancient times to the present.<br>Also prevalent experimentally. The main objectives of the present study are music teachers, students, critics, critics and It is to increase the store of knowledge of Raga by showing the connoisseurs of classical music a wide field of Raga Vasant. Various musicology<br>Collection of data from sources such as study of texts, raga discussions with music scholars, listening to recorded raga spring etc. Has been analyzed in the present study. The use of this type of raga study is mainly suitable for music students To educate, to increase the field of raga thinking and knowledge, to keep the raga alive from extinction. By the present study<br>While studying Raga Vasant, it was found that different tones were used.}</p> पार्वती Parbati घिमिरे Ghimire Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42534 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 प्रस्तर मूर्तिकलामा औजार र प्रविधिको प्रयोग {Use of tools and techniques in stone sculpture} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42535 <p>यसलेख प्रस्तर अर्थात ढुंगामा मूर्ति निर्माण गर्दा प्रयोग गरिएका विविध औजारहरू र तौर तरिकाका बारेमा संक्षिप्त<br>प्रकाश पार्ने कोशिस गरिएको छ । मानव सभ्यताको विकास हुनुभन्दा पहिले ढुंङ्गे युगमा ढुंङ्गा नै मुख्य आधार रहेको थियो ।<br>त्यसपछि सभ्यताको सुरुवातसंगै जन्म र मृत्यूमा प्रस्तरको प्रयोग मेसोपोटामिया, सिन्धुघाटी र मिश्रको सभ्यतामा ढुंगाको प्रयोग<br>मुख्य आधार रहेकोछ । नेपालमा पनि प्रस्तरको प्रयोग आदिमकाल देखिनै रहिआएको अनुसन्धानकर्ताको भनाई रहेकोछ । मूर्ति<br>बनाउन ढुंगा सबैभन्दा उत्तम माध्यम हुनुको मुख्य कारण स्थायी, आकर्षक र विभिन्न रंगमा पनि पाईने हुुदा यसको प्रयोग<br>गरिदै आएको मानिन्छ । यस अनुसन्धान लेखलाई प्रभावकारी बनाउन विभिन्न पुस्तक, लेखरचना तथा इन्टरनेटमा उपलब्ध<br>सामाग्रीहरूको प्रयोग गरि प्रष्ट पार्ने कोशिस गरिनेछ । मूर्तिकला विषयमा विभिन्न पुस्तक तथा लेख प्रकाशित भएपनि प्रस्तरमा<br>कुद्ने प्रकया र यसमा प्रयोग हुने औजारको विषयमा प्रकाशित पाईएको छैन । यसकारण यो लेख उपयोगि हुनेछ भन्ने आशा<br>लिएको छु l {This article gives you a brief overview on various tools and techniques used in making stone sculptures Attempts have been made to shed light. Stone was the mainstay of the Stone Age before the development of human civilization. Then, with the advent of civilization, stone was used in births and deaths. In Mesopotamia, Indus Valley and Egyptian civilization<br>The main premise is. Researchers say that stone has been used in Nepal since time immemorial. Idol The main reason why stone is the best medium for making is because it is durable, attractive and is also available in different colors It is considered to be done. To make this research article effective, various books, essays and available on the Internet<br>Attempts will be made to clarify using materials. Although various books and articles have been published on the subject of sculpture The process of jumping and the tools used in it have not been published. So hopefully this article will be useful I have taken.}</p> नरेन्द्र प्रसाद Narendra Prasad भण्डारी Bhandari Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jfac/article/view/42535 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000