Journal of Health Promotion https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jhp <p><a href="https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jhp">The Journal of Health Promotion (JHP)</a>, an official publication of the Health Education Association of Nepal (HEAN), is a leading journal that reflects contemporary health education and promotion thinking. The journal aims to publish high-quality original research articles, review articles (thematic and systematic), and a brief report covering the broad range of health education and promotion approaches at various levels. This journal aims to provide a platform for informing and discussing the current issues and concerns regarding various dimensions and scopes of health promotion, including health education, health service, health policies, and broader determinants of health. We encourage national and international contributions and papers from academicians, researchers, teachers, nurses, medical personnel, and health promotion practitioners.</p> Health Education Association of Nepal (HEAN) en-US Journal of Health Promotion 2631-2441 <p>© Health Education Network (HEAN)</p> <p>Authors are required to transfer their copyright to the Health Education Association of Nepal (HEAN).</p> <p>The materials of this publication may be reproduced, reviewed and translated, acknowledging the source "Journal of Health Promotion".</p> Integrating Health Education in Earthquake Preparedness and Response https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jhp/article/view/61195 <p>NA</p> Shyam Krishna Maharjan Bhimsen Devkota Devaraj Acharya Yadu R. Upreti Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 11 1 1 3 10.3126/jhp.v11i1.61195 Association Between Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Women's Knowledge of Human Trafficking https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jhp/article/view/61204 <p>Human trafficking is a serious violation of human rights that disproportionately affects the marginalized individuals, particularly women and girls. This study utilized the data from the 2019 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey conducted in Nepal to assess the knowledge of currently married women aged 15-49 about human trafficking using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaires were based on the MICS 6 standard questionnaires. The survey used a multistage, stratified cluster probability sampling design and included 14,805 women. In multivariate analysis, respondents in the second to the richest wealth quintiles (aOR range: 1.26-1.56, p&lt;0.001) were more likely to be aware of human trafficking than those in the poorest quintiles. Women with higher secondary or above education (aOR= 29.52, p&lt;0.001), secondary education (aOR= 10.13, p&lt;0.001), and basic education (aOR=2.19, p&lt;0.001) were more likely to be knowledgeable about human trafficking compared to those with no formal education. High, medium, and low media exposure (aOR range: 1.71-4.86, p&lt;0.001) were associated with increased knowledge about human trafficking compared to no exposure. Bivariate analysis revealed that knowledge about human trafficking was significantly associated with education level, wealth index, and urban or rural residence (p&lt;0.001). These findings suggest that interventions to increase knowledge about human trafficking should prioritize women with limited educational opportunities, low wealth status, and those living in rural areas to reduce their vulnerability to trafficking.</p> Anuska Adhikari Bijaya Shrestha Ranju K.C. Sujata Nyaupane Abhishek Karn Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 11 1 62 74 10.3126/jhp.v11i1.61204 The Role of NHRC in Regulating Health Research Ethics in Nepal: A Narrative Review https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jhp/article/view/61205 <p>This study aims to chart Nepal's evolution of health research ethics over time and the role of the Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC) in its regulation. This narrative review article mentions the pervasiveness of contract research and the contribution of universities and international organizations in producing data and supporting pilot projects. It further highlights the structural inequalities and limitations of health research in Nepal, including lack of technology, infrastructure, funding, limited access to resources and global scientific networks. It discusses Nepal's emerging regulatory and ethical field, establishing the NHRC and developing ethical guidelines and review committees. The challenges faced by NHRC in terms of capacity and resources and the need to strengthen research ethics monitoring and compliance are also marked. This article also discusses several key challenges and areas of concern regarding research ethics and capacity building in Nepal's health research context. The conflicts arising from defining health research and determining which activities require ethical review are highlighted, especially about programmatic interventions and monitoring and evaluation exercises. The need for comprehensive mapping of health research activities is emphasized as an initial step toward understanding the research landscape. Additionally, issues related to timely ethical reviews, the co-investigator’s role, institutional research capacity, data ownership, publication practices, and the ethical considerations of health and development interventions are discussed. It emphasizes redressing these challenges and promoting responsible research practices in Nepal.</p> Anup Adhikari Bhagwan Aryal Swikriti Devkota Hema Acharya Amita K.C. Copyright (c) 2023 Health Education Network (HEAN) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 11 1 75 85 10.3126/jhp.v11i1.61205 Knowledge on Nutrition and Dietary Diversity Among Community School Adolescents in Kathmandu Valley https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jhp/article/view/61197 <p>Nutritional knowledge and practices among adolescents are critical to combat health problems that can continue into adulthood. The study determines the nutritional knowledge and dietary diversity and its associated factors among school adolescents of Kathmandu Valley. The study adopted a cross-sectional design of 487 school adolescents using multistage cluster sampling. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, Health Belief Model constructs, nutrition knowledge and dietary diversity were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the factors associated with nutrition knowledge and dietary diversity. Nutrition knowledge and dietary diversity were found inadequate; 47.4% had adequate dietary diversity and 42.5% had adequate nutrition knowledge Variables that were significantly associated with adequate nutrition knowledge (versus inadequate) in the presence of other variables were compared to reference group included age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]= 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71-0.96), being from ethnic groups of Janajatis (aOR=2.79; 95% CI: 1.47-5.28) and Brahmin/Chhetri (aOR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.06-3.4), belonging to nuclear family (aOR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.18-2.6), literate father (aOR=2.16; 95% CI: 0.99-4.73), perceived severity (aOR= 1.19; 95% CI: 1.06-1.33) and perceived barrier (aOR= 1.02 ; 95% CI: 1-1.05). Variables that were significantly associated with consuming adequate dietary diversity (versus inadequate) in the presence of other variables include being male (aOR=1.52;95% CI: 1.01-2.29), having literate mother (aOR=1.7;95% CI: 1.02-2.83), consuming unhealthy diet daily (aOR=4.23;95% CI: 1.85-9.67), having adequate knowledge (aOR=2.4;95% CI: 1.59-3.63) and self-efficacy (aOR= 1.15;95% CI: 1.06-1.24). This study highlights the need for specific theories and model-based targeted interventions to encourage adolescents' healthy behavior and healthy eating.</p> Aashray Manandhar Sampurna Kakchapati Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 11 1 4 21 10.3126/jhp.v11i1.61197 Sexual Harassment Among Nepali Non-Migrating Female Partners of International Labor Migrant Men https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jhp/article/view/61198 <p>International migration shows an increasing trend around the world. The majority of labor migrants, particularly low/semi-skilled migrants from low- and middle-income countries, immigrate to destination countries leaving their family members behind, leading to an increasing number of transnational families. While non-migrating spouses often receive financial support in the form of remittances, their husbands’ migration also creates numerous social and personal problems. This general qualitative study aimed to explore non-migrating spouses’ experience of sexual harassment/abuse and its impact on their mental health. Fourteen in-depth interviews were conducted to collect data. Participants reported experiencing harassment by men they knew, including their teachers and colleagues, who knew their husbands were abroad. None of the women reported taking any action against the perpetrators. Policy level changes to spread awareness on sexual harassment, encouraging victims to report such acts, and establishing and implementing appropriate laws are essential to mitigate this serious problem.</p> Kalpana Gyawali Padam Simkhada Edwin R. van Teijlingen Shraddha Manandhar Ram Chandra Silwal Copyright (c) 2023 Health Education Network (HEAN) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 11 1 22 31 10.3126/jhp.v11i1.61198 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Uterine Prolapse in Achham District, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jhp/article/view/61200 <p>Uterine Prolapse (UP) is one of the hidden morbidities that do not lead to death, but women suffer from severe lifelong disabilities. In Nepal, the prevalence of UP in women varies from 10 to 40% due to several underlying causes. Therefore, the main aim of the study was to identify the prevalence and associated risk factors of UP. This community-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 married women aged 18 and over in four villages of Kamal Bazar Municipality, Achham, who suffered from UP. The random sampling technique was used to collect the data. The samples were selected using multistage sampling technique. The structured interview questionnaire was used and the face-to-face interview was conducted. The data were analyzed using MS-Excel and SPSS version 23. The statistical tests used were binary logistic regression, univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of UP was 33.7%. In the multivariate analysis, participants aged 20-30 were forty one times more likely to suffer from UP than older participants of 50-60 {aOR 41.86 (95% CI; 14.31-122.45)}, were seven times more likely to have not attended health facilities for Antenatal Checkup/Postnatal Checkup (ANC/PNC) {aOR 7.10 (95% CI; 3.53-14.26)}, were less likely to have institutional delivery {aOR 0.13 (95% CI; 0.05-0.31)} and were three times more likely to have high Body Mass Index (BMI) {aOR 3.97 (95% CI; 1.81-8.71)}. Thus, the participants who hadn’t attended ANC/PNC checkups, had given birth at home, or had a high BMI, were more likely to have suffered from UP. Education is necessary to make people aware of UP at an early age and its impact is seen among people of a lower age in<br />the area. </p> Namita Kumari Bogati Bhagwan Aryal Jyoti Kuikel Tilak Bogati Chhabi Lal Ranabhat Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 11 1 32 47 10.3126/jhp.v11i1.61200 Influence of COVID-19 on Mental Health of Young Families Residing at Harion Municipality in Sarlahi District of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jhp/article/view/61203 <p>Since the WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic, the spread of the COVID-19 was the focus of attention of scientists, governments and populations. One of the main concerns was the influence of this pandemic on people’s health, mainly on mental health. This study is an in-depth analysis of the influence of COVID-19 and its measurement policies on mental health of young families residing at Harion municipality in Sarlahi district of Nepal. Husserl phenomenology approach was used to explore the experience of young families. Four participants were phone interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule to elicit their experiences of COVID-19 and its influence on their mental health. The analysis was carried out under three major themes: (1) ‘COVID-19 and its influence’, (2) ‘Lockdown and its effects’, and (3) ‘COVID-19 and strategies for the prevention from this disease’. Fear of getting disease and being affected themselves and their beloved ones and end of life was one of the main causes. Another cause by the lockdown created financial challenges and loneliness with serious mental health problem in young families. The findings highlight the influences of COVID-19 and its measurement policies effects in mental health and different ways of coping strategies adopted by young families in Nepal.</p> Samjhana Thapaliya Surendra Giri Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 11 1 48 61 10.3126/jhp.v11i1.61203 Effects of Primary Caregivers’ Feeding Habits on the Nutrition Status of Pre-schoolers in Rupandehi District of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jhp/article/view/61206 <p>Healthy food habits of primary caregivers may contribute to the overall growth, development, and optimal health of the ppreschoolers. This quantitative research aimed to examine the impact of the feeding practices of caregivers on nutritional status of 384 preschoolers (aged 36-71 months) in Rupandehi District of Nepal. The effects of feeding habit were compared with the nutritional status and thus the impact was examined. Information regarding socio-economic standing, demographics, feeding habits, and children’s nutrition statuses were collected through direct interviews and anthropometric measurement. The nutritional status of the children, including height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-height (WAZ), and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ), was assessed using WHO Anthro, WHO Anthro Plus, and SPSS version 26 software. Statistical analysis involved Chi-square tests and logistic regression with a significance threshold established at p&lt;0.05. The finding indicates that 44.5% of preschoolers had normal nutrition status, whereas 38.8% received sufficient feeding practices from their caregivers. Feeding habits, economic status, fathers' occupation, and family structure appeared as significant predictors of preschoolers’ nutrition status. Preschoolers from economically marginalized backgrounds, with fathers in business occupations, and living in joint families were found to be at higher risk of poor nutrition. The findings imply that implementing feeding habit interventions to the children of lower economic backgrounds is desirable to bring the changes in their nutritional status. So, some nutritional strategies should be taken into consideration to take care of the children who are in joint families and whose parents could not give more time due to their occupation.&nbsp;</p> Prakash Sharma Chitra Bahadur Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Health Promotion https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 11 1 86 103 10.3126/jhp.v11i1.61206 Technology Utilization and Physical Engagement Among Children with Disabilities in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jhp/article/view/61207 <p>This study aims to explore how the utilization of modern technology by children with disabilities may lead to sedentary behaviors. This study is informed by the interpretive paradigm. An explorative qualitative research design was adopted to approach the phenomenon. This study has covered three different disability groups: visual impairment, hearing impairment, and physical disability. In order to cover these groups, three integrated schools were purposively selected for the study. Altogether, 22 participants—head teachers, teachers, students, parents, and members of Disabled People Organization— were purposively selected. In-depth interview guidelines and key informant interview guidelines were used as data collection tools. The obtained data were analyzed and interpreted thematically by using multiple facts and critical views. Children with disabilities were found to be interested in participating in various kinds of physical activities. Children are increasingly attracted to the newest forms of technology. With the exponential development of smartphones and tablets, the use of technology devices has become unavoidable and is now viewed as an integral part of life. Digital technology was found to be one of the main causes of physical inactivity among children with disabilities. The entire group of stakeholders is advised to increase outdoor activities to promote physical fitness and health of children with disabilities.</p> Yadav Prasad Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 Health Education Network (HEAN) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 11 1 104 115 10.3126/jhp.v11i1.61207 Parental and Teacher Factors Associated with Cognitive Development of Preschool Children https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jhp/article/view/61210 <p>Early years are the foundational stages for children's cognitive development. This study aimed at analyzing the parental and teacher characteristics associated with preschool children's cognitive development. A cross-sectional design based on quantitative data was adopted in the study. A standard checklist was used to test the cognitive skills of 280 preschool children sampled through multi-stage cum stratified method equally from community and institutional schools in Birendranagar Municipality of Surkhet district in Nepal. The 280 parents and 32 teachers of these children were interviewed for their background characteristics. Many parental and teacher characteristics had significant association with children's cognitive development. The mothers with secondary level and higher education and employing non-labour occupation were associated with their children's higher cognitive outcomes. Similarly, teachers with secondary level and higher degree, preschool experiences below ten years, and high-paid salaries had significant positive association with children's cognitive development. Additionally, parental interaction and engagement with children and their teachers were beneficial for better cognitive skills of the children. So, the educational plans, policies, and programmes should give equal priority to the parental programmes to sensitize and empower the parents, especially the mothers, for their active roles in caring their children and interacting with the teachers. At the same time, the government and all the educational institutions should minimize the gap on teacher's pay between preschool and higher levels.</p> Belpatra Nath Yogi Copyright (c) 2023 Health Education Network (HEAN) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 11 1 116 126 10.3126/jhp.v11i1.61210 Nursing Care Practice in Neonatal Care Units of Tertiary Hospitals of Nepal: An Exploratory Qualitative Study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/jhp/article/view/61211 <p>Preterm infants (PTIs) require special care in neonatal care units (NCUs) for their survival, growth, and development. Nurses are in a pivotal position to provide quality care to those infants in NCUs. Available literature indicates that care practice needs to be improved in developing countries. This study aimed to explore the nursing care practice for PTIs in NCUs. An exploratory qualitative study was conducted in NCUs of three public tertiary care hospitals in Kathmandu, Nepal, from November 2019 to February 2020. Data were collected through six focus group discussions among 40 nurses working in NCUs. The thematic analysis of qualitative data revealed standardized and inadequate care practices for PTIs in NCUs. Standard practices regarding thermal care, oxygen administration, nutritional care, and infection prevention were found. Inadequate care was identified regarding sleep protection, proper positioning, supportive sensory environment, and pain management. The study reported the standard care practice areas and areas for improvement to enhance nursing care in NCUs, such as pain management, sleep promotion, breastfeeding support, kangaroo mother care, and a supportive sensory environment. The findings have important implications for enhancing care practices for PTIs in NCUs, which is important for promoting the short- and long-term outcomes among PTIs.</p> Tumla Shrestha Archana Pandey Bista Madhusudan Subedi Copyright (c) 2023 Health Education Network (HEAN) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 11 1 127 140 10.3126/jhp.v11i1.61211